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Bio Exam 3
Terms in this set (88)
how cells reproduce
parent cells give rise to two genetically identical daughter cells
hereditary information of all living cells
contained in chromosomes
composed of smaller subunits called nucleotides
growth and cell division in prokaryotes
- growth and development
- sexual and asexual reproduction
reproduction in eukaryotic organisms
occurs when offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes from two adults
adult's reproductive system - meiotic cell division
sperm and egg
reproduction in single-cell eukaryotic organisms in which offspring are formed from a single parent, without having a sperm fertilize an egg
produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Mitosis and binary fission
Asexual reproduction requires these processes.
Sexual reproduction requires this process.
Eukaryotes' means of asexual reproduction.
Eukaryotes' means of sexual reproduction.
Prokaryotes' means of asexual reproduction.
Eukaryotes' means of growth and cell division.
a failure of checkpoints in the cell cycle, resulting in a disease in which some of the body's cells escape from normal regulatory processes and divide without control
Characteristics of cells in the human body
A) contains a unique sequence of DNA
B)contains only the DNA information needed by
C)contains the same DNA information as all
D)changes the DNA information frequently as
the organism matures.
alternate forms of a given gene that may produce difference in structure or function
the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes
one of the two identical strands of DNA and protein that forms a duplicated chromosome. The two sister ____s of a duplicated chromosome are joined by the centromere.
a DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize and regulate the use of DNA
Humans have __ pairs and
__ total chromosomes in
the physical characteristics of an organism; can be defined as outward appearance, behavior, or in molecular terms
the genetic composition of an organism; the actual alleles of each gene carried by the organism
defined as a difference in two alleles of each gene
a change in the base sequence of DNA in a gene; often used to refer to a genetic change that is significant enough to alter the appearance or function of the organism
the unit of heredity; a segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome that encodes the information for the amino acid sequence of a protein/particular traits
a specific sequence of DNA at the beginning of a gene, to which RNA polymerase binds and starts gene transcription
(monomer) - a subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; a phosphate group bonded to a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA), which is in turn bonded to a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine in DNA). ______s are linked together, forming a strand of nucleic acid, by bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next nucleotide.
(polymer) - an organic molecule compound of nucleotide subunits; the two common types of nucleic acids are RNA and DNA
a haploid sex call, usually a sperm or an egg, formed in sexually reproducing organisms
Body (somatic) cells
in RNA synthesis, an enzyme that catalyzes the bonding of free RNA nucleotides into a continuous strand, using RNA nucleotides that are complementary to those of the template strand of DNA
an enzyme that bonds DNA nucleotides together into a continuous strand, using a preexisting DNA strand as a template
a complex consisting of two subunits, each composed of ribosomal RNA and protein, found in the cytoplasm of walls or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, that is the site of protein synthesis, during which the sequences of bases of messenger RNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein
How is DNA replication most affected by the two strands of DNA running in anti-parallel directions?
A. Only one strand may be copied at a time.
B. The strands must be separated in order to replicate the DNA.
C. The methods for copying the two strands are different.
D. Two different kinds of polymerase must be used to copy the strands of DNA.
E. Replication can only occur at one place on the chromosome.
Which of the following is the longest?
A. an uncondensed eukaryotic chromosome
B. a condensed eukaryotic chromosome
C. a condensed prokaryotic chromosome
D. an uncondensed prokaryotic chromosome
How many daughter cells are produced from each parent cell during meiosis?
All of the following occur during DNA replication EXCEPT the:
A. separation of parental DNA strands.
B. use of parental DNA as a template.
C. use of DNA polymerase enzymes.
D. synthesis of totally new double-stranded DNA molecules.
Which of the following is a correct description of meiosis?
A. Meiosis is one round of DNA replication followed by one round of cell division.
B. Meiosis is two rounds of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell division.
C. Meiosis is one round of cell division without DNA replication.
D. Meiosis is one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell division.
E. Meiosis is two rounds of cell division without DNA replication.
Which point mutation would be most likely to have a catastrophic effect?
A. a base substitution
B. a base deletion near the end of the coding sequence
C. the deletion of three bases near the start of the coding sequence
D. a base deletion near the start of the coding sequence
E. All of the above would be equally catastrophic.
Sexual reproduction allows for:
A. clones of parent cells to be produced more quickly and efficiently than does binary fission.
B. greater genetic diversity in offspring, compared to asexual reproduction.
C. haploid individuals to pass their genes on to the next generation.
D. random mutations to occur at a faster rate than does asexual reproduction.
Compare prokaryotic cells to eukaryotic cells. Which difference between these two cell types affects cell division the most?
A. one chromosome vs. many chromosomes
B. plasma membrane vs. cell wall
C. circular chromosomes vs. linear chromosomes
D. no organelles vs. organelles
E. no nucleus vs. nucleus
Which of the following organisms does not reproduce its cells by mitosis and cytokinesis?
A. a banana tree
B. a mushroom
C. a bacterium
D. a cow
E. a cockroach
Which point mutation would be most likely to have a catastrophic effect?
A. a base deletion near the start of the coding sequence
B. the deletion of three bases near the start of the coding sequence
C. a base deletion near the end of the coding sequence
D. a base substitution
E. a base insertion near the end of the coding sequence
A gene mutation is defined as change in the:
A. structure of ribosomes.
B. nucleotide sequence of DNA.
C. activation of a gene.
D. nucleotide sequence of RNA.
Which of the following is TRUE about the accuracy of DNA replication?
A. The few errors made by DNA polymerase are usually corrected by repair enzymes.
B. DNA polymerase always makes a perfect copy of the original DNA.
C. Many errors are made during DNA replication, but this does not matter because repair enzymes mend the errors.
D. Many errors are made during DNA replication, but this does not matter because of the immense size of the DNA molecule.
E. DNA polymerase makes very few errors, so no repair enzymes are needed.
Which of these is NOT a carcinogen?
A. UV light
B. cigarette smoke
E. all of the above are carcinogens
_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer.
B. UV light
D. a virus
Meiotic cell division occurs in the ________ and results in the production of ________.
A. reproductive tissues; gametes
B. testes and ovaries; diploid cells
C. body cells; parent cells
D. body cells; daughter cells
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the genetic information in the cells of your body?
A. The genetic information in almost all of your body cells is identical.
B. The genetic information in your body cells changes in a predictable manner as you grow and develop.
C. Different kinds of body cells contain different genetic information.
D. Each type of body cell contains only the genetic information it needs to be that type of cell.
A random change in a DNA nucleotide base sequence:
A. is never expressed phenotypically.
B. constitutes a mutation.
C. always kills the cell.
D. is never beneficial to the organism.
E. cannot have an influence on genetic variation.
What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis?
A. Meiosis produces genetically identical daughter cells, whereas mitosis produces genetically variable daughter cells.
B. Meiosis produces two daughter cells instead of the four daughter cells produced in mitosis.
C. Mitosis produces daughter cells, whereas meiosis produces parent cells.
D. Meiosis produces haploid cells, whereas mitosis produces diploid cells.
The genetic material in bacteria consists of:
A. many rod-like DNA molecules