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narrative identity (mcadams)
Terms in this set (73)
-evolving story of self
-life with unity, purpose and meaning
-reconstruction of past & imagined future
narrative identities are a psychosocial challenge which emerge in _________ and are an ongoing process.
the notion of narrative identities emerged in the ________ through narrative approaches to self in behavioural and social sciences.
the concept of narrative identity is based on eriksons concept of __________.
MacIntyre (moral direction) and Ricoeur (unity in time of human lives) were philosophers that wrote about the ________.
power of narrative
McAdams sees the identity as an _________ or personal myth which develops in late-adolescent years. It can be seen as an internalised evolving tale with characters.
according to spence, the stories told in therapy say more about how the client conveys a __________ regarding who they were, is and will be.
in the beginning of 1980s, social scientists argued that people employ stories to make sense of ____________ which evolves over time.
goal-directed human behaviour
according to ________ the conception of identity statuses focuses on processes of exploration and commitment.
in terms of analysing narrative products, murray investigated autobiographical vignettes and imaginative stories in response to pictures and developed the ____________.
thematic apperception test (TAT)
mccleland conducted content analytic procedures and coded _____________ in TAT stories.
mcadams analysed life-stories in terms of _____________ related to agency, communion, narrative complexity and coherence.
salience of motivational themes
________ conception of narrative identity includes:
-challenge of ego identity
-influence by society
-status of adulthood through establishment of ego identity
-seeing life in retrospect and prospect
the first perspective of narrative identity is that life stories are integrative ______________ with staying power.
the second perspective of narrative identity is that personal stories are less integrative and more ephemeral. people therefore perform narrative idetntities in particular social situations and the self is constantly revised. a fragmentation and _______________ takes place.
multiplicity of self
___________ sees identity as a novel with different voices of the self, like characters in a story, identity evolving through internalised dialogue. (second perspective)
according to _________ people construct multiform narrative identities with opposing images to self due to a complex and inconsistent social life.
___________ consists of broad dispositional traits such as extraversion or neuroticism (consistency in behaviour). (mcadams & pals; three layers of human personality)
__________ consists of values, goals, personal projects & defenses which is the socially contextualised and motivational aspect of the psyche. (mcadams & pals; three layers of human personality)
__________ forms the narrative identity which develops from adolescence, layered over adaptations and traits. (mcadams & pals; three layers of human personality)
according to james, the ___________ emerges in 2 year-old children, where fixed traits develop.
self as actor
according to james, the _____________ emerges in 4-5 year-old children due to development of theory of mind. children see themselves as motivated agents with goals, plans desires etc.
self as agent
according to james, the ________ emerges in adolescence, where the me is fitted into a self-defining story.
self as author
in ________ imitation and attention are the first building blocks of narrative identity. they recognize human beings as intentional agents with goals.
at __________ storytelling emerges as well as the autobiographical self. they have sense of themselves as agents in social words. they begin to encode, collect and narrate autobiographical memories.
2 years old
at ___________ develop a theory mind, understanding human behaviour driven by internal desires and beliefs. they interpret actions of others and oneself.
at 3-4 years children develop a theory of mind. autistic children display a phenomenon called ___________ due to them not understanding people as intentional characters.
at __________ children understand that stories are set in a particular time and place, involving characters acting upon their desires and beliefs. they have expectations toward stories (e.g. suspense and curiosity, correct grammar, generic script)
5 years old
at ___________ children start narrating own personal experiences. they know the structure and contents of a good story and internalise cultures norms and expectations about what the story of a human life should contain.
elementary school age
in elementary school years children acquire a _____________. this includes that certain phases of life are defined by cultural norms, and children see how events might be sequenced and linked (they do not craft casual narratives however)
cultural concept of biography
___________ in life narratives explains how one event caused, led up etc. to another meaningful event. for example, a girl explains why she is shy around boys by referring to past experiences.
___________ refers to an overaching theme, value of principle that integrates different episodes in a persons life and conveys what they are and what their biography is about.
in ____________ narratives take form in fantasies, diaries, or other self-expressions. in modern socieities, teachers, parents etc. urge adolescents to think about who they are and what they want to become.
teens & 20s
elkind sees early drafts of narrative identity as ___________. they are tales of personal greatness and tragedy (e.g. I will find the perfect love; nobody will ever understand me) which will develop to be more grounded in reality.
