Given: Although inflammation and thrombosis have long been regarded as separate physiologic mechanisms, research of the past decade has revealed that inflammatory processes drive the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis. This is exemplified by the scheme above, which shows a blood vessels with representation of the cooperation between platelets and leukocytes in the development of venous thrombosis. Initially regarded as a respiratory disease, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 is also a disease of the blood vessels and is particularly harmful to the microvascular beds that are important for organ function.
Below is a story about this interplay between inflammation and thrombosis, which needs to be completed. Please choose the correct keywords from the table below and fill in the gaps in the text.
abnormal blood flow
Pathologic conditions in the blood vessel can cause thrombosis. Which aspact of Virchow's triad is most strongly involved in the thrombotic complication of COVID-19? ---
This aspect results in an activation of the cells that line the blood vessel, namely the ---. These cells will produce adhesion molecules e.g. --- which support the rolling of the white blood cells over the vessel wall, and e.g. --- that mediates stable arrest of leukocytes. The two main leukocyte subtypes (A and B in scheme) that are involved in the pathogenesis of thrombosis are the --- and ---. From their so called Weibei-Palade bodies, the cells of the lining of the vessel wall also release ---, causing the arrest of blood platelets. Also inflammatory signal molecules, called --- are released from the cells of the vessel wall. The platelets and the adherent leukocytes cooperate to support the coagulation reaction e.g. by the release of DNA and polyphosphate, negatively charged polymers that catalyse the activation of coagulation factor ---, the first step of the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Ultimately, this leads to the formation of a blood clot consisting of red blood cells, platelets and the insoluble protein ---.