영교론 키워드

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 245
Terms in this set (245)
attitudea set of personal feelings, opinions, or biases about races, cultures, ethnic groups, classes of people, and languagesattribution theory[self-esteem] how people explain the causes of their own successes and failuresattritionthe loss or forgetting of language skillsAudiolingual Method (ALM)[behaviorism] a language teaching method, popular in the 1950s, that placed an extremely strong emphasis on oral production, pattern drills, and conditioning through repetitionauditory learning stylethe tendency to prefer listening to lectures and audiotapes, as opposed to visual and/or kinesthetic processingauthenticity[assessment] a principle emphasizing real-world, meaningful language used for genuine communicative purposesautomatic processesrelatively permanent cognitive efforts, as opposed to controlled processesautonomyindividual effort and action through which learners initiate language, problem solving, strategic action, and the generation of linguistic inputavoidance[communication strategy] in a conversation, steering others away from an unwanted topic; a strategy that leads to refraining from producing a form that speaker may not know, often through an alternative form; as a strategy, options intended to prevent the production of ill-formed utterances, classified into such categories as syntactic, lexical, phonological, and topic avoidanceawareness-raisingusually, in foreign language classes, calling a learner's attention to linguistic factors that may not otherwise be noticedbacksliding(learner language) a phenomenon in which the learner seems to have grasped a rule or principle and then regresses to a previous stageBasic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)the communicative capacity that all humans acquire in order to be able to function in daily interpersonal exchanges; context-embedded performanceclarification requestan elicitation of a reformulation or repetition from a studentcode-switchingin bilinguals, the act of inserting words, phrases, or even longer stretches of one language into the otherCognitive Constructivisma branch of constructivism that emphasizes the importance of individual learners constructing their own representation of realitycognitive pruningthe elimination of unnecessary clutter and a clearing of the way for more material to enter the cognitive fieldcognitive strategiesstrategic options relating to specific learning tasks that involve direct manipulation of the learning material itselfCognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)the dimension of proficiency in which a learner manipulates or reflects on the surface features of language in academic contexts, such as test-taking, writing, analyzing, and reading academic texts; context-reduced performancecollectivisma cultural worldview that assumes the primacy of community, social groups, or organizations and places greater value on harmony within such groups than on one's individual desires, needs, or aspirationscommunication strategiesstrategic options relating to output, how one productively expresses meaning, and how one effectively delivers messages to others (see learning strategies)communicative competence (CC)The cluster of abilities that enable humans to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts.Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)an approach to language teaching methodology that emphasizes authenticity, interaction, student-centered learning, task-based activities, and communication for real-world, meaningful purposesCommunity Language Learning (CLL)language teaching method that emphasizes interpersonal relationships, inductive learning, and Views the teacher as a "counselor"compensatory strategiesstrategic options designed to overcome self-perceived weaknesses, such as using prefabricated patterns, code-switching, and appeal to authoritycompetenceone's underlying knowledge of a system, event, or fact; the unobservable ability to perform langaugecomprehensionthe process of receiving langauge; listening or reading; inputconditioned response[behavioral learning] a response to a stimulus that is learned or elicited by an outside agentconnectionismthe integration of various paradigms with an emphasis on social interaction and the discovery, or construction, of meaningcontext-embedded langaugelanguage forms and functions that are embedded in a set of schemata within which the learner can operate, as in meaningful conversations, real-life tasks, and extensive readingcontext-reduced languagelanguage forms and functions that lack a set of embedded schemata within which the learner can operate, as in traditional test items, isolated reading excerpts, and repetition drillsContrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH)the claim that the principal barrier to second language acquisition is first language interference, and that a scientific analysis of the two languages in question enables the prediction of difficulties a learner will encountercontrolled processescapacity limited and temporary cognitive efforts, as opposed to automatic processescorpus linguisticsan approach to linguistic research that relies on computer analyses of a collection, or corpus, of texts—written, transcribed speech, or both—stored in electronic form and analyzed with the help of computer software programscorrective feedbackresponses to a