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Terms in this set (50)
what is government?
The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. it's the totality of state services.
what does every regime need?
organization - administrative, advisory and executing - that provides (semi)public goods through policies and programmes and ensures that people contribute to that provision through contributions.
with what is PA concerned as an academic discipline?
with the organization of government policies and porgrams as well as the behavior of officials (usually) non-elected formally responsible for their conduct.
what did Frederick the Great do?
he appointed the first university professorates in what was called Cameralism to study the government apparatus and to train a new class of public administrators.
What did Napoleon do with PA?
he tried to improve the administration and the territories he occopied.
what was the central PA question in England accorrding to Wilson?
how to curb the executive power of government.
Why was Wilson's PA special?
Because he distinguished it from politics and law. he emphasized that OA is a means of putting politics into practice, implementing laws, and organizing and managing the public sector. he found that government should be organized in a way that made the public offical serve the interest of the public (not his superior) to the best of his ability.
what is the classic view of PA?
being of service to the public. PA studies how the public sector serves the public good through developing and implementing public polciies and how this can be done effectively, legitimately and rationally in order to optimize serving the public good.
What was Herbert Simon theory of bounded rationality?
he challenged the notion that self-interested actors will always try to make optimal choices for themselves. insted most people, including government officials, will settle for decisions that are satisficing; decisions where the benefits outweigh the costs even though other choices are more profitable.
what is satisficing?
decisions where the benefits outweigh the costs and are therfore accepted even if other options would've been better.
what is Elenor Ostrom's theory of tragedy of the commons?
collective action is necessary in the management of common pool resources (primarily natural resources). they're like public goods, but are difficult to manage as they face overuse, depletion or congestion.
what is value-relativism?
anything goes and all options are equally good.
Why is the UDHR important?
it recognizes the inherent dignity of all humans and establishes equal and inalienable rights for all people. it also translates this into actions required of governments and limits public interference when it violates human rights.
on what duality of power is government based?
on the one hand the leaders attempt to keep their power and their willingness to initiate social cpnflicts over that power; and on the other the justified necessity for govenrment of a population that accepts that power (government authority) because it receives public goods in return.
what are sister disciplines of PA?
political science, sociology, economics, law and management.
what is a theocracy?
a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god
what are the reasons for the existence of government?
1. the nature of human kind
2. religious convictions
3. the evolution of civilization
4. coercion/use of force
5. historical perspective
6. the provision of public goods that resolve collective problems
what is Mosca's view on humanity?
men have an instinct of herding together and fighting with other herds.
what is Aristotle's view on humanity?
men is by nature a political animal. some seek power while others seek the protection that this power provides. it's in humanity's best interest ton form primitive or more extensive kinds of governments. rulers are legitimate as long as they take care of the interests of the ruled.
what is the social-identity theory?
people need to identify with a group for their self-esteem, and hierarchy and power within these groups is accepted as long as this contributes to their identity vis-a-vis other groups.
what is the social dominance theory?
humans have a biological drive for social inequality and an evolutionary past that predisposes them towards hierarchy and competition between groups. every individual has an attration to authoritarian social relations, and a tendency to buy in the legitimating myths deployed to defend them.
what is the social-justification theory?
individuals need social structures in order to legitimize them. individuals want to support the status quo and see it as being there for good reason.
how did religious states come to be?
the belief in natural laws and divine order, substantiated by holy books, supported the idea that leadership was the instrument of divine order to enforce divine laws. religious leaders helt authority based on divine command.
what was the requirement to be muftahid?
possessing the ability to mobilize an army and defend the frontiers and handle the affairs of muslims.
how did the evolution of civilizations affect government?
the evolution of nomadic life to settlers and later the emergence of trade and te division of labor resulted in the emergence of cities. increasing population density created more collective problems and the need of an authority to solve those problems and conflicts. functions previously handled by kinship were transferred to a non-kinship structure = structural differentation. later conquests of cities by another resulted in the emergence of city states with kings/emperors ruling over a number of cities and the surrounding land.
