Terms in this set (72)
African Swine Fever
arbovirus-spread by ticks, pigs can ingest it too.
Historically Africa and Italy.
Hemorrhagic, replicates macrophages/monocytes
IMPORTANT: CAUSES ENLARGED SPLEEN. Classic swine fever does not.
linear DS DNA replicates in nucleus (Inclusion bodies)
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Canine adenovirus 1
replicates in tonsils viremia
Haemorrhage, necrosis of viscera (Acute disease)
Corneal opacity (blue eye)- occurs after recovery
She virus for several months after apparent recovery.
Highly pathogenic in young dogs.
Canine adenovirus type one
Canine infectious hepatitis
In 25% of survivors and antibodies make cornea appear cloudy. (canine adenovirus type 1)
Canine adenovirus 1
Self-limiting usually no clinical signs
Severe in immunodeficient Arab foals.
Avian adenovirus (egg drop syndrome)
Accidentally introduced into chickens by vaccine,
Soft thin shelled eggs.
Spread by faecal contamination of water.
Resistant in environment!!!! Can persist for long periods.
Needs actively dividing cells for replication.
Induces good immunity, narrow host range
Diahorrea, panleukopenia, cerebellar hypoplasia, myocardial disease
acute death of kittens by dehydration, diahorrea, cerebellar hypoplasia.
live attenuated vaccine (NOT FOR PREGNANT CATS)
Canine Parvovirus type 1
Canine Parvovirus type 2
highly contagious parvovirus infection in canines that is associated with severe diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and leukopenia.
not seen before 1974 (SPECIES SWITCH?)
Canine Parvovirus Vaccination
Old vaccine interfering maternal antibody level was 10. New vaccine interfering maternal antibody level is 40. (80= susceptible to infection)
Still birth, mummification, embryo death, infertility (in boars). Virus spreads by semen/oral route.
Good immunity once vaccinated/give natural infection.
DNA virus, non-enveloped=resistant in environment.
Causes immunosupression, replicates in dividing cells nucleus=lymphocytes
Porcine circovirus type 2
Post weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome, high morbity low mortality. deaths associated with concurrent infections.
High fever (42)= pigs seek cool
enlarged lymph nodes
Psittacine beak and feather disease
this is a circovirus, which targets the lymphoid tissue and causes immunosuppression.
Causes fragile feathers and beaks over grown and shiney
Single-stranded RNA, enveloped= fragile virus
Usually cause disease in young animals but little disease in adults.
Effects respiratory and intestinal epithelium
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Feline coronavirus, the usual virus develops a tropism for macrophages due to mutations. Happens in 1-5% of cats.
Linked with FeLV
Ocular lesions, also replicates in small intestine epithelium. Can then be shed for months, quite common in cats
Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine
Outbreaks of vomiting and diarrhea especially in winter. Effects young pigs
Causes diarrhea in young calves. Need agglutination test to separate from rotovirus. Zoonotic
canine infectious disease characterized by gastroenteritis that can affect all ages and spread via fecal-oral transmission; symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, fever and dehydration.No leukopenia (Unlike parvo)
RNA virus replicates in macrophages.
Equine arteritis virus
Influenza-like illness in adults, odema
pneumonia in young foals. caused by damage to arteries.
Vrineal spread-Stallions can spread virus for several months.
Vaccination just stops clinical signs not infection.
Prevention Of Equine arteritis virus
Identify stallions, test semen before AI. Separate pregnant mares from sources of infection. Vaccination will not prevent infection.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Porcine arterivirus, persists for a long time in infected animals. (pig meat/ semen potential entry into New Zealand), causes abortions and respritory distress+ cynaotic ears. Lifelong immunity
Single-stranded RNA, −ve sense Paramyxovirus Morbillivirus ,Parainfluenza
Newcastle disease (chickens).
Have heamagluttination glycoprotiens as well as protien for syncytia.
fusion of multiple host cells into single large cells containing multiple nuclei. Lentivirus, coronavirus, paramoxyviridae
Bovine Parainfluenza Virus 3
Paramyxoviridae causes 'shipping fever', strips cilia and predisposes the animal to concurrent infection. Can vaccinate but immunity is short lived.
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
paramyxovirus infection of bovine that is associated with fatal pneumonia. 'Shipping fever' complex.
New Castle Disease
paramyloxivirus in poultry that causes breathing difficulties, lowers egg production, quite resistant in environment, vaccine used as otherwise infects whole herd.
New castle disease serotypes
target: epithelium, neural and lymphoid tissue.
Fragile in environment.
Induce lifelong immunity in hosts.
Need a permanent supply of susceptible animals to survive.