learner's output that attempt to repair or call attention to an error or mistakecovert erroran error that is grammatically well formed at the sentence level but not interpretable within the context of communication; a discourse errorCritical Period Hypothesisthe claim that there is a biological timetable before which and after which language acquisition, both first and second, is more successfully accomplishedcritical periodA biologically determined period of time when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly difficult to acquireCross-linguistic influence (CLI)a concept that replaced the contrastive analysis hypothesis, recognizing the significance of the role of the first language in learning a second, but with an emphasis on the facilitating and interfering effects both languages have on each otherculture shockin the process of acculturation, phenomena involving mild irritability, depression, anger, or possibly deep psychological crisis due to the foreignness of the new cultiral milieudebilitative anxietyfeelings of worry that are perceived as detrimental to one's self-efficacy or that hinder one's performancedeductive reasoningmoving from a generalization to specific instances in which subsumed facts are inferred from a general principleDirect Methoda language teaching method popular in the early twentieth century that emphasized direct target language use, oral communication skills, and inductive grammar, without recourse to translation from the first languagediscourse analysisthe examination of the relationship between forms and functions of language beyond the sentence leveldiscourse competencethe ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterancesdiscoursea language (either spoken or written) beyond the sentence level; relationships and rules that govern the connectiondomain[error analysis] the rank of linguistic unit (from phoneme to discourse) that must be taken as context in order for the error to become apparentelicitationa corrective technique that prompts the learner to self-correct elicited response behavior resulting from a preceding outside stimulusemergent stage[learner language] one in which the learner grows in consistency in linguistic productionemotional intelligencea mode of intelligence that places emotion, and/or the management of emotions, at the seat of the intellectual functioningempathy"putting yourself into someone else's shoes," reaching beyond the self to understand what another person is thinking or feelingequilibrationprogressive interior organization of knowledge in a stepwise fashion; moving from states of doubt and uncertainty (disequilibrium) to stages of resolution and certainty (equilibrium)error analysisthe study of learners' ill-formed production (spoken or written) in an effort to discover systematicityexplicit correctionan indication to a student that a form is incorrect and providing a corrected formexplicit knowledgeinformation that a person knows about language, and usually, the ability to articulate that informationexplicit learningacquisition of linguistic competence with conscious awareness of, or focal attention on, the forms of language, usually in the context of instructionextent[error analysis] the rank of linguistic unit that would have to be deleted, replaced, supplied, or reordered in order to repair the sentenceextrinsic motivationchoices made and effort expended on activities in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the selfextroversionthe extent to which a person has a deep-seated need to receive ego enhancement, self-esteem, and a sense of wholeness from other people, as opposed to receiving that affirmation within oneselffacilitative anxiety"helpful" anxiety, euphoric tension, or the beneficial effects of apprehension over a task to be accomplishedfield dependencethe tendency to be "dependent" on the total field so that the parts embedded in the field are not easily perceived, although that total field is perceived more clearly as a unified wholefluencythe unfettered flow of language production or comprehension usually without focal attention on language formsform-focused instruction (FFI)any pedagogical effort used to draw a learner's attention to language form either implicitly or explicitlyforms[language] the "bits and pieces" of language, such as morphemes, words, grammar rules, discourse rules, and other organizational elements of languagefossilizationrelatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competenceglobal erroran error that hinders communication or prevents a hearer (or reader) from comprehending some aspect of a messageGrammar Translation Methoda language teaching method in which the central focus is on grammatical rules, paradigms, and vocabulary memorization as the basis for translating from one language to anotherhemisphereleft or right half of the brain, each performing different categories of neurological functionsillocutionary competencethe ability to send and receive intended meaningsimplicit knowledgeacquisition of linguistic competence without intention to learn and without focal awareness of what has been learnedimpulsive stylethe tendency to make quick decisions in answer to problems sometimes, but not always, those decisions involve risk-taking or guessingincidental learningleaning without central attention to forminductive reasoningrecalling a number of specific instances in order to induce a general law or rule or conclusion