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2020 The Things They Carried - Language Features
Terms in this set (36)
The process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.
1. Direct Characterisation - the author tells us.
2. Indirect Characterisation - what other characters tell us AND the thoughts and actions of the characters themselves.
A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings (often abstract) as well
a speaker or character who tells a story
The act of writing about writing. The author creates a character in the work with the same name as his/hers.
Placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast.
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
A short scene or story.
A story that is not told in the order that events happened. It may start at the end or the middle of the story and use techniques such as flashbacks and dialogue to fill in the story over time.
When a reader is aware of something that a character isn't aware of.
Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another.
Exaggeration - not meant to be taken literally.
A writer's or speaker's choice of words
A recurring theme, subject or idea
The context in time, place and social context in which the action of a story occurs.
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction and figurative language.
The main idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work, which may be stated directly or indirectly. It is a belief about life that the author trying to convey in the writing.
A comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it. It aims at explaining that idea or thing by comparing it to something that is familiar. Metaphors and similes are tools used to draw an analogy. Therefore, an analogy is more extensive and elaborate than either a simile or a metaphor. Writers use an analogy to link a new idea with common and familiar objects. This makes it is easier for readers to comprehend a new idea, which may have been difficult for them to understand otherwise.
Consider the following example:
The structure of an atom is like a solar system. The nucleus is the sun, and electrons are the planets revolving around their sun.
A story, poem, or picture, that is used to reveal a hidden meaning or message, like a moral. They convey a meaning not explicitly set forth in the story. Abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of characters, figures, and events. In an allegory, the story has a disguised meaning, other than that, indicated on the surface. Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is an allegory that uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW I. The actions of the animals on the farm are used to show the abstract ideas of greed and corruption of revolution.
A figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person.
Makes light of serious of taboo subjects. Often considered morbid, black humour depicts tragic situations as humorous.
A statement which contains more than one meaning. These words or statements lead to vagueness and confusion and can be the basis for instances of unintentional humour.
For instance, it is confusing to say "I rode a black horse in red pajamas," because it may lead us to think the horse was wearing red pajamas. The sentence becomes clear when it is restructured as, "Wearing red pajamas, I rode a black horse."
It is to purposefully include ideas or words that could have two or more interpretations.
Two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect. The common ___ phrase is a combination of an adjective proceeded by a noun with contrasting meanings, such as "cruel kindness," or "living death".
However, the contrasting words/phrases are not always glued together. The contrasting ideas may be spaced out in a sentence, such as, "In order to lead, you must walk behind."
A statement that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth. Often used to make a reader think over an idea in an innovative way. E.g "Your enemy's friend is your enemy". It creates a humorous effect on the readers because of its ridiculousness. It normally strives to create feelings of intrigue and interest in readers' minds, to make them think deeper and harder to enjoy the real message of the text.
Two things are compared using the word "like" or "as."
A particular type of personification that attributes human qualities and emotions to nature. It attributes human qualities and emotions to inanimate objects of nature. The word pathetic stands for "imparting emotions to something else." (Personification, on the other hand, is a broader term. It gives human attributes to abstract ideas or animate objects)
The contrast between what is stated and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true.
An outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected. Something entirely different happens from what the audience may be expecting, or the outcome is opposite to what the audience is expecting. It generally includes sharp contrasts and contradictions. E.g. Mary Anne becomes more savage and removed from society than any of her Green Berets counterparts. These situations defy what would generally be experienced in war, and Tim O'Brien uses this situational irony to further the story's critical tone towards the theme of war.
Special words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or group and are difficult for others to understand.
Words used deliberately to create an emotional impact.
The use of past experiences in writing. Memories are often presented as a stream-of-consciousness rather as a linear story with a clear beginning and ending.
A literary technique that presents the thoughts and feelings of a character as they occur. It refers to the individual thought processes of a character, portrayed in the form of a monologue that addresses the character itself.
The use of non-linear timelines and narrative in a story. The author jumps back and forth trough time.
Through the non-linear structure, the lives of the characters are fractured (broken up).
Phrases or sentences of a similar
construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other and done for an effect.
The likeness to the truth, such as the resemblance of a fictitious work to a real event, even if it is a far-fetched one. It ensures that even a fantasy must be rooted in reality, which means that events should be plausible to the extent that readers consider them credible enough to be able to relate them somehow to their experiences of real life.
Where future events in a story, or perhaps the outcome, are suggested by the author before they happen.
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