Terms in this set (41)
All the populations in a defined area
A community plus all the non-living matter in the area, e.g. a forest includes not only the inhabitants but also the non-living parts of the soil.
Autotroph or Producer
Organism that makes its own organic compounds from CO2 and water, and is thus independent of other organisms for energy; includes green plants and some bacteria.
Organism that obtains its energy by feeding on other organisms.
Organism that feeds on other organisms or parts of other organisms, which it kills in the process.
Animal that feeds on plants
Animal that feeds on other animals
Animal that feeds on other animals and plants
Organism that feeds on another organism (the host) without killing it.
Organism that feeds on dead organic matter.
Energy and Nutrient flow
The energy that drives an ecosystem is ultimately converted to heat, which cannot be reused and is radiated out into space. Energy flow through an ecosystem is thus linear. Matter, on the other hand, is recycled.
A series of organisms through which energy flows; first link is always a plant.
Grazing Food chain
Food chain in which the first link is living plant matter and the second link is a herbivore.
Detritus food chain
Food chain in which the first link is dead plant matter and the second link is a decomposer
A system of interconnected food chains
Position of an organism in a food chain; plants occupy the first trophic level, herbivores the second, etc.
Semi-quantitative representation of energy flow through community, successive trophic levels being represented by blocks. Because organisms differ greatly in size, pyramids of numbers are less meaningful than pyramids of biomass. The best representation of energy flow is a pyramid of productivity.
Progressive change in the composition of a community over time, leading eventually to a stable, climax community. Primary succession begins with initially hostile conditions that are gradually made more fertile as a result of colonisation by pioneer plants. Secondary succession begins after sudden removal of existing plants, and thus with fertile soil.
Vertical layering of the vegetation in a forest into emergents, canopy, sub-canopy, shrub layer, ground layer.
Change in the composition of a community along a physical environmental gradient, e.g. up a rocky shore or up a mountain.
The place were a organism lives
The sum total of all the factors in the surroundings that influence an organism
The way an organism makes its living, its role in the community.
Any inherited feature that increases the chances that an organism will survive and reproduce.
Includes such factors such as temperature, light intensity, humidity, salinity, pH, wind, water flow.
Includes factors such as food, organisms, competition, predation, parasitism.
Intraspecific competition: between members of the same species, e.g. competition for territory (an area occupied by an animal and which it defends against others).
Interspecific competition: between members of different species. Competitive Exclusion Principle: No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat indefinitely.
A predator is an organism that feeds on other organisms and kills them.
A parasite is an organism that obtains food from another organism (the host), which it does not usually kill.
Relationship between two species in which both benefit.
Relationship between two species in which one benefits and the other is not affected.
Inhibition by a plant of potential competitors by production of chemicals. Antibiosis is a similar phenomenon, but it applies to inhibition of bacteria by fungi.
All the organisms of a given species occupying a defined area.
A population may grow as a result of reproduction and/or immigration, and it may decrease as a result of deaths and/or emigration. A population increases if reproduction + immigration exceeds death + emigration.
Number of new individuals per thousand per year.
Number of deaths per thousand per year
The maximum numbers of individuals that can be supported by a given environment.
S-shaped growth curve in which numbers increase exponentially at first, followed by levelling off of growth rate till numbers stabilise at the carrying capacity.
Exponential growth followed by crash in numbers, overshooting the carrying capacity.
Graph of mortality against age.
Populations can be regulated by such biotic factors as predation, competition, parasitism, but only if they act in a density-dependent manner. A factor acts in a density-dependent manner if its intensity influences natality and/or mortality
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