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Describe learning via assimilation...
When a new experience gets added to an existing schema. Ie. if we having a banging schema developed through banging a rattle, banging a block will get added to our banging schema. "I can bang this block like I can bang a rattle".
Describe learning via accommodation...
When a new experience doesn't fit into the expected/existing schema so we add it to a new one instead. Ie. if we bang an egg and it breaks we learn that we can't bang this egg like we can bang blocks and rattles.
What are Piaget's four key stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor stage (birth-2), pre-operational stage (2-7), concrete operational (7-11), formal operational (11-adulthood).
What are primary and secondary and tertiary circular reactions?
Primary reactions are limited to interactions with our own body eg. putting our hand in our mouth. Our schemas are self-focussed.
Secondary reactions are when moving our body creates movement in an object eg. kicking our feet moves the mobile above us. We have schemas about objects in the world but only so far as how they relate to our body. We don't see objects as individual entities.
Tertiary reactions are when we understand that objects exist independently - they exist even if we can't see them and also if they move from where we originally saw them (they are still the same object, just in a different place).
What are six things we need to understand in order to develop an object concept?
1. Objects exist even if we're not interacting with them.
2. Objects are solid (things can't pass through them)
3. Objects move continuously (they don't disappirate from one place to another!)
4. Objects obey laws of gravity (they fall to ground).
5. Objects can't move without some force exerted on them.
6. Objects can only influence one another when they come into contact with each other.
Define object permanence...
The understanding that an object exists even if we can no longer see it or aren't interacting with it.
Describe the study that provides evidence for OP being present as early as 3.5 months rather than 9 months (as Piaget proposed)...
A habituation study. 3.5 month olds.
Habituated first to a barrier moving in a 180degree arc.
Then presented a block in the path of the barriers arc - habituated to this.
Then tested - barrier moves through it's arc trajectory and stops at the block. Or barrier moves through it' trajectory and isn't stopped by the block. Interpret dishabituation to the second scenario as evidence of having concept of object permanence.
Why might this 3.5 month old study have found results that Piaget didn't find until 9 months old?
Because of task demands.
3.5 month old study just relied on looking - something that infants are very capable of. 9 month old studies required understanding on language and motor skills to interact with the scenario.
These external factors (separate to the variable being tested - concept of OP or not) are called Task Demands.
Describe the competence/performance distinction...
The difference between having the ability to do something AND actually being able to demonstrate that ability.
What did Piaget's 'Conservation tasks' demonstrate...
That children in the pre-operational stage lack the mental operators to understand that an object has the same essential components even if those components change their form. eg. a mound of playdough is still that same mound of playdough when it has been flattened out.
What are the four mental operators talked about in relation to Piaget's conservation tasks?
1. Reversibility - the capacity to mentally revert squashed playdough back into it's original form and recognise that in both conditions it is the same mass of playdough.
2. Compensation - to understand that although the playdough has decreased in height, it has also increased in diameter and this increase compensates for the reduction in height.
3. Identity - because the object has the same mass in both conditions it is the same object in essence.
4. Transitive reasoning - if A is smaller than B and B is smaller than C then C must be bigger than A.
What does the 3 mountains study tell us about children's perspective taking?
That it is egocentric. That children aged 2-7 have difficulty inhibiting what they can see in order to describe what someone else can see.
What study challenged findings of the 3 mountains study to suggest that younger children can consider how another person sees an object?
3 year old children sat in front of a screen that was half clear/half yellow. In front of this screen were two blue objects. An experimenter sat on the other side and asked children to give them the blue or green object. Children were able to understand that the experimenter would be looking at the blue object through the yellow screen, thus making it green. This is evidence of level 2 perspective taking.
What is level 2 perspective taking?
Understanding HOW someone else sees something differently to you.
What is level 1 perspective taking?
Understanding whether someone can or can't see an object that you can see.
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