applied ecology

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how to link physiology and behaviour with the environment
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Terms in this set (66)
ecological niche example - mexican daisy: __________ plant-species in ______-_______, ___________ and ____-________ regions first recorded in NZ in _______ Can form dense ______ that prevents _________________ of ________ plants niche model compares ______________ data with ___________ variables variables used: annual mean ____________, land _______, e__________invasive, warm-temperate, tropical, sub-tropical, 1940, mats, establishment, native, occurrence, environmental, temperature, cover, elevationwhat is suitability mapping based oncurrent conditions and what is known about a species to see where it could establishhow is suitability for the mexican daisy in NZ likely change in response to climate change?less suitable in north island but more suitable in south islandecological niche models provide a target for _______________ & ______________: identification of high ______ zones to prioritise _____________ measures in areas that are predicted to become more ____________, increase _______ rating in those areas also used in t_______________ssurveillance, management, risk, eradication, suitable, risk, translocationsstress involves the activation of the h_____________-p___________-a_________ axishypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal2 types of stress:acute, chronic4 negative impacts of chronic stress on health + how this can be measureddecreased immunity, reproduction, metabolism, survival, glucocorticoid metabolites sampled from blood or faecesexample of measuring non-lethal impacts of tourism on wildlife + how this was measured + findings + what does this affect in fledglingshoiho at greed island and sandfly bay, blood samples collected, birds exposed to unregulated tourism (sandfly bay) appear to display a more sensitive stress response, corticosterone levels affect fledgling weightoptimal foraging theory equation + when is the optimal pointprofitability = energy gained/time spent foraging, optimal when e>texample of tourism impacts on activity patterns of wildlife + how this was measured + findings + a potential limit on applicability of resultsgreat white sharks lured to tourist boats, accelerometers attached to 10 sharks whose behaviour was recorded across different contexts, as operators have limits on how much they can feed the sharks the bait does not make up for the extra energy used by sharks in response to the boats, limited to 10 sharkshome rangethe space that an animal utilises within the landscapehabitat selectionextent to which an animal uses a habitat vs what is availablewhat do home range ecology and habitat selection provide important information on?utilisation of the landscape and habitat preferenceswhat case study was home range ecology used in?how big do cat exclusion zones need to be around bird sanctuariesdefine population ecologyunderstanding the processes that contribute to population dynamics, and the factors that may impact population dynamicsdefine disease ecologythe population ecology of diseases3 factors that may impact population dynamicssurvival, reproduction, migration2 main ways to view population growth + what is the differenceexponential growth, logistic growth, unrestricted vs restricted3 scenarios that we might want to understand population dyanmicsconserve, remove, manageconservation & population dynamicspromote population growthremoval & population dynamicsreduce population growthmanagement & population dynamicsregulate population dynamics2 ways of measuring populationssampling, mark recaptureConserving populations: 1. assess population ________ to determine whether a population is at _____ 2. measure population trends in response to a _______________ ______________ 3. assess population ___________ to assess the __________ of a population, and under different ___________trends, risk, management intervention, dynamics, viability, scenariospopulation ecology and MPAs: In _______ a marine mammal sanctuary was established to reduce ________ mortalities of ___________ dolphins, ___________ ____-_______ was prohibited and __________ "..." was strictly controlled Population ~_________ dolphins with high site _______ adult mortality was _____________ _____ before introduction of the sanctuary + findings1988, gillnet, Hectors, commercial gill-netting, amateur, 1000, fidelity, unsustainably high, dolphins had a higher estimated survival after the sanctuary was introduced, extinction rates reduced from 16% to 0.6%, but probably not enough to allow population recoverywhere is MSY of a populationhalfway to carrying capacity (k)modelling population dynamics under different harvest scenarios: using information from a population ________, identify the _____ & ___ _______ of the population, and among females the proportion ____________; at each class look at s_______, m_________, f__________ and m_________ r_________; use this information to look at:survey, age, sex structure, reproducing, survival, mortality, fertility, mortality rates, what impact does harvesting have on population dynamicswhat example was modelling population dynamics under different harvest scenarios used in? + findingswhether indigenous