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Physiology - neuroplasticity
Terms in this set (13)
Define the term "purposeful movement".
A movement that completes a task, spending the least amount of energy possible, without harming the system or putting it in unnecessary danger.
What is inhibitory control and which processes are involved in creating it?
All mental processes responsible for intentional and voluntary movement control. The processes involved are: attention, behavior, internally and externally driven thought.
Define the term spatial orientation/reasoning and name the brain areas involved in this ability.
Maintaining spatial stability, despite continuous changes in inputs from the environment eye movements and body position, is responsible for the success of the interaction between an individual and the environment. The brain areas involved are: PRR, LIP, PIPC, FEF, TP and the FPC in the cerebral cortex, plus the limbic system and thalamus as subcortical centers.
What is action observation? Which areas of the brain are involved in this ability? Comment on its function during motor learning.
The activity of a contra-hemispheric areas to the activated area that is able to facilitate imitation in most species, as a complementary form of motor learning strategy. The areas involved are: PFC, PMC, SMA, M1, S1 and the visual network.
Describe in a few words how the basal nuclei regulate their own function and how they regulate a motor output.
By balancing inhibitory and excitatory activity through striatal and pallidal connections, that affect SMA, PMC and M1 activity. The internal balance of the system is guaranteed by SN activity, through the release of DA, while the SN activity itself is regulated by striatum and pallidum.
Which basic aspects influence the decision-making process?
Experience, perception and possibility of reward.
Describe one example of a situation in everyday life, where online modulation is being applied.
Your answer should include an example of an action being adapted to an unexpected change in the environment or task.
Define the term neuroplasticity.
A process of development, reorganization and reparation of the neural system to adapt to intrinsic and/or extrinsic changes in a physiological or pathological context.
What are growth cones and what do they indicate in a system?
The frontal part of an axon that can develop, or grow, in one direction, depending on needs and stimulation. This development will be seen in every learning/adaptation and reparation process.
What is the functionality of the overlapping of representation areas in the cerebral homunculus found in M1 and S1?
Your answer should discuss how this configuration increases efficiency in of the sensorimotor functions in the areas, while also preventing lack of function by focal damage.
What are neurotrophic factors? Give two examples of this type of substance that can be found in the CNS, describing their respective functions to the tissue.
Proteins that act in the process of maturing, repairing and/or developing the nervous system. In the CNS the following can be found:•BDNF: involved mainly in development of the neuronal architecture;•GNF: involved mainly in the maintenance of neuron structures.
Define the term neuroenhancement and give one example of its application outside the medical field.
The process of making use of substances to modulate mood, improve cognitive and/or social abilities. Your example should include a substance that when taken, fulfils these criteria.
What can be done to externally support neuroplastic processes?
•Increase of the cognitive load during an activity;•The use of top-down processes for decision making;•Provide augmented sensory inputs;•Intake of substances, such as DA agents.
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