that governs or subsumes the specific instancesinhibitionapprehension over one's self-identity or fear of showing self-doubt, leading to building mechanisms of protective self-defenseinitiation[conversation] beginning an oral exchange; *topic nomination*inner circlecountries traditionally considered to be dominated by native speakers of English, e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealandinputthe process of comprehending language (listening and reading)instrumental orientationacquiring a language as a means for attaining instrumental goals, such as acquiring a degree or certificate in an academic institution, furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, etc.integrative orientationlearning a language in order to integrate oneself into the culture of a second language group and become involved in social interchange in that groupinterferencenegative transfer in which a previous item is incorrectly transferred or incorrectly associated with an item to be learnedInterlingual transferthe effect of one language (usually the first) on another (usually the second)interruption[conversation] breaking in and "taking the floor"intralingual transferthe effect of forms of one language (usually the target language) on other forms within the same languageintrinsic motivationchoices made and effort expended on activities for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itselfkinesthetic learning stylethe tendencylanguage acquisition devicean innate, metaphorical "mechanism" in young children's brains that predisposes them to acquire languagelanguage anxietya feeling of worry experienced in relation to a foreign language, either trait or state in naturelanguage aptitudeinherent ability, either learned or innate, and separate from knowledge of a particular language, to acquire foreign languageslanguage egothe identity a person develops in reference to the language he or she speakslocal erroran error that does not prevent a message from being understood, usually due to a minor violation of one segment of a sentence, allowing the hearer/reader to make an accurate guess about the intended meaningmeaningful learninganchoring and relating new items and experiences knowledge that exists in the cognitive frameworkMetacognitive Strategiesstrategic options that relate to one's "executive" functions; Strategies that involve planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one's production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completedmetalinguistic feedbackresponses to a learner's output that provide comments, information, or questions related to the linguistics form(s) of the learner's utterancemotivationthe anticipation of reward, whether internally or externally administered; choices made about goals to pursue and the effort exerted in their completionmultiple intelligencesassociated with Gardner, the hypothesis that intelligence is not unitary, but has multiple modesnativista school of thought that rests on the assertion that language acquisition is innately (genetically) determined, and that human beings are therefore predisposed to a systematic perception of languageNatural Approacha language teaching method that stimulates child language acquisition by emphasizing communication, comprehensible input, kinesthetic activities, and virtually no grammatical analysisnoticingthe learner's paying attention to specific linguistic features in inputnotional-functional syllabusA language course that attends primarily to functions as organizing elements of a foreign language curriculum.operant conditioningconditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant responseouter circlecountries that use English as a common lingua franca and in which English is for many people nativized, e.g., India, Singapore, the Philippines, Nigeria, Ghanaoutputthe process of producing language (speaking and writing)overgeneralizationthe process of generalizing a particular rule or item in the second language, irrespective of the native language, beyond conventional rules or boundariesovert erroran error that is unquestionably ungrammatical at the sentence levelparameterscharacteristics of human language (in Universal Grammar) that vary across languages; built-in options, settings, or values that allow for cross-linguistic variationperformanceone's actual "doing" of language in the form of speaking and writing (production) and listening and reading (comprehension)peripheral attentionattending to stimuli that are not in focal, central attention, but rather on the "periphery"postsystematic stagea stage in which the learner has relatively few errors and has mastered the system to the point that fluency and intended meanings are not problematic; stabilizationpower distancethe extent to which a culture accepts hierarchical power structures and considers them to be normalpragmatic competencethe ability to produce and comprehend functional and sociolinguistic aspects of language; illocutionary competencepragmaticsconventions for conveying and interpreting the meaning of linguistic strings within their contexts and settingsprefabricated patternsmemorized chunks of language—words, phrases, short sentences—the component parts of which the speaker is unawarepresystematic erroran error in which the learner is only vaguely aware that there is some systematic order to a particular class of items; random errorrecastan implicit type of corrective feedback