How did coercion/force influence the emergence of government?
govenrment was forced on people thorugh violent actions or the threat of violence. weaker individuals lost to stronger ones who can then impose their will on the weaker. the loser lacks the means to oppose the government and is there forced to accept it. these rulers have a minimal amount of legitimacy. they also enforce collective goods, taxes and beliefs on their citizens without them wanting or needing them.
how did the provision of public goods that resolve collective problems influence the emergence of government?
not all problems are individual problems. collective actions against a collective problem requires group action, including organizaiton and management to counter the problem. organizaiton requirers leadership resulting in a government. organizations exist to fulfill a purpose that a group of people have in common (Laksi). people join in taking responsibility for a public good, this requires organization and leadership, and the new entity deminishes the orginal problem.
What was Hobbe's warning in Leviathan?
that if people didng't organize. there would be a continuous struggle of all against all, which be detrimental for all.
What are the four types of political regimes? (Finer)
1. club type (interest group dominance)
2. forum type (democracies)
3. temple type (religious states)
4. palace type (kingdoms)
what is a state?
a state has a population, territory, sovereignty and government
what is population?
a group of people who live on a commonly shared territory, has complementary communication habits, as least part of a common culture and language, who have a common understanding of many things and attach shared meaning to words.
what is external sovereignty?
a nation is recognized by other nations as such. it is independent and has the right to self-govern.
what is internal sovereignty?
refers t the authority over a territory to rule and make and enforce laws.
what is authority?
refers to a claim of legitimacy by which one's power or right to give orders, to make decisions and or enforce obedience is supported. the claim of legitimacy can be found in an individuals or organizations ability to do what is adventageous for the state.
what are the basis for legitimacy?
1. traditions. in traditional authority the person with authority is the anointed leader by virtue of being the hier of a dynasty or by divine command.
2. rules and laws.
3. a position that allows anyone occupying that postion to exercise authority based on that law. rational legal authority.
what is govenrment?
it's the totality of political and administrative organizations and institutions within that nation, authorized to allocate collectively binding values and services. the govenrment decides, develops and execute public policies and thus steers a nations socioeconomic development. they often monopolize certain functions.
what is a regime?
refers to the basic mechanisms, rules and cultural and social norms that determine who is in charge of government operations.
why are political leaders legitimate in a democracy?
because individuals transfer the right of decision making to politicians through elections. the political leaders are thus legitimized to make decisions based on behalf of and for the people.
what is the palace type regime?
it's the monarch and his servnts. in its purest form, power is concentrated in the hands of one man and he isn't accountable to anyone, neither in divine power, the people or the law. rituals and symbols are important. there doesnt have to be a distinction between public and private goods.
why does an absolute monarch stand above the law?
because its in his name that laws are made
does a palace type always have a monarch?
No, it can also be a superpresidental government in which all power is concentrated in the hands of that one president. no real seperation of powers and elections are a farce.
what is the forum type?
decisions are openly discussed through the forum, the parliament or through the media. plurality exists and decision makers are accoutnable to the population, either directly to a population with political rights or indirectly through a parliament or senate. public goods are provided according to the wishes of the population and the legitimacy of their provision is based on trust and support of the ruled
what are problems with the forum type?
the possible oppression of the minority by the majority, the time it takes to make decisions and the overproduction of public goods and the costs involved in this
what is the temple type regime?
political power is based on divine rules as prescribed by ancient texts. the leaders are accountable to the divine power and restricted by the contents of the holy books with a strong legitimacy of their rule. there's no seperation of religion and government. to maximize legitimacy religious institutions will provide most public goods, not the state.
what is the club type? (nobility)
consists of people with a shared interests. belonging to and having an important postion in that group can provide a sufficient power base to rule the country. the ruling group represents a dominant, one sided interest. legitimacy is based on the assumption that if they've done well in their business or service they'll do well in govenrment.
why do regimes change?
this based on the perceived need for change and involves shifting the balance of legitimacy.
why do governments exist?
to provide public goods as a response to collective problems. through collectively binding decisions, govenrments produce public goods to which all citizens are wexpected to contribute and from which all citizens benefit without exclusion.
what is the difference between power and authority?
with authority there is an inherent inclination to accept decisions. with power the thread of fofrcec is present and people only acccept decisions because of fear.
how do most government use force?
governments establish a system of law and order and use force to upholde the law. the use of force is monopolized in police and military under control of government to maintain political stability and to protect the states against internal and external threaths.
what do all regime types require?
organization - advisory, administrative, executing - to handle provision of (semi)public goods through policies and programs and to ensure that citizens contribute to that provision.
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