__________ is a criterion of maturity and identity in social life. stories should be based on real facts (psycho-literary resources) but it is more important to tell a good story with help of imagination.
_________ is the tedency for older adults to recall a number of life events from late-adolescent, emerging adulthood years (15-30), especially highly emotional memories.
explanations for the phenomenon of ___________ is the disproportionate number of momentous life events in adolescent / emerging adulthood years, and the development of narrative identity.
in ____________ parents encourage children to talk about personal experiences. they stimulate child's recollection and telling of past and remind child of recent events.
initial conversational scaffolding
in presence of parents, ___________ actively co-construct their past in conversations.
in preschool years, children coherently report past experiences, indepdendent of ________.
children develop richer ______________ when parents ask them to reflect and elaborate personal experiences.
mothers encourage daughters more than sons to share emotional experiences. as a result, girls use more ___________ than boys.
narrative identity develops in eriksons phase of ______________. according to erikson identity is a stage to be explored and resolved. however, on a more modern account of identity it is a project to be worked on for the rest of the life course.
identity vs. role confusion
high levels of __________ lead to a construction of narratives with a negative emotional tone.
high levels of __________ express themes of communion.
___________ is associated with life stories where good events suddenly go bad.
__________ is associated with themes of agency.
recovery from depression
__________ is a method encouraging older adults to relive and reflect upon past events in therapy. clients are taught to reminisce productively and reflect upon meaning about events.
life review as a method can improve _____________ and relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety among older adults.
highly religious christians & political conservatives express narrative identities connected to authority, personal discipline and ________.
purity of self
life narratives of christians are expressed through _______________ and self-expansion.
life narratives of conservatives are expressed through _____________ and conflict.
fear of chaos
life narratives of liberals are expressed through _____________.
fear of emptiness
in the ____________ study by mcadams students were asked to recall and describe 10 key scenes in life stories on three occasions.
results of the longitudinal study by mcadams included that 28% of episodic memories described at t1 were mentioned 3 months later (t2). 3 years after assessment ___________ of the original (t1) memories were described.
in mcadams longitudinal study, consistencies were found in __________________ qualities. furthermore, rising complexity of stories insinuated personal growth and integration.
emotional & motivational
_____________ is the tendency to draw summary conclusions about self from autobiographical episodes. it implies a greater casual and thematic coherence for life.
autobiographical reasoning of turning points in life increases with age up to midlife. middle aged adults have a more _____________ approach to life storytelling.
interpretive and psychologically sophisticated
a higher age (50+ adults) is associated with a narration of self-defining memories in a more _____________ and greater integrative meaning compared to college students.
positive narrative tone
regarding the use of language, adults use a more positive and fewer negative ___________ which demonstrates greater levels of cognitive complexity.
there is a _____________ among older adults, meaning they tell life stories more positively.
positivity memory bias
_________ report an earlier age of first memory and have longer and more detailed memories of childhood than chinese, japanese and korean adults.
____________ have more memories of individual experiences, focus on own roles and emotions.
___________ recall memories of social and historical events, have a greater focus on social interactions and significant others in stories.
when ______________ are fulfilled, the narratives focus on uniqueness.
when ____________ are fulfilled, the narratives are a guide for social conduct.
according to confucian tradition, the highest purpose in life is _______. it is the blending of benevolence, moral vitality and sensitive concern for others.
the __________ by mcadams is a life narrative with 'heroic individual protagonists'
___________ are narratives of success, recovery, development and liberation.
midlife american adults who score high on ___________ (strong commitment of promoting well-being of future generations) tend to see their own lifes as redemption.
the redemptive self is a narrative model of __________ for productive and caring midlife american adults.
the good life
generative men or women confer a ___________ to life. they operate from moral perspective, seek to affirm moral goodness and identity quests.
the life stories of 'redemption' are constructed as follows:
(a) from suffering to enhanced status
(b) spcial advantage or blessing
(c) express sensitivity of suffering of others
(d) clear and strong value system
(e) significant conflict between agency and communion
(f) achieve goals to benefit society in future
redemptive self by mc adams
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