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MTEL 54 (study.com) CH.4-7

Terms in this set (165)

earlier stages of English proficiency ELL can READ BOOKS IN materials in their native language. This may seem counterintuitive, but literacy in the native language is a huge predictor of success in second language acquisition. ALSO bilingual books, graphic novels, and picture books.
READ ALOUD to English Language Learners as much as possible, or provide AUDIO resources to supplement the text.It makes comprehension more likely because students are receiving language input in multiple ways. It also demonstrates reading fluency, allowing students to hear the proper pace, tone, and pronunciation of the English language
THINK A-LOUDS into your reading, or speaking your thoughts about the text aloud so students become familiar with the process of interacting with the text.
PARTNER READING AND CHORAL READING
Use a variety of resources during reading instruction, including picture dictionaries and other graphics, to help reinforce the text.
Finally, try to make reading less overwhelming by breaking down reading assignments into smaller portions

STORY MAP: is a graphic organizer that combines reading comprehension and writing, while also teaching students how to effectively summarize a text. As students read literature, they keep track of essential information from the story on their story map, such as the setting, characters, rising action, climax, and resolution.

This task can be done individually, or with the teacher modeling for students how to fill in the information. Afterwards, students can work with a partner to re-tell the story using their story map, and write a summary of the story. Thus, this strategy effectively combines listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Lower proficiency students will need the most support with this task. The teacher will need to pre-teach the vocabulary associated with the elements of literature. Providing sentence frames, a word bank, and interactive support through the use of partners, will ensure that English Language Learner students can meet the standard.

GALLERY: the teacher poses a prompt related to a text read in class. Each student responds to the prompt on a small piece of paper, such as a sticky note. Students then place their response on the wall. Students rotate around the room, reading one another's responses. They then break into smaller groups to discuss the prompt, commenting on each other's ideas from the wallpapering exercise.
Once your school specialized team determines that an ELL student has a learning disability, the special education support is one aspect. The other aspect is how to teach ESL to those students.

First, you must monitor the ELL with a learning disability with particular attention to the area where they struggle. To illustrate, Yara's Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) highlights her problems are comprehending content and writing skills. Thus, these are the areas of focus for Diane, her ESL teacher. This means that Diane will provide Yara with ESL instruction that includes literacy skills activities. The main literacy skills include specific reading skills (phonological awareness, word level fluency, phonics, comprehension, etc.) and writing skills (correct spelling, structures, etc.).

Second, you don't always have to apply the standard ESL lessons. Instead, you would specifically program activities that target the ELL's difficulties. For example, Yara struggles with reading comprehension. Diane often plans reading lessons with a time when ESL students can answer questions that clarify the text. As Yara listens to her peers, she begins to understand some aspects. Also, Diane has an activity when ESL students ask each other questions about the text to check for comprehension.

Third, you can continue to benefit ELL students with a learning disability through the regular ESL instruction. This may seem contradictory but some research indicates that ELLs with a learning disability benefit from the same type of ESL instruction regular ELLs receive. For instance, Diane knows this and she continues to assign the regular tasks to her ESL students. When it is time to produce writing, she talks to Yara and asks her questions that trigger the production of content that can be put in writing. This way, Yara receives guided-instruction for writing.

Finally, it is key for ESL teachers to remember that ELLs with learning disabilities make great progress through vocabulary development. Yara, for example, begins to receive individual assistance from Diane, who makes sure Yara understands new words, connects learned with new vocabulary, and retains vocabulary.

Although slowly, Yara begins to make progress, which is the main objective of the whole assistance she receives.

Lesson Summary
Lack of progress and low academic achievement are two important indicators of a learning disability in ELLs. However, not all ELLs with these characteristics have a learning disability. This can only be assessed by a special education team after formal assessment.

ESL teachers can watch out for certain signs that can help identify a learning disability. The signs include difficulty reading, comprehending content, spelling correctly, staying focused and/or following directions, retaining information, establishing positive relationships with others, poor writing skills, and poor skills solving math word problems.

To teach ESL requires four main approaches: monitor and attention to the learning disability, programming that addresses the learning disability, continuation of regular ESL instruction, and vocabulary development.
INDIVIDUAL ATTENTION: encourage your gifted learners to take advantage of your office hours or other time outside of class.
ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENTS: to make any additional or extra credit work available to all learners. It's important that you stress that the extra work is purely voluntary and the choice of whether or not to undertake the tasks will have no effect on grades or your own perception of the student.
CONVERSATION WORK GROUPS:placing gifted learners into small conversation and/or work groups. If possible, try to do this during voluntary or additional study time so that other students in the class don't feel as though they are not adequate enough for this special group. Small groups have several advantages for gifted students. First of all, gifted students may be able to raise and challenge the level of communication that takes place in a peer setting. These groups can also facilitate deeper thought from a student viewpoint and can encourage understanding and comprehension of varied opinions and ideas. Additionally, students in the group can check answers and compare learning approaches as well as share tips and advice.

CHOOSING MATERIAL: When choosing additional material to give to gifted learners, try to make sure the material is both challenging and appropriate. If you teach ELLs of different levels, try giving material reserved for more advanced classes to lower-level learners. You can also create original content that emphasizes the areas you feel certain students may excel in.

Be careful not to overestimate the ability of your gifted learners. If you challenge them too much, they may become discouraged and lose focus. Also, don't always choose material that is language focused. Rather, choose content that covers a variety of topics with English as the medium of delivery rather than as the main focus.

