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AP Biology Big Idea #2 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (71)
Chemical reactions that release energy.
A chemical reaction that requires/absorbs energy in order to proceed.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Loss of electrons.
Gain of electrons.
Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids.
Any of a class of proteins that have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain.
A lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule.
Foldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
Houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Tending to repel or fail to mix with water.
Having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
A fibrous substance consisting of polysaccharides and forming the major constituent in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi.
A lipid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
A fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body.
Fluid Mosaic Model
Model that displays the structure of a cell membrane: describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make it up.
Singer and Nicolson
Creators of the Fluid Mosaic Model.
A microscopic tubular structure present in the cytoplasm of cells.
Shape the cell, guide organelle movement, and separate chromosomes in dividing cells.
The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
The movement of molecules across the cell membrane without the use of ATP, but with the help of a protein.
A movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
A process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Proteins that function mechanically, by attaching the cell cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix (ECM), and biochemically, by sensing whether adhesion has occurred.
Membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated.
These proteins attach to integral membrane proteins, or penetrate the peripheral regions of the lipid bilayer.
Sodium Potassium Pump
The enzyme-based mechanism that maintains correct cellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions by removing excess ions from inside a cell and replacing them with ions from outside the cell.
The taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
A process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.
A cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane.
An integral membrane protein that transports a single type of substrate species (charged or uncharged) across a cell membrane. They can be either ion channels or carrier proteins.
An integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.
Typically, the ion(s) will move down the electrochemical gradient, allowing the other molecule(s) to move against the concentration gradient.
The force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
A substance forming the cell walls of many bacteria, consisting of glycosaminoglycan chains interlinked with short peptides.
A type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
The stacks of thylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast.
A flattened membrane sac in the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Disk-shaped membrane structures in chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll.
The fluid of the chloroplast.
Involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Green organelle in plant cells.
Captures energy from the sun to make glucose > where photosynthesis takes place.
A photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
Light Independent Reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar.
Light Dependent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
Reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH.
Protein that performs Carbon Fixation in the Calvin Cycle.
The most abundant protein on earth.
A sugar that is an important source of energy.
Storage form of glucose.
The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants.
The inner layer of the leaf where photosynthesis takes place.
(Between palisade layer and lower epidermis.)
Place where most cholorplasts are located (most photosynthesis).
Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division.
Process by which light energy breaks down a molecule; takes place in the thylakoid membrane.
.Takes place inside mitochondria.
Aerobic organisms carry out oxidative phosphorylation.
production of ATP using the process of chemiosmosis in the presence of oxygen
The synthesis of ATP during photosynthesis, coupled to the cyclic passage of electrons to and from chlorophyll (in photosystem I), using a series of carrier molecules.
Found in bacteria, cannot access other photosystems, no NADPH and little to no glucose made.
process in which there is a production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cellular metabolism by the involvement of a proton gradient across a membrane
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle high energy electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
The enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
production of ATP from ADP using the excess energy from a chemical reaction and a phosphate group from a reactant
The breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy (ATP) and pyruvic acid.
In DNA and RNA, these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary purines.
A 5-carbon sugar found in RNA.
Final Electron Acceptor
Reaction in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars.
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
The space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
Enables cells to produce ATP in the absence of oxygen - yields little ATP and lactic acid.
Occurs when respiration cannot.
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
Ex. Sugar cane, corn, rice, soy beans, grasses
plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis
ex. Succulents, cacti, pineapple, jade
Part of ATP along with a ribose and 3 phosphate group
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
matrix of the mitochondria
each of the two acetyl coenzyme A molecules enter the cycle and combine with oxaloacetate to form citric acid, which then loses two carbons as carbon dioxide.
The cycle begins with the second Acetyl CoA. For each Acetyl CoA, the Krebs Cycle produces 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2.
NADH, FADH2, FAD+, NAD+
High energy electron carriers
aerobic respiration equation
Respiration that requires oxygen
The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
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