that reformulates or expands an ill-formed or incomplete utterance in an unobtrusive wayreflective stylethe tendency to take a relatively long time to make a decision or solve a problem, sometimes in order to weigh options before making a decisionregistera set of language variants commonly identified by certain phonological features, vocabulary, idioms, and/or other expressions that are associated with an occupational or socioeconomic grouprepetition[error treatment] the sequential reiteration of an ill-formed part of a S's utterance by T; reiteration by S of the correct form as a result of T feedback, sometimes including incorporation of the correct form in a longer utterancerisk takingwillingness to gamble, to try out hunches about a language with the possibility of being wrongrote learningthe process of mentally storing facts, ideas, or feelings having little or no association with existing cognitive structureself-efficacybelief in one's own capabilities to successfully perform an activityself-esteemself-appraisal, self-confidence, knowledge of oneself, usually categorized into global, situational/specific, and task self-esteemSeries Methodlanguage teaching method created by Gouin, in which learners practiced a number of connected "series" of sentences, which together formed a meaningful story or sequence of eventssocial distancethe cognitive and affective proximity of two cultures that come into contact within an individualsocioaffective strategiesstrategic options relating to social-mediating activity and interacting with otherssociolinguistic competenceability to use or apply sociocultural rules of discourse in a languagespeech actscommunicative behaviors used systematically to accomplish particular purposesstate anxietya relatively temporary feeling of worry experienced in relation to some particular event or act, as opposed to trait anxietystrategic competencethe ability to use strategies to compensate for imperfect knowledge of rules or performance limitations; the ability to assess a communicative context and plan and execute production responses to accomplish intended purposesstrategies-based instructionteaching learners with an emphasis on the strategic options that are available for learning; usually implying the teacher's facilitating awareness of those options in the learner and encouraging strategic actionsubsumptionthe process of relating and anchoring new material to relevant established entities in cognitive structure (see meaningful learning)task-based instructionan approach to language teaching that focuses on tasks (see task)terminationin a conversation, strategies for ending the conversationtopic clarificationin a conversation, asking questions to remove perceived ambiguities in another's utterancetopic developmentmaintaining a topic in a conversationtopic nominationproposing a topic for discussion in a conversationTotal Physical Response (TPR)a language teaching method relying on physical or kinesthetic movement accompanied by language practicetrait anxietya relatively permanent predisposition to be anxious about a number of things, as opposed to state anxietytransferthe carryover of previous performance or knowledge to previous or subsequent learningturn-takingin a conversation, conventions in which participants allow appropriate opportunities for others to talk, or "take the floor"uncertainty avoidancethe extent to which people within a culture are uncomfortable with situations they perceive as unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable; cultural ambiguity intoleranceuptakea student utterance that immediately follows a teacher's feedback and that constitutes a reaction in some way to the teacher's intention to draw attention to some aspect of the student's initial utteranceU-shaped learningthe phenomenon of moving from a correct form to an incorrect form and than back to correctnesswillingness to communicatean underlying continuum representing the predisposition toward or away from communicating, given the choiceworld Englishesvarieties of English spoken and written in many different countries around the worldzone of proximal developmentthe distance between a learner's existing developmental state and his or her potential developmentachievement testan instrument used to determine whether course objectives have been met - and appropriate knowledge and skills acquired - by the end of a given period of instructionadjunct model[content-based language teaching] linking subject-matter teachers and language Ts in content-based coursesagencya person's ability to make choices, take control, self-regulate, and thereby pursue goals as an individual, leading potentially to personal or social transformationautomaticitythe act of processing input and giving output without deliberation or hesitation in real-time speedbottom-up processinga focus on the "bits and pieces" of language, breaking language into component parts and giving them central focus, eventually working toward meaningbrainstormingopen-ended rapid-fire voluntary oral or written listing of ideas with no debate or evaluation by othersComputer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)the subfield of applied linguistics concerned with the use of computers for teaching and learning a second languageClassical Methoda language teaching method in which the focus is on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary and other language forms, translation