Sometimes a gifted student excels in one area, like language acquisition, while they may struggle in other others like math or science, no matter the language they are taught in. Take into consideration the strengths of your ELLs and their goals. It's vital to remain focused so that learning can be guided and beneficial rather than too much of a chore.
DEVELOPING LISTENING/SPEAKING SKILLS:Create pairs of people to act out speaking and listening and have students model this, taking turns presenting and listening to information. From here, you can teach students the concept of having the floor, as in 'the speaker has the floor'. From this, students learn to recognize when it's an appropriate time to talk and when it's time to listen.

TEACH VARIETY OF SPOKEN TEXTS:The second component of oral language instruction is teaching a variety of spoken texts. According to British linguist, Michael Halliday, there are seven different functions of language. They are instrumental (language of expressing needs), regulatory (influencing others), interactional (getting along with others), personal (expressing personal feelings), heuristic (learning about one's environment), imaginary (creating stories), and representational (communicating information). There we go! Seven functions of language. So, the texts you use need to embrace all seven of these functions.

CREATE A LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT:three parts to this: the physical environment, classroom culture, and opportunities for communication. The physical environment can be enriched through creative toys, dress up boxes, and tables to display and discuss work. Classroom culture is promoted by being sensitive to cultural differences, emphasizing equality, and teaching students to take turns. Opportunities for discussion can be developed by modeling listening and speaking, reading as a class, and reciting raps, poems, or songs to introduce new sounds and rhythms.

VOCAB AND CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE:

PROMOTE AUDITORY MEMORY:the process of listening, processing, and remembering. Students have to learn how to process various kinds of information, and teachers can develop auditory memory by a mixture of repetition and performance. Repeat songs, poems, or plays to develop memory and get students used to memorizing and recalling this sort of information. Games like 'Simon Says', that rely on the ability to memorize and recall information, is a fun and practical way as well.
Pacific Northwest: The dialect is influenced by Native American languages. The word potluck comes from the Native American word potlatch.
Pacific Southwest: Influenced by gold mining settlers and bear a slang-like attitude toward the language.
Rocky Mountain: This dialect is heavily influenced by frontier settlers and Native American languages.
Southwestern: The dialect is heavily influenced by Mexican variations of Spanish.
San Francisco Urban: The large influx of settlers have churned out a dialect that is a combination of Midwestern and Northeastern English.
Upper Midwestern: This is the dialect people think of when they think of the Midwest. It bears the iconic twang in the pronunciation of many words.
North Midland: North Midlanders call doughnuts dunkers or fatcakes because they are in the transition zone between North and South, East and West.
Ozark: The dialect is twangy and similar to the one used in the Appalachian Mountains.
South Midland: These speakers use words such as 'reckon' and 'ragamuffin' in their everyday speech. They also add an A before gerunds, and replace TH with F.
Eastern New England: The 'R' at the end of a words is replaced with an 'H'. Car is pronounced 'CAH'.
Boston Urban: The Boston Urban dialect is the traditional Boston sound that bears the Southie accent. Other sub-dialects based on class exist within this dialect.
Western New England: The 'T' may be dropped from words, although this dialect is very subtle.
Hudson Valley: The dialect was influenced by Dutch settlers. Hudson Valley speakers say crullers for doughnuts.
New York City: The mix of ethnicities is largely responsible for the way English sounds in New York City. Speakers tend to replace the TH with a D sound.
Bonac: This dialect is a combination of New England and New York City.
Inland Northern: The dialect combines Western New England and the Midwest together. They call doughnuts friedcakes.
Chicago Urban: The dialect is influenced by the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, which happens with short vowel sounds mimic long vowel sounds.
Pennsylvania German-English: The small dialect retained some German grammar rules from when the German settlers were living here.
Gullah: The dialect is a Creole mix.
Southern Appalachian: The G of ING is dropped.
Virginia Piedmont: The dialect boasts a drawl on Rs that come before a vowel.
Coastal Southern: The dialect is similar to the Virginia Piedmont dialect, except it retained more vocabulary from Colonial English.
Gulf Southern: The Deep South dialect is influenced by the French and English settlers.
Louisiana: Deeply influenced by French settlers, this dialect has a handful of sub-dialects depending on what part of the region you are from.
VOCABULARY:Having a solid vocabulary is a necessary component of any English conversation. However, when students are just beginning to learn English it's important to not place too much emphasis on simply memorizing words. Proper usage is more important than having a large vocabulary. Because of this, any vocabulary training should include a significant amount of usage examples in addition to dictionary definitions. Words that have multiple meanings but the same pronunciation like, 'may' or 'fly' should be examined in all of the appropriate contexts. Conversational vocabulary should be geared towards common items and everyday situations. You can adjust the difficulty depending on the level of your students.

PRONUNCIATION:One way to practice this idea is to write words on index cards and have individual students pronounce the words, making corrections to mispronounced words as needed.

It's also important to practice vocabulary words that are spelled the same put pronounced differently, as in 'desert' (dry, arid land or leaving someone) or 'windy' (strong wind or a curvy road).

INTONATION: The best way to demonstrate how intonation works is to demonstrate it yourself or find good audio clips online to share with the class. One way to explain intonation is to simply use punctuation and a simple situation. Think of how many ways a word like 'really' can be intoned in order to change the intended meaning.

