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Terms in this set (73)
the study of mental operations through the construction and testing of neural networks
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
a computer simulation of how populations of real neurons might perform some tasks.
A type of information processing where one computation is performed at a time. The results of one computation typically serve as the input for the next
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
a type of information processing where large numbers of computing units perform their calculations simultaneously. Computational units can receive and process multiple inputs and transmit multiple outputs.
a type of problem solving method in which one conceptualizes the problem and its solution in terms of symbols and transformations on the symbols; representative of the traditional or classical approach in cognitive science.
A type of problem-solving method in which a network is allowed to produce a solution on its own. This does not involve the use of symbols. It is representative of the connectionist approach in cognitive science
A coding in which an object or feature is represented by a pattern of activation among a group of cells or nodes
Representation in the form of activation or activity in a single node in a network
A representation of a concept or element in the world
Values on links that determine the strength between nodes. They can range in value from -1.0 to +1.0
The connection between each node in an artificial network
According to Hebb, a small group of neurons that repeatedly stimulate one another.
According to Hebb, a group of connected cell assemblies that fire together or close in time
Artificial neural networks that detect and recognize information about the world, store this information, and use it in some fashion. They are characterized by the ability to learn from experience and can alter their connection strengths.
A corrective mechanism that compares actual with desired output and generates an error signal.
The second layer of a three-layer network where the input layer sends its signals, performs intermediary processing
The first layer of a three-layer network that receives stimulus input and where the stimulus is represented.
The third layer of a three-layer network. This generates a representation of the response based on inputs from the hidden layer.
In artificial neural networks, the difference between the actual and observed output. The error signal is used to alter connection strengths and train the network
back-propagation/generalized delta rule
A way of training a network by repeatedly applying error feedback to alter connection strengths. The feedback is the difference between the actual and the desired output.
The idea that artificial neural networks effectively represent and model the characteristics of real-world brains
A slow and gradual decrease in the performance of a network with decreased damage.
The inability of a network to distinguish similar patterns from one another
The ability to apply a learned rule to a novel situation.
the state of a network represented by how the values of its weights change over time
This occurs when a network has learned to recognize an old set of patterns and then is called on to learn a new set. The learning of the new set modifies the weights of the network in such a way that the old set is forgotten
A scenario where a network should be plastic to store novel input patterns. At the same time, it should be stable to protect previously encoded patterns from being erased
These are networks that are presented with target answers for each pattern they receive as input. The network "knows" what the right answer is on each training trial
A network where each node has a specific meaning and, therefore, employs local representation of concepts
The activity that spreads outward from nodes along links to activate other nodes
A phenomenon in which an item related to one that was memorized can lead to succesful recall
Occurs when processing of a stimulus is facilitated by the prior presentation of a related stimulus
A semantic network where concept nodes are arranged in different levels along a continuum from abstract to concrete.
A procedure in which participants judge the truth or falsity of sentences by pushing one of two buttons
A level of concept category organization of moderate specificity
The most abstract form of conceptual category organization that encompasses all examples of the concept
The most concrete or specific form of conceptual category organization.
A generic or idealized representation of a conceptual category
the principle that concepts should not have to be coded for more times than necessary.
A link in a propositional network that represents relationships of belonging
A link in a propositional network that represents property relationships
A robotic architecture that employs a combination of reactive behaviors and planning or other cognitive components
A link in a propositional network that specifies the subject of the sentence, the one performing some action.
A link in a propositional network that denotes the object or thing to which an action is directed
A link in a propositional network specifying the type of relation between agent and object
referring to an entire category
referring to a specific instance of category; an identification symbol that is useful for symbolic manipulation of knowledge
This is an acronym for "tip of the tongue," meaning one feels familiarity with an item but cannot quite recall it
degree of fan
a concept that is related to many others has a high degree of fan. The node representing the concept will subsequently have many links radiating outward from it to other nodes.
A forceful or willed search for a memory item based on intelligence and reasoning
when recall of an item from memory is based on guided search and subject to bias by subsequent information
The scientific interdisciplinary study of how complex networks operate
how a network coordinates information. This can be accomplished through a leader that receives information, evaluates it, and issues commands
cells in the primary visual cortex that code for oriented line segments
cells in the visual system that code for an oriented line segment moving in a particular direction
cells in the visual system that code for angles (two conjoined oriented line segments) moving in a particular direction
any network where the number of links between any pair of nodes is few
Networks where the connections are entirely local and can, therefore, be both short and long distance
all the connections are local. nodes are connected only to other nodes in their immediate neighborhood.
A type of small-world network that contains mostly local short-distance connections with a few random long-distance connections
A type of small-world network where long-distance connections between nodes are the result of hubs
Nodes that have many more links than the rest of the network's nodes
the principle by which nodes turn into hubs. Those with more links will gradually be linked to more often because they serve as good portals to gain access to large numbers of other nodes.
the ability of the brain to recover and reorganize following injury, primarily by rerouting or regrowth of damaged pathways
the probability that two nodes linked to a third will also be linked to each other. This network statistic reflects the interconnectedness of neighborhoods.
coordinated patterns of network activity. the firing rate of distant nodes can synchronize, as can more complicated frequency and timing relationships
the propagation of a signal through a network. For example, the way in which a disease can travel through a social network, infecting other individuals.
a single giant group of susceptible sites connected by open bonds that occupies the majority of the network.
an uncontrolled surge of synchronous electrical activity in the brain
A symptom of schizophrenia characterized by a loose association between ideas. It can manifest as "word salad" in which concepts are not clearly related to each other
a style of thinking where the goal is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time
what happens when one is presented with an idea and asked to produce whatever related ideas come to mind without censoring or inhibiting
affect infusion model
A model developed to explain the conditions under which emotions and moods infuse (influence) cognitive processing
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