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Paper 1: MTGW Italy Terminology (IBDP History)
A study set featuring major treaties, events, and significant people for Paper 1 Italy. (The Move to Global War)
Terms in this set (42)
Liberal Italy (1870-1923)
The weaknesses undermined Italy during this period and gave rise to the fascist state. Lack of national identity, the Catholic Church against the government, and working class felt unrepresented in government.
Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti (1911-14)
An initially unsuccessful prime minister, but the economic decline and war with Turkey undermined him. Nationalism began growing further.
Working Class Strikes (1914)
Italian working class felt unrepresented in the government and protested the conditions.
Armistice of 11 November 1918 (Nov 1918)
Armistice that ended the fighting on land, sea & air in WWI; German leaders later labelled the 'November Criminals'. In the subsequent peace treaty Italy was a minor player amoung the major powers and was slighted by not receiving what it felt it deserved for its financial and human sacrifices.
Treaty of Versailles (June 1919)
Peace treaty from mainly Wilson, Lloyd George & Clemenceau that placed blame primarily on Germany (War Guilt Clause). Japan failed to get the racial equality clause included in the subsequent League of Nations charter, raising tensions.
League of Nations Formed (Jan 1920)
Based on Woodrow Wilson's 14 points The League of Nations was established - a global intergovernmental organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. The US did not join, rendering it weak and dominated by Britain and France.
Four-Power Pact (July 1921)
Replaced the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Italy, Britain, France & Germany agreed that smaller nations should have less power.
Soviet Trade Agreements (Dec 1921)
Italy recognized the Soviet government and established a trading relationship.
Four-Power Treaty (Dec 1921)
The US, Britain, France & Japan agreed to discuss disagreements, halt expansion in the Pacific, and respect each other's territories.
Nine-Power Treaty (Feb 1922)
Agreed upon by all of the attendees to the Washington Naval Conference: the United States, Belgium, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan to respect Chinese independence.
Five-Power Treaty (Feb 1922)
Agreed upon by the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan to a 'balanced' naval tonnage ratio. (and Japan had to return territorial control of Shandong province)
March on Rome (Oct 1922)
Mussolini organized a demonstration & took power over the government. The King gave Mussolini the position of Prime Minister. He used this event for propaganda purposes.
Vote of Confidence (Nov 1922)
The fascist government won a vote of confidence and could vote in emergency powers.
Growth of the Fascist Party (Feb 1923)
Nationalists joined the Fascist Party, extending the reach and powers of the fascists.
Acerbo Law (July 1923)
Stated that the party with most votes received ⅔ of all the seats. This gave the Fascist Party the vehicle for dominating government and easily passing laws.
Invasion of Corfu (Aug 1923)
Mussolini gained a 50 million lira indemnity but was condemned by the League. It also seized the Port of Fiume. It was also threatened by Britain and France.
Murder of Giacomo Matteotti (May 1924)
Giacomo Matteotti was a liberal and gave a speech condemning fascist violence, but was murdered 11 days later.
Il Duce (Jan 1925)
Mussolini took responsibility for the violence of the fascists but proclaimed himself Il Duce (the leader).
Mussolini Becomes Leader of Italy (Dec 1925)
Mussolini achieved supreme executive powers. Political parties and trade unions were banned, along with censorship of the press, and many elected officials were replaced.
The Battle for Grain (1925)
The goal was to increase grain production. It increased, but negatively influenced other crops.
Establishment of The Police State (Nov 1926-Jan 1927)
Fascists increased repression and control. Secret police, the OVRA, was founded. Trials without juries were allowed, and the death penalty was allowed for more crimes. There were limits to rule however. (the King & Church still held some power of influence)
The Battle for Lira (1926)
The goal was to increase the currency. Mussolini wanted autarky (self-sufficiency). It increased, but imports were expensive & exports fell.
The Mussolini Law (1928)
The goal was to reclaim land, but it was expensive and worker wages were cut to compensate.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (Aug 1928)
France, US, UK, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy, Japan, etc. promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts.