GRAMMAR:The key when teaching grammar is to focus on correct grammar patterns without making the students sound like they are reading from a text. One way to accomplish this is by listening to English being spoken naturally .

LISTENING:English language television shows, movies, radio, audio books and podcasts are all convenient sources of conversational English. The big advantage of these types of media is that students can choose topics they are interested in. This freedom of choice can go a long way in preventing boredom.
DIALOGUES & ROLE PLAYING: You can present students with pre-written dialogues to use in role-playing, or students can participate in writing them. This kind of assessment is two-fold: not only do students get practice speaking, but they also gain experience using language in a variety of real-world situations. Students can role-play making a deposit at the bank, ordering dinner in a restaurant, or socializing at a party.

INTERVIEWS:You can provide the interview questions or students can write them. Students can rotate partners to learn more about their classmates. As you circulate through the classroom, listen in on student conversations and provide support as needed.You can also use interviews to determine students' background knowledge. For example, Student A interviews Student B about a topic and writes down his or her answers, and then Student B does the same with Student A. Students can then share their partners' responses with a small group or with the class. For example, prior to a lesson about the ocean, students can interview one another about their experiences:

Have they ever been swimming in the ocean?
Is the Earth mostly water or land?
What kinds of animals live in the ocean?
What is the biggest ocean in the world?

DISCUSSIONS:
Students can use sentence frames to help organize their discussions. Sentence frames are pre-written sentences that provide a template for students to fill in with their own words and phrases. Thus, students actually complete a sentence that is already partially written. You can provide students with a handout or display a large poster of helpful sentence frames for class discussions, including:

I agree/disagree with _____ because _____.
In my opinion, _____.
I would like to add that _____.

Providing sentence frames encourages ELL students to take language risks, which builds their confidence and improves their vocabulary. As an informal assessment, you can sit in on each group of students for a few minutes and take notes, complete a checklist, or use a rubric to assess speaking skills.
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR): hat children can naturally acquire a new language through repetitive exposure to commands. The teacher usually begins by modeling an action while saying a command aloud. For example, she might tell students to stand up while standing up herself. Or, she might tell students to sit down while also sitting down. This approach to language learning is stress-free and highly engaging.To teach shapes: ''Point to something that has a square shape.''
To teach body parts: ''Touch your knees.''
To teach prepositions: ''Put your pencil on the desk.''
To teach adverbs: ''Walk to the door quickly.''
To teach adjectives: ''Pick up the red crayon.''
Simply observing students during TPR activities can help you gather feedback about their listening skills.

PICTURE DICTATION: provide small groups of students with a series of images that correspond to a story. As you read the story aloud, have students arrange the pictures in chronological order. Afterwards, students can negotiate with one another to determine the correct order, and you can easily assess students' listening comprehension.

INFORMATION GAP: provide pairs of students with two index cards. Card A includes information about a topic, such as sea turtles. However, there are blank spaces on the card, indicating missing information. Card B also has information about sea turtles, and it happens to be the same information missing from Card A. Students must communicate to fill in the missing information on their cards. They can only do so by speaking and listening to their partners.
1. LEARN THE ALPHABET LETTERS
2. LEARN PHONEMES (consonants & vowels) (letter to sound relationship)
Allow students a multisensory approach to experience seeing, saying, and hearing the various sounds they are learning through phonics.
teacher shouldn't try to teach all the types of vowel sounds at once. They should teach one type of vowel sound, such as long vowels, and give students a variety of ways to practice that engage as many senses as possible.

Typically teaching phonemes this begins with teaching students the consonant sounds (b, c, d, f, g...) and vowel sounds (a, e, i, o, and u). Teachers may approach this by having students begin to recognize words that start with the consonant or vowel sounds.

As students move through the phonics instruction, they progress to more complex phonemes such as blended sounds (br, cr, wr...) and digraph sounds (sh, ch, th, and wh). After learning a particular phoneme, students need the opportunity to practice using that skill in real stories and books.

The challenge to phonics is finding texts, especially early on, that emphasize the phonemes you are teaching. Therefore, teaching phonics may rely heavily on leveled readers that use a sort of Dr. Seuss sentence structure to emphasize the phonemes being taught.

3. DECODING:translating a printed word into a sound.translating a printed word into a sound.
phonics emphasizes teaching students the phonemes they need to decode unknown words as they encounter them in the text.

4. AUTOMATICITY: where decoding becomes automatic.learning to read is a lot like playing an instrument.

5. GRAMMAR STRUCTURES: Ells can use grammar skills to help them decode, verb means action. preposition means direction ect.

6. COMPREHENSION SKILLS: students can now begin to understand the meaning of the texts, .maybe now is a good time to add top-down/whole language approach for texts that focus solely on meaning :)
READING WORKSHOP: Reading workshop is comprised of explicit reading instruction using a variety of authentic texts, which are texts found in the real world.
Shared reading: includes read-alouds and choral readings that are done in a whole group setting with teacher support. Typically, the same books or poems are read for several days to encourage fluency.
Guided reading: is generally done in a small group setting where students of the same reading level read a common text and are engaged in activities within their zone of proximal development (instructional level).
Independent reading: provides students the opportunity to practice reading books that are at their own independent level.

WRITING WORKSHOP:Writing expands a student's ability to build meaning from words by allowing the students to create their own texts. Writing workshops consist of three components: shared writing, guided writing, and independent writing.