communities commercially harvesting asian swamp buffalo in northern australia was a sustainable practice, increases in harvest rates/expansion of commercial activities may help to maintain buffalo populations at environmentally harmful levelswhat was a bad example of an attempt to use harvesting for eradication?pauline hanson's cash for cane toads idea, would not keep up with reproductive rates, 10c a toad not a sustainable approach to toad control4 things that need to be considered in disease ecologytransmission methods and lifecycles, dynamics and seasonality of disease, heterogeneity and drivers of transmission, impacts of disease on host populations4 methods of indirect disease transmissionfaecel-oral, vector-borne, intermediate host, environmental reservoirdisease transmission depends on the ___________ of host populations, and the transmission ________density, methodwhat trendline would a density-dependent disease produce on a graph comparing density and transmission rate?positivewhat trendline would a frequency-dependent disease produce on a graph comparing density and transmission rate?flatwhat is an example of a frequency-dependent disease?STIswhat do the population dynamics of a density dependent disease look like on a graph? what is an example of this?regular crashes, parasites in red grouse3 applications of disease ecologyconservation, economic/human importance, biocontrol agentswhat is the most important preliminary step in disease ecology?good samplingwhat method was used to sample tasmanian devil facial tumour disease? what does DFTD impact and how is this detected?mark-recapture, survival rates, population growth rates declines after disease arrived in the populationwhat is culling? how could it be used to save tasmanian devils? is it likely to be effective?a strategy that can be used to reduce the number of infected individuals to reduce transmission rates and allow population recovery, would need to remove >80% of population at each quarter to reduce prevalence and increase the time to extinction, unlikely to be feasibleis tasmanian devil facial tumour disease frequency or density dependent?frequency dependentsuccessful example of disease ecology used as a biocontrol + how transmitted + how successful + a challengerabbits and RHDV, flies are a mechanical vector from dead to live rabbits, has reduced 85%, resistance builds up over time so efficacy declines5 challenges of using disease as a biological controlhost specificity, evolution of resistance/virulence, ethical concerns, effect on other components of the ecosystem?, costs of research and developmentcommunity ecologylooking at the organisms that occupy an ecosystem and how they interactcommunity structurewhat species are there, and what are there and what are their relative abundances?2 ways species interact in an ecosystemtrophic relationships and food webs2 conservation management approachespast, future3 ways of measuring communitiesabundance/diversity measures, community composition, ecosystem function/food webs4 abundance/diversity measuresspecies richness, evenness, shannon diversity index, functional/taxonomic traitswhat does community composition measure and how is this done?how similar/dissimilar are samples to each other based on species presence/abundance, looks at the identity of species and whether samples contain the same or different speciesbray-curtis dissimilarityfind the set of coordinates in 2D space that best represents the dissimilarities between sites, points that are closer together are more similarecosystem function/food websmeasures the interactions in an ecosystem but doesn't necessarily tell us how it is functioning3 things we can learn from applying community ecologyimpacts of disturbance on the structure of ecological communities, success of ecological restoration activities, impacts of disturbances on ecosystem function/serviceseffect of livestock trampling on snail communities: methods + findings + solutionsused a BACI design to measure snail communities before and after trampling, increased trampling = increased reduction in species richness in most cases, fences are advisable to keep cows out of forests but ~77% of farmers value forest fragments for livestock shelterpollination networks in organic vs non-organic farming: methods + findings2 100m transects were walked, and pollinator-plant interactions were recorded, no effect of farming type on species richness of pollinators, organic pollinator networks more connected and led to better fruit-set than conventional farmspredicting changes to food-webs following ecosystem perturbation: method, example, effect on competition, effect on predators, top down and bottom up influencesecological networks used to represent trophic interactions by looking at direct impacts and the simulating the removal of a species, both cats and foxes decreased with increasing rates of rabbit control due to reduced food availability, reduced rabbits increases kangaroos which are preferred prey for dingoes this dingoes increase and reduce the abundance of other predators bottom up: reduced rabbits increases food for kangaroos, which increase in abundance and cause increased competition for food with small mammals top-down: increases in dingoes reduced the abundance of mesopredators, compounded by reduction in food (rabbits) available