Training and development is at the heart of:
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❑ Due to increasing international competition in today's economy, companies must empower their employees and develop skills to maximize productivity and profits.

❑ The fast-moving, ever changing global economy calls for a new work order and requires a flexible, multi-skilled, knowledgeable and adaptable workforce at all levels.

❑ Employee development prepares an employee for jobs in the future.
❑ All resources and processes are managed within a single entity, reporting to one senior
executive or leadership team.

❑ The principal advantage of this model is the consistency it provides in the management of training processes across the enterprise.

❑ It is typically employed within small organizations that lack distributed facilities that span geographic locations.
Decentralized Training Organization❑ The training function is operated independently by certain entities throughout an enterprise. ❑ Many such organizations operate separate training departments for IT, manufacturing, sales, HR and other business groups and corporate divisions. ❑ Each decentralized training department has its own executive or leadership team that develops customized content for its specific audiences.Federated Model❑ Centralizes certain processes of the training function within the enterprise and decentralizes others. ❑ Companies most commonly employ the federated model by centralizing processes associated with training administration while decentralizing processes for content development and delivery. ❑ Combines the principal advantages offered by the other two models, a principal reason the federated model has become popular among large companies.Advantages of training and development❑ Helps employees develop new skills and increases their knowledge. ❑ Improves efficiency and productivity of the individuals as well as the teams. ❑ Proper training and development can remove bottle-necks in operations. ❑ New & improved job positions can be created to make the organization leaner. ❑ Keeps employees motivated and refreshes their goals, ambitions and contribution levels.Disadvantages of training and development❑ It is an expensive process which includes arranging the correct trainers and engaging employees for non-revenue activities. ❑ There is a risk that after the training and development session, the employee can quit the job