Shared writing: is a daily opportunity for teachers to model the writing process for students as the class creates a text together that is scribed by the teacher.
Guided writing: takes place within a flexible small group where a teacher supports students in learning a skill that this particular group of students has found challenging.
Independent writing takes place throughout the school day. It includes both self-selected and teacher-assigned topics, such as a reflection activity.
Independent writing: is an opportunity for students to work on their own to practice the writing skills they have learned.

WORD WORK:Word work can take place both as separate explicit instruction and as part of both reading and writing workshop. Word work encompasses phonemic awareness, phonics, high-frequency words, and vocabulary instruction.
PLANNING: Students need to set goals, choose strategies to meet those goals, and allocate time and resources. Plan to support your lesson with visual or audio clues, like props or songs.

Let's say for our example lesson that you are teaching your students about the Great Depression. In the planning step, you work with your students to set goals, such as understand the events which led to the Great Depression. Then you help them figure out what resources they need, in this case probably a book or video about the events of the Great Depression, and allocate the necessary time. You have also thought ahead and brought some props to give the lesson context, like a coupon book for food rationing

MONITORING:his is the part where scaffolding comes into play. During this step you make sure the student has all the support they need to understand the concepts of the lesson. The teacher has the responsibility to provide feedback to their student and ensure that they have comprehended the material. Feedback at this time might also involve helping the student understand concepts by using their native language. This is fine, just so long as you make sure they understand the concept in both English and their native language.

For our fictional lesson on the Great Depression, you could support your students in a number of ways. If they are silently reading, you might ask them to raise their hand if they encounter anything they don't understand or if watching a video, follow it up with some discussion.

EVALUATION:The final step involves helping the students evaluate their own work and learning. You ask your students about the core concepts to make sure they are understood. You can also quiz them on whether they met their goals and if their strategies worked or not.

You can use the goals they set for themselves as a starting point for this discussion. If they met the goals, that's fantastic. If not, then you need to work with the student to figure out what was wrong. Were the goals too difficult? Did their strategies not work? It's not a perfect process, and you'll get better.
DIRECTIONALITY:
reading relates to the reader's ability to identify and follow the orientation and arrangement of graphemes, such as left-to-right, right-to-left, or top-down.

When we first learn to read in our native language, we learn how to move our eyes across the page. It becomes so natural and automatized that we don't even think about it. Well...until we try to read a text that is oriented differently. If you are an English speaker and you take up Arabic, at least for a while, your brain will find it very challenging to read the Arabic texts that are oriented right-to-left.

ORTHOGRAPHY:
is the writing and spelling system of a language.

There are alphabetic systems which use letters to represent sounds, such as English, and there are syllabic systems which use characters or symbols to refer to syllables, morphemes, or words, such as Chinese. Readers need to know individual symbols and their identities. With this being said, first language transfer may occur at the orthographic level as well. If an English language learner uses a different type of alphabet in their language, Cyrillic (Russian) or Hangul (Korean), they will need to remember what a letter looks like and discriminate between familiar letters: Letter ''P'' exists both in Latin and Cyrillic alphabet but it corresponds to different sounds.

PHONEMIC AWARENESS:When sounds are combined together, they make words: ''book'': has four letters, three sounds.

here are 26 letters in English but they can represent 44 sounds. To read fluently, English learners need to be able to hear, identify, and manipulate each sound. If a sound is not a part of a student's first language system, they may not be able to detect it. That will affect their reading comprehension and spelling as they cannot relate sounds to letters.

MORPHOLOGy:
studies how words are formed in language.

morpheme is the smallest meaningful grammatical unit of a language: miscommunication (mis- is a morpheme). Usually, prefixes and suffixes help native speakers determine what part of the speech the word is and then guess its meaning or convert it. When a student's first language is similar to English, and they are literate readers in their native language, they can easily transfer knowledge about parallel morphemes and apply it to English: -tion (English); -cion (Spanish): both form nouns. However, in other cases, learner's first language can provide misleading information about morphemes, which can affect reading comprehension in English.

Sentence structure:is essential for reading comprehension as it directs readers' attention to important text information, and helps them create schema and expectations and with recalling information
Strong first language readers know how to identify structures and navigate through texts. If English learners have solid knowledge of how English sentences are structured, they can build text expectations and decipher unfamiliar words. However, first language transfers can hinder the reading process. If something in the sentence violates a norm they are familiar with from their native language, they may take longer to work out how each word fits into the sentence until they decipher the meaning. For instance, passive forms are more commonly used in English than in Korean; thus, a learner from Korea may struggle with deconstructing such sentence structures.
VOCAB KNOWLEDGE:
Understanding vocabulary is a key element from reading comprehension. As English language learners advance, they acquire more words and learn to recognize and decode them faster. Their reading comprehension improves. English language learners whose first language does not share a lot of English words, roots, prefixes, and etc. take longer to gain reading fluency in English as they don't have the right tools to transfer from their language to guess meanings. In contrast, some languages share a lot of words similar in form and meaning called cognates. Those are easily transferred across languages and facilitate comprehension as learners can decipher the meaning with ease. By learning to recognize and decode morphemes, learners can move from unfamiliar to familiar more rapidly, which will enhance their reading skills.

BACKGROUND:
Background knowledge is another prerequisite for reading comprehension. As mentioned before, when students read a text, they develop schemas and expectations. When those are accurate, they can better understand the text. However, English language learners come from different cultures and backgrounds, so they may have different or no prior knowledge of the subject; such gaps need to be filled beforehand. The more students learn about a topic before they read about it, the more prepared they are to add new information to their prior knowledge.