The Great Depression (1929-39)
The Wall Street Crash caused an economic crisis worldwide. It affected many countries negatively, leading to greater trade protectionism and caused tension.
Beginning of Appeasement (1930s)
British PM Neville Chamberlain incited a policy which conceded to Germany in order to avoid conflict. Appeasement was a good policy for Britain because of public opinion, dictators demands seen as justified, lack of alternative, economic pressures, global commitments, defence priorities, Chamberlain felt he could maintain peace.
Franco-Italian Agreement (Jan 1935)
This agreement gave Italy the ability to expand further in exchange for help in containing German expansion.
The Stresa Conference (Apr 1935)
Italy, France & Britain wanted to prevent Germany from rearming and agreed to mutually support each other to check German power at this conference in Stresa, Italy.
Anglo-German Naval Agreement (June 1935)
Britain broke the Stresa Agreement (with Italy and France) and allowed Germany to have a larger Navy. When Britain broke the Stresa Agreement Italy felt all agreements were null. France was offended. This signaled the weakness in opposition to Germany.
The Hoare-Laval Pact (Dec 1935)
Britain & France plan to give much of Abyssinia to Italy, proving the League is a sham as they would and could not act. The public was outraged. The pact was denounced.
Invasion of Abyssinia (1935-36)
Mussolini called for the conquest of Abyssinia for expansion. It wanted to demonstrate Italian strength to Europe. Italy formally annexed Abyssinia by 1936. Italy began to have closer relations with Germany. The Abyssinian Emperor asked the League of Nations for aid, but they didn't help. Britain tried to impose sanctions on Italy, but this didn't help. The US didn't take any direct action. Hitler and Mussolini were encouraged by the limited response from Britain, France, and the USA.
The Spanish Civil War (1936-39)
Mussolini saw an opportunity to extend his influence, possibly gain territory, and demonstrate military strength, so he supported Spanish fascists against communists. German forces largely supported the victory of Spanish fascists. Mussolini gained little and spent a great deal of money on the conflict.
The Rome-Berlin Axis (Oct 1936)
This alliance of fascist Italy and Germany led to closer ties between the country and signaled greater distance between Italy and other Western powers, namely Britain and France. Both countries had similar fascist views.
The Anti-Comintern Pact (Nov 1937)
Hitler, Mussolini & Hirota signed a pact to stem the spread of communism. They also agreed to mutual defence should the USSR attack any of them.
Italy Leaves the League of Nations (Dec 1937)
Mussolini was unhappy with economic sanctions imposed by the League of Nations upon Italy for the Abyssinian invasion and as a consequence left the League. This further weakened the League.
The Munich Agreement / Crisis (Sept 1938)
This was an agreement which permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia. Neville Chamberlain failed at peace, so Mussolini stepped in when the opportunity to be a mediator appeared. It highlighted the weakness of Britain and France.
Invasion of Albania (Apr 1939)
After the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Mussolini felt that he could win against France with German support. Mussolini hoped to dominate the Adriatic & demonstrate Italian strength. This action was condemned by Britain & France. Chamberlain no longer trusted the dictators.
The Pact of Steel (May 1939)
Germany and Italy agreed to cooperate, leading to a closer alignment of fascist policies in each country.
The Invasion of Poland (Sept 1939)
Italy suggested to Germany that they weren't ready for war. They thus remained non-aggressive. German troops invaded Poland and the Luftwaffe (German air force) bombed the capital at Warsaw. This drove Europe to the brink of war, to which Italy would inevitably be drawn into.
The End of Appeasement (1939)
Hitler's violation of treaties and expansionism marked the end of appeasement and the beginning of the war. Britain & France offer no help to Poland. An alliance of Britain & France with the USSR emerged.
The Invasion of Egypt & Greece (1940)
Mussolini invaded Egypt and Greece. Britain pushed Italy out of Egypt. Britain had to evacuate Greece when Germany intervened to help Italy.
The Tripartite Pact (Sept 1940)
This was a three-way agreement. Germany and Italy were to dominate Europe; Japan was to dominate East Asia. They supported each others' interests.
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