of texts, and performing written exercisescollocationa sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chancecomposingthe thinking, drafting, and revising procedures involved in planned writingComputer-Mediated Communication (CMC)Communication through the use of two or more electronic devices such as computers, tablet PCs, and smart phones.concordancingIndexing of words that enables one to reference words in the multiple possible contexts in which they appear in spoken or written languageconsciousness-raisingdrawing students' attention to formal elements of language within the context of meaningful communication and tasksconstruct validity[assessment] the extent to which a test actually taps into the theoretical construct that it proposes to assesscontent schematawhat we know about people, the world, culture, and the universecontent validity[assessment] the extent to which test tasks actually sample the subject matter about which conclusions are to be drawncontent-based language teaching (CBLT)an umbrella term for a multifaceted approach to L2 language teaching that integrates language teaching aims with content instructioncontrolled writingTs typically present a short text to Ss in which they must alter a given structure throughoutcooperative learningmodel of education in which Ss work together in pairs and groups, share information, and come to each other's aidcorpus-based learningusing corpora to inform curriculum and lesson designscriterion-referenced testdesigned to give test-takers feedback on specific course or lesson objectivescross-linguistic influence (CLI)a concept that recognizes the significance of the role of the L1 and subsequent languages in learning an additional language, but with an emphasis on both the facilitating and interfering effects the two languages have on each otherdiagnostic testan assessment instrument designed to analyze a test-taker's strengths and weaknesses in terms of grammar, pronunciation, fluency, discourse, or other targeted linguistic featuresdialogue journalS records thoughts, feelings, and reactions and an instructor reads and respondsdictocompa paragraph is read at normal speed 2-3 times, then students rewrite the paragraph to the best of their recollectiondirective[approaches to teaching] T is more in control of lessons than Ssdiscovery learningthe concept that when learners are spurred to induce language or other contentdiscrete point testingassessment on the assumption that language could be broken down into its component parts and those parts adequately testeddisplay questionan attempt to elicit information already known by Tdrilla mechanical technique focusing on a minimal number of language forms through repetitionexperimental learninginstruction that highlights giving Ss concrete experiences in which they must use language in order to fulfill the objectives of a lessonextensive readingthe process of achieving a general understanding of a relatively long textface validity[assessment] the extent to which a test, on the "face" of it, appears from the learner's perspective to test what it is designed to testFocus on Form (FonF)an approach that attempts to induce learners' incidental learning by drawing their attention to target forms while they are engaged in communicative activitiesformal assessmentDeliberate, planned assessment using scoring and grading criteria and usually with conventionalized feedback.formal schemataknowledge about language and discourse structureformative assessmentOngoing informal evaluation serving the purpose of facilitating improvement in a student's performancefreewritingWriting simply to start the flow of writing, with little thought to grammaticality, spelling, logical thinking, or organization.gate-keepingThe extent to which tests control entry and exit into and from educational, political, social, and commercial entities.genre-based pedagogyA focus on discipline-specific genres, such as laboratory reports, travel brochures, financial reports, essays, or newspaper articlesguided writingTs provide a series of stimulators, which enables them to tell a story just viewed on a videotapehapticsany form of nonverbal communication involving touch, also known as kinestheticsimmersionEducational model that typically provides the majority of subject-matter content through the medium of the L2.informal assessmentIncidental, unplanned evaluation usually embedded in classroom tasks, and usually designed to elicit improved performance.input enhancementHighlighting, boldfacing, or otherwise calling attention to certain target grammatical forms in a reading text.input hypothesisthe claim that linguistic input is sufficient for L2 acquisitionintegrative testingA view of testing that incorporated the whole of a communicative event, considered to be greater than the sum of its linguistic elements.intensive readingusually a classroom-oriented activity in which students focus on the linguistic or semantic details of a passage.intercultural competenceAbility to understand, empathize with, and/or function in a culture or cultures other than one's L1 culture.interlanguagelearner language that emphasizes the separateness of a second language learner's system, a system that has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languagesinterlingual transferthe effect of one language on anotherinvestmentcommitment and motivation to accomplish major goals; learners are seeking to increase the "value" of their cultural capitallanguage policyOfficial statements by governmental or educational instituitions that declare the status, use, and teaching of a language within a political or geographical entity.macroskillsSkills that are technically at the discourse level.MALL (Mobile Assisted Language Learning)The use of mobile technologies (e.g., smart phones, tablets) for language learning, especially in situations where device portability offers particular advantagesmeaningful drillsTechniques with a predicted or a limited set of possible responses relating to some form of reality.mechanical drillsTechniques that require only one correct response from a student without connection with reality.mediationutilizing a concept or idea to act as an intermediary between otherwise difficult or unrelatable cognitive/linguistic constructs in order to achieve meaning or communicative goals; the process of assisting learning through scaffolding and other means that help learners to reach their goalsmicroskillsSkills that are at the sentence level.needs assessmenta systematic process for determining and addressing needs, overall purposes, or "gaps" that the course is intended to fill, and the opinions of both course designers and Ss about their reasons for developing/taking the coursenegotiationthe act or process of reaching an agreement, usually involving linguistic exchanges, as in the give-and-take of conversationnorm-referenced testInstrument in which each test-taker's score is interpreted in relation to a mean, media, standard deviation, and/or percentile rank.pedagogical tasksAny of a sequence of techniques designed ultimately to teach students to perform the target task.performance-based assessmentThe test taker (or classroom student) must engage in actual performance of the specified linguistic objective.placement testAn assessment instrument specifically designed to determine test takers' levels of ability among two or more course levels in an educational program.practicality[assessment] extent to which an instrument is within desirable financial limitations, time constraints, and ease of administration, scoring, and interpretationproficiency testan assessment of one's general language ability, irrespective of any one course or curriculumreal writingThe reader does not know the answer (to a question or problem) and genuinely wants information, as opposed to display writing.referential questionRequest for information not known by the questionerreliability[assessment] the consistency and dependability of an assessment instrumentrubricsSpecified categories, which break down a skill into several components, for scoring or evaluating language performance.scaffoldingthe process of supporting learners' progression toward goals by providing hints, clues, reminders, examples, steps to solving a problem, encouragement, and other aidsschema theoryThe concept that information is stored in long-term memory in networks of connected facts, concepts, and structures, which learners bring to bear on comprehension and production of language.self-actualizationreaching the pinnacle of one's potential; the culmination of human attainmentself-determinationone's own choice to make an effort because of what he or she will gain, either in the short term or long runself-regulationdeliberate goal-directed attempts to manage and control efforts to learn the L2semantic mappingGrouping ideas from a text into meaningful clusters, connecting those clusters in a visual diagram.sheltered modelsthe deliberate separation of L2 students from native speakers of the target language for the purpose of content instructionSilent WayA language teaching method that encouraged inductive learning, engaging in problem solving, and relating physical objects to the new language.SQ3Ra pedagogical set of procedures for approaching a reading text involving: survey, question, read, recite, reviewstrategic investmentA certain degree of investment of one's time and effort into using effective strategies for accomplishing L2 goals.SuggestopediaA language teaching method that contended that the human brain could process great quantities of materials in a (suggested) state of relaxation and yielding control to the teacher.summative assessmentEvaluation of the final products, performances, and usually end-of-course or end-of unit overall evaluationTask-Based Language Teaching (TBLT)an approach to language instruction that focuses on taskstheme-based instructionAn organizing framework for a language course that transcends formal or structural requirements in a curriculum and focuses on meaningful topics as organizing elements of units and lessons.top-down processingactivation of schemata to deriving meaning, global understanding, and interpretation of a texttransactional dialogueTwo or more speakers' exchanges to convey propositional or factual information.validity(of a test) the degree to which a test actually measures what it is intended to measurevocational L2 instructionpart of an adult education program that provides pre-employment language training, typically including basic academic language skills along with specialized occupational contextswashbackThe effects, both beneficial and detrimental, of an assessment on teaching and learning prior to and after the assessment itself.whole language educationAn emphasis on the interconnections between oral and written language and the integration of all four skills.