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS:
English language learners who come from low-socioeconomic status homes have had fewer opportunities to build various experiences and background knowledge due to a lack of parental time, stimulation, or money. They may have had limited exposure to books and academic work. Such learners may have poorer reading skills and strategies in their native language which will affect their reading performance in English.
REDUCE READING LOAD:
Keep in mind that it takes a lot of effort to try to decode and comprehend unknown words in another language.

VOCAB INSTRUCTION:
t's important to spend time on explicit vocabulary instruction with ELL students. Before reading, preview the text to see which vocabulary words may be essential to understanding, and take time to teach them. You can have students collaborate on word sorts or you can have them draw pictures to illustrate the words.

PRE-READNG STRATEGIES:
ngage students in pre-reading strategies to help set the stage for their reading. You can do a picture walk with students by asking them to make predictions about the text based only on the pictures.

Try to activate students' prior knowledge about the subject matter. Ask students questions about themes and topics from the text and have them elaborate on their responses. For example, prior to reading a story about friendship, ask students to discuss what makes a good friend and record their responses on the board.e

GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
raphic organizers such as Venn diagrams, KWL (Know, Want to know, Learned) charts, double bubble maps for comparing and contrasting, sequence maps, and others can help students establish a purpose for reading. Having a purpose helps encourage students to read actively, which enhances comprehension.

READ ALOUD: teacher reads to the students

THINK ALOUD: teacher models thinking process out loud as she reads to demonstrate interactive reading skills and imporove ELLs comprehension.
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PARTNER READING:
two students read a text aloud to each other. Best to pair a native speaker with ELL
SENTENCE STARTERS:
ou can help your students do this by giving them sentence starters in English. These will make them feel comfortable and encourage questioning. Sentence starters that may help are:

How do you say -------- in English?
Can you please explain -------- again?
What does -------- mean?

GRAPHIC ORGANIZER:
5 by 5 table with columns titles: vocab words, definition, synonym, visual,and how its used in sentence. THis is perfect for learning and remembering vocab before the unit.

GROUPING VOCAB:
Chunking vocabulary into different groups is also helpful. One way to categorize words is in parts of speech. This can be turned into a game to make it more entertaining and meaningful. Roots (base word), prefixes (re, non, un), and suffixes (ed, ing, or) should also be explored and understood to help with independently comprehending larger, more complex vocabulary. Homophones (night/knight) and homonyms (leaves (to go)/leaves (part of a tree)) will need to be constantly revisited and emphasized.

Identifying figurative language is also necessary, specifically idioms (phrases with underlying meanings) and clichés (overused phrases). Slang also can fit into these category when explaining abstract meanings. If an ELL student is told to eat dirt, you might have a problem on your hand if they don't understand it is not literal. Popular culture and friends will expose students to most of these phrases, but they will also need to be taught these so they don't end up with egg on their faces when learning the language.
SCAFFOLD READING INSTRUCTION:
you are breaking the reading lesson into smaller parts so that you are not giving your students too much information at once. You certainly do not want to overwhelm students who are already behind in their reading. Breaking the information into chunks keeps them from becoming overwhelmed or frustrated. Scaffolding instruction also helps you determine where students may not understand certain parts of the lesson and gives you an opportunity to develop a plan for re-teaching that parT

break reading into smaller, manageable sections. This can help students organize information to make reading easier and increase comprehension. The teacher can either chunk the text for students or have the students chunk the text themselves. For example, if students are reading a story with four paragraphs, the teacher may chunk each paragraph and check for student comprehension or take two lines at a time, read the lines, then check for comprehension.


EMPHASIZE VOCAB:
Exposure to as much vocabulary as possible is probably the single most important strategy that you should use as a teacher of students who are learning the English language. Because vocabulary varies with each subject area, you should spend at least five to ten minutes a day explicitly reinforcing vocabulary that will be used throughout your lesson. Explicit instruction could include defining key vocabulary terms, using them in a sentence, and providing a picture that can be associated with the word.

MODEL GOOD READING:
you as the teacher practice reading a passage or story as your ELL students follow along. You may use guided reading practice for the whole class or you may break struggling readers into smaller groups so that they can receive more personalized instruction. You may even stop to answer questions related to the reading to make sure that your students understand the text. As students become more comfortable with reading, you may allow them to take control of the reading while you listen to them, providing them feedback about strengths and weaknesses in their reading.
MOTIVATE ELLS TO READ:
make sure students relax and feel comfortable about the reading assignment. We want them to look at reading as an enjoyable experience, not one to feel stressed about. You can do this by emphasizing that reading is a pleasure because we get to live stories and learn new things.

PRE-TEACH VOCAB
You might give them a list of words they'll see in the text to learn before reading. Or, you can ask students to quickly scan the text and underline the words they do not know, then explain those vocabulary terms to the group.

Students can have fun while learning new vocabulary. You can have your students talk about the new vocab terms and guess the meanings before you clarify for the group. Students can also use the new words in sentences or even draw a picture of the word, which is particularly appealing to elementary students. These same strategies can be applied to idiomatic expressions, language structures, and so forth.

MAKING PREDICTIONS:
Based on the title, they can brainstorm about what the text will be about and what the conclusion will be. Thy can also use their skimming skills to familiarize themselves with the main idea, and the teacher can give clues about what the text will contain. (Be mindful not to provide a summary of the text, as this doesn't challenge students to improve their reading comprehension skills.)

careful not to give away the story!).