Morbillivirus disease of dogs, marked by fever and respiratory problems, also effects CNS so neurological signs. Hyperkeratosis in old dogs.
Thought to be a wildlife resivour in vaccinated populations.
an infectious disease of ruminants, especially cattle, caused by a paramyxovirus, Diahorrea, discharge, death. Eradicated from the world.
morbillivirus- emerging in Australia. Transferred from flying foxes to horses, then to other horses or people. Lethal
morbillirus-emerging in asia transferred from bat to pig then to people.
arthropod-borne viruses, replicate in the arthropod then spread to a new host by a bite etc. Often cause asymptomatic disease in normal hosts (Enzootic cycle), whereas once the habitat for normal hosts is destroyed and new hosts move in then there is clinical disease. (Epizootic cycle)
Double-stranded RNA, nonenveloped, very resistant in the environment.
reovirus that causes scours in calves, Attacks cells at top of villi (opposite to coronavirus).
Latex agglutination test available, death usually due to concurrent infection.
Bite from a midge (culicodies) is the only way to get infected. Virus moves to lmyph nodes and replicates there before attacking endothelial cells.
A orbivirus-cows cannot be affected too badly, severe odema and congestion in sheep. Not In NZ likely route of introduction is a Zoo ruminant.
African Horse Sickness
Equine orbivirus, high mortatlity in horses and donkeys. causes odema+ frothing at the nostrils.
Control of orbivirus
Kill midges, limit movement of infected animals (slaughter then) vaccinate although there are many serotypes.
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome, an important class of cancer-causing viruses.
Retrovirus mechanism of cancer
They can either be slowly transforming- Insert their DNA into the host genome in a place that causes cancer.
Or be rapidly transforming and have an oncogene.
A family of retroviridae, Long latiency, Life long infection. Tropism for Leukocytes.
Low prevelance but no vaccines so to stop cycle kill all seropositive animals.
A lentivirus of sheep.
Visna= neurologic disease of sheep, causes paralysis.
Medi=Pnumonia, hard bag.
Equine Infectious Anemia
Equine lentivirus, causes anemia and haemorrhage, high mortality, no vaccines.
Feline Leukemia Virus
feline lentivirus. If cats have a good immune response they can clear the virus quickly and have little chance of developing neoplasms. Is a slowly transforming oncovirus so neoplasms occur awhile after infection.
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
lentivirus infection in felines over a long period of time progresses to a wide range of clinical signs such as anemia, lethargy, weight loss, and secondary infections, abbreviated FIV. More coomon in NZ than FeLV, spread by bites.
Arboviruses that are common in africa spread by midges.
Rift Valley Fever
Causes abortion storms but not in pigs or horses.
Causes hydrochephalis in calves. Transferred by mosquitoes
Single-stranded RNA, + strand, enveloped
Transmitted by arthropods; includes EEE and WEE
Rubivirus (rubella virus)
spread by infected midges, travels to lymphatics and replicates in local lymph node.
Primary viremia= spread to organs.
Replicate in organs
Secondary viremia=Spread to brain. Neurological signs and spreads to mosquitos.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
Togavirus (alphaviridae) in north and south america . High mortality (90%), and enzoonotic cycle is with birds.
Western Equine Encephalitis
Togavirus (alphaviridae) North America. Up to 50% mortality, zoonotic.
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
Togavirus. Lowly zoonotic BUT ONLY VIRUS WHERE MOSQUITO CAN BE INFECTED AND TRANSFER TO HUMANS.
Control of alphaviruses
kill mosquitoes, vaccinate horses. There are no vaccines for people.
Many important abroviruses: louping ill, Japanese encephalitis, wesslebron disease, west nile virus
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1
Flaviviridae, spread in all secretions of cows, causes diarrhea and leukopenia in infected cows. Eventually clear the disease. Commonly in 6-18 month old animals (end of maternal AB's)
BVD infection early gestation (less than 40 days)
BVD infection mid gestation (40-120 days)
Persistently infected calf that is a shedder. Never develops antibodies
BVD infection mid-late gestation (120-150 days)
Congenital defects hypoplasia, cleft palate hydrocephalis
Bvd infection late gestation (150+ days)
Normal calf immunocompitent.
Persistently infected shedders (BVD)
Offspring are infected (and survive) source of infection for others in the herd. If mutations occur and disease becomes cytopathic get mucosal disease
Mucosal disease BVD
A disease of persistently infected BVD animals where mutations occur and the disease becomes more cytopathic get ulceration and lympatic damage.
Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)
Flaviviridae lung, skin, kidney haemorrhage. Causes enlarged lymph nodes.
Indistinguishable from asfarviridae.
Could enter NZ through meat/Semen
Boarder disease (hairy shaker)
BVD in goats and sheep.