READING:
it's important to encourage your guided reading group to ask about unfamiliar words, expressions and grammar as they come across them while reading.

Students can take turns reading aloud, or they can read silently. Either way, it can be helpful to have students read a couple of paragraphs and then ask them a few questions to ensure the group understands the content. Ask questions that can be answered by the content of the text as well as indirect questions that ask students to reflect on the text, like 'What is your opinion on...?' and 'Why do you think...?'

If the group has trouble answering these questions, you may need a change of text to better match the students' reading level. If they do appear to be grasping the text, the discussion can get students talking about the text in a relaxed way and motivated to continue with their reading.

POST READING:
Ask students to write a summary of what they read in 3 lines.
Have students answer questions that target comprehension of the main ideas.
Ask students their opinion about the text and its characters and subject matter.
Ask students to explain something new they learned from the text.
If students read a narrative, they could recreate it with a brief dramatic production.
Instruct students to make a storyline of the main events of the story using images and drawings.
IDENTIFY THE GENRE:
Pre-teach the students about the different types of texts. This may be in the form of an entire lesson or unit depending upon the age and ESL ability levels of the students.
Collect several different types of texts. This will guide what happens in the next steps.
Remove any information from your samples that may indicate the type of text.
Distribute the texts to students and instruct them to identify the type. Students may work in pairs or small groups to encourage teamwork and idea sharing.
Optional: Setting a time limit may help to facilitate the lesson.
Have the students cross-check with other pairs and/or small groups for preliminary discussion.
Formally review and debrief the results.

IDENTIFY THE VERB TENSE:
Source several sample texts containing the target grammar, or the grammar you intend to teach.
Model the exercise. Modeling shows students what your expectations are in terms of procedure and desired outcomes. Explain that students should identify and group similar pieces of grammar. For example, they may use different colored pencils to circle and categorize grammar structures.
Distribute the sample texts to students. Students may work in pairs or small groups.
Optional: Setting a time limit may help to facilitate the lesson.
Have the students cross-check with other pairs and/or small groups for preliminary discussion.
Formally review and debrief the results.
Optional extension: Have students construct original sentences using the recently explored grammar structures

RACE TO ANSWER A QUESTION:
Select a text appropriate for your students in terms of length, complexity and subject.
Carefully preview the text and identify a piece of information near the end of the text that can be attached to a question. For example, you might formulate a question such as 'Why did the farmer only sell three pigs on Tuesday?' Tip: Be sure that the information necessary to answer the question is located near the end of the text so that students need to read the entire article and focus on the content; in this sense, they are actively reading for comprehension.
Get the students ready. Distribute the text, ideally upside down so nobody can start reading first, ask the challenge question, and give a prompt such as 'Ready. Set. Go!'
The first student to raise his/her hand with the correct answer wins.
Optional extension: Before confirming the correctness of the answer, have classmates discuss, debate and analyze both the question and the proposed answer in order to promote active, whole-class engagement.
ILLUSTRATE A CONCEPT:
If you are planning to work with a particular theme or concept in the book you are going to read, it is helpful for students to be able to activate what they already know, assume, or feel about that concept. Begin by introducing the concept, which might be something like 'friendship,' 'community,' or 'poverty.' As a whole class, have your students brainstorm ideas, words, and phrases that they connect with this concept, and chart all of their responses. Then, ask each student to create a sketch illustrating what that concept means to them. Emphasize that there are no right or wrong answers here. When students are finished, give them a chance to share their illustrations with the class.

VISUAL VOCAB:
Many ESL students benefit from some extra work with vocabulary before they read something new. Come up with a list of ten to twenty vocabulary words from the book you are about to work with. Break your students into small groups, and have each group take responsibility for three to five words. It is fine if some of the words are repeated across groups. Explain that their task is to define each word, come up with a sample sentence, and then create an illustration that shows the meaning of the word. Put your students' work together into a visual dictionary they can refer back to as they read the text.

MAPS & SETTINGS:
Show your students a projected image of a map of the place they will be reading about, whether it is a whole country or a small town. Ask them to describe what they notice about the image and pose any questions that come up. Then, have students work with partners. Give each pair a smaller version of the same map, and have them write a longer list of observations and questions regarding the setting they are about to encounter in more detail. They can use the setting to make predictions about the text.
WORD BANK:
You can also provide students with word banks to help them write summaries that cover the main concepts from the text. For example, if students are writing a summary of ''The Three Little Pigs,'' you might write the following list of words and phrases on the board: first, second, third, house, straw, wood, brick. Tell students to write a five-sentence summary of the story, with one caveat: they must use all of the words on the board.

SOMEBODY-WANTED-BUT-SO-THEN
An easy way to teach students how to write an effective summary is to use the somebody-wanted-but-so-then approach. This approach covers all of the essential points of a summary. For instance:

Somebody: who was the character?
Wanted: what did the character want?
But: what was the conflict?
So: what did the character(s) do to solve the problem?
Then: how did the story end - how was the situation resolved?

ART & ORGANIZERS
Art is a great way for ESL students to demonstrate their learning because it requires little to no language proficiency while still assessing their understanding of a text.

Collage
A collage is an ideal art project for many students because unlike a drawing or painting, it requires little skill. Provide students with stacks of old magazines and ask them to cut out images, words, and symbols that relate to the story. They can glue the images onto poster board. When finished, have them share their posters with a partner.

Graphic Organizers
Graphic organizers are great for helping students organize information and other notes from their reading. They are ideal for ESL students because of their visual nature. It's much easier for an ESL student to 'fill in' or supply information on a graphic organizer rather than to write from scratch.

Venn Diagrams
One common type of graphic organizer is a Venn diagram, which consists of two overlapping circles. This type of organizer is often used for comparing two things, such as two different characters or literary elements from a story. In the center of the diagram, where the two circles meet, students record similarities. Low-proficiency students might add pictures, symbols, and words to their diagrams rather than phrases and sentences.

Story Maps
A story map helps students record important information from a text, such as the characters, setting, and conflict. After completing their story maps, students can work with a partner to re-tell the story using their notes.
DIRECTIONALITY
ELLs might write right-left (Indians) or bottom
-top of the page bc of their L1.

ORTHOGRAPHIC DEPTH:
the consistency of spelling rules in a language.In English the sound to letter ratio is not consistent. in other languages it is and they have shallow orthographic patterns. the way words are written in them is pronounced exactly as per specific pronunciation rules, as is the case with Spanish.

MORPHOLOGY:
For instance, in Spanish, Sergio knows that adjectives have plural forms by adding the 's'. For this reason, his English writing often appears odd in some instances when he writes things like 'the whites horses'.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE
while Spanish has the same basic structure of subject plus verb and complement for complete sentences, Sergio often drops the subject 'I' when writing in English. Sergio does this because the verb conjugation for 'I' in Spanish is unique and, thus, the subject 'I' is not necessary at all times.

DISCOURSE STRUCTURE
Many languages our ELLs might speak use different discourse structures for writing. For instance, Sergio uses very basic linking words between paragraphs when he writes in Spanish. For this reason, Sergio has a hard time understanding why linking expressions like 'to continue, besides, in addition,' etc.

CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS
in Latin America, writing and composition is a subject in elementary school but not a skill that continues to be developed throughout school so students can write as well as possible when they are in university or when they become professionals. This is the reason why Sergio struggles often to put thoughts in writing and tends to produce a lot of run-on sentences. In short, ELL teachers can always do a bit of research on the cultural background their students come from in order to understand and work around expectations for writing in English.
BILINGUAL DICTIONARY:
his accommodation is typically useful for students who are literate in their first language, and who have at least an intermediate level of English proficiency.
cons- takes time too look up words, dictionaries dont often teach the correct form of word and results in unclear writing.

SENTENCE FRAMES:
Often, sentence frames are accompanied by word banks so that students can choose the appropriate words to fill in the blanks.

Sentence frames reduce the pressure associated with asking an ELL student to produce language. They help model the correct format and structure of the English language, so students have exemplary models to refer to. Over time, students will need to depend less and less on the sentence frames as they learn to write their own sentences.

REDUCING WRITING LOAD:
ELL students should not be required to produce the same amount of text as their native-speaking peers. if students are required to write a paragraph on a specified topic, ask ELL students to try writing only two or three complete sentences. This will ensure that the writing they do submit is their best work.

COLLABORATIVE WRITING
pairing ELL students with native English speakers to complete collaborative writing tasks. One way to do this is with a Think-Write-Pair-Share. This activity requires students to independently think and then write about a topic or question posed by the teacher. When they finish writing, they pair up with another student to share their ideas, and then one partner volunteers to share the information with the class.

Depending on the students' level of English proficiency, you can reverse the order of this activity to provide more support to ELL students. For example, after posing the prompt or question, pair students together to discuss and then write their response together.
ANCHOR CHARTS
are posters that record key concepts, cues, and guidelines during the learning process so student thinking and understanding is represented visually. Break down descriptions and concepts piece by piece, so students are able to work through the processes on their own, step by step.
teaching about writing a paragraph, have a color-coded anchor chart that breaks down the parts of a paragraph; but also, have an example paragraph written on color-coded sentence strips to match the colors on the anchor chart. For every element of writing you teach, make sure there are visuals and examples to help assist in student comprehension.

WRITING EXERCISES
You will want your ESL students to partake in both academic and real-world style writing exercises. Aim to familiarize students with writing independently, writing through collaboration, and writing using technology (e.g., word processors, e-mail), so they develop a well-rounded set of skills.

JOURNALS
Have students keep a journal for either personal use (brainstorming, getting thoughts onto paper, reflecting, or reviewing) or for communication purposes (teacher-student communication or peer journal communication). Allow students to use journals for simply practicing writing. In the beginning, this can be used to develop a writing baseline so progression can be tracked. As students advance in their writing skills, begin assigning journal topics or prompts for grading and assessment.

SPEED FREE WRITING
where students just write without worrying about topic, grammar, punctuation, or formatting. This is used to get students comfortable with using their imagination when it comes to writing.

THINK-PAIR-WRITE
Divide the class into pairs.
Write a topic or prompt on the board.
Explain to students they will have 2 minutes to think about the topic/prompt and write a few notes or ideas onto paper.
When the 'thinking' time is up, explain that students will have 5-10 minutes to discuss their notes or ideas with their partner. Provide higher-thinking questions for students to use until they are familiar with this exercise.
When the time is up, students are to use their notes and insight from the peer discussion to write about the topic/prompt.

LETTERS/POST CARDS
This is a real life skill that will help students learn to communicate through writing. Letters and postcards are useful for teaching writing-for-purpose skills. Explain and model all elements (greeting, body, closing). Model and practice, but also consider providing templates for younger or beginner level students. You can set up pen pals, or just have students write to one another in class as they continue practicing this style of writing.

EMAILS
Like letter and postcards, email writing is beneficial for teaching students to communicate through writing. Email writing is useful because it also develops 21st-century skills that students can use in the workplace. Make sure to teach/review the computer skills needed to compose and send an email, since some students may not be familiar with this process. After providing examples and templates, have students write various types of emails to you as a means of practicing online communication skills and etiquette.
WORD SORTS
students are provided with words that they sort into categories. The teacher can provide the categories, which is often referred to as a closed word sort, or students can complete an open word sort by creating their own categories.
For a closed sort, the teacher can give students a graphic organizer with labeled columns. Students can either write the words in the appropriate column, or they can use small note cards with the words written on them. This will allow them to physically place the word in the appropriate column.

or example, let's say a student has five spelling words, each one written on a separate note card. The words are orange, brown, red, blue, and yellow. The teacher provides the student with a graphic organizer containing a chart that is divided into two columns. The first column is labeled 'words with one syllable,' and the second column is labeled 'words with two syllables.' The student would place the note cards that read 'brown,' 'red,' and 'blue' in the first column. The other cards would be placed in the second column.

For an open sort, the same methods apply, except the headings on the graphic organizer are blank, and students fill them in independently.

Here are some examples of categories that can be used for word sorts:

Words with two syllables
Compound words

WORD HUNTS
sts are given magazines and can search for words to cut out and put into their categories

ALPHABETIZING
Another strategy for building spelling skills is to use the same word lists and cards that were used in the sorts and have students alphabetize them. Putting words in alphabetical order requires students to study the vocabulary words and pay close attention to spelling patterns.

A fun way to alphabetize is to break students up into small groups and give them a set amount of time to alphabetize the words. Whichever group puts all the words into the correct alphabetical order the fastest is the winner.

COGNATES
which are words in two different languages with similar meanings, spellings, and pronunciations
English: attention; Spanish: atención
English: center; Spanish: centro
English: dinosaur; Spanish: dinosaurio
English: December; Spanish: Diciembre

TYPING PRACTICE
LESSON PREPARATION
it's an instructional model used to ensure ELLs have their content and language needs met in mainstream classrooms.

both content and language objectives are reviewed at the beginning of the lesson and then analyzed upon completion of the lesson

Clearly define CONTENT objectives:
SWBAT draft a conclusion paragraph for their essay.

Clearly define LANGUAGE objective
SWBAT use transitional phrases in writing.

Include themes, standards, topics, materials, and vocabulary.

Utilize multiple methods of content delivery (audio, visual, charts, etc.)

Ensure application allows students to attain and demonstrate understanding.

BUILDING BACKGROUND:
create links between past lessons and experiences; hence, building background knowledge as a launch pad for the new lessons. Ensure that you:

Focus and motivate students by connecting to what they already know.
Address how students' personal experiences can relate to content area.
Directly link concepts to students' background experiences, or make learning relevant. This experience can be personal, cultural, or academic.
Link past learning to new content by referring to books, lessons, or charts that students have worked on previously.
Use what students have learned in the past to help them learn new vocabulary.

COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT:
where the instructor focuses on presenting new information in a way that can be understood by all students. When it comes to objectives, content, vocabulary, etc., ask yourself: Is it understandable? Can they explain it back to me? Be sure to:

Use language that matches students' proficiency level.
Make explanations of tasks clear by using step-by-step sequencing with visuals.
Give plenty of examples by modeling, demonstrating, and participating with students.
Enunciate clearly; speak slowly and purposefully.
Use gestures, pictures, props, and objects to make content clear.

LEARNING STRATEGIES
Consistently use scaffolding strategies, such as modeling, guided practice, independent practice.
Use the think-aloud strategy to show students how to work through concepts and learning strategies.
Encourage higher-thinking, delving, and questioning throughout lessons.

INTERACTION:
allows students to learn from one another as they practice skills being taught in the classroom.
Allow open discussions about content, lessons, and objectives.
Use a variety of grouping options, such as whole, small, partners, and independent.
Consistently provide sufficient wait time for student responses.
Use structured oral language routines, like a talking stick, lines of communication, or give one/get one, to get students talking and interacting.
Allow for clarification opportunities in students' native language, if possible, if it will improve difficulty with acquisition.

PRACTICE /APPLICATION
enduring knowledge for practice and for application of the concepts and content being presented.
Provide guided practice before having students work independently.
Use activities that require students to apply both content and language knowledge. These can be journals, discussion circles, subject-related interviews, or scaffolded graphic organizers.
Use activities that integrate all language skills

LESSON DELIVERY:
how a lesson is delivered determines how content will be received, deciphered, and retained by students.
Ensure the lesson delivery follows the content and language objectives.
Respect the pace of your students, and mirror the lesson to their ability level.
Make sure students are following along throughout the lesson; frequently check for comprehension.

REVIEW & ASSESSMENT
Reflecting on a lesson's effectiveness is important for determining what changes need to be made before a lesson is used again.
Complete assessments of content and language learning objectives throughout the lesson.
Review content and language objectives with the class to see if students believe objectives were met.
Complete a whole group comprehensive review of vocabulary and content concepts.
Get feedback from students with reflection prompts.
Complete an overall assessment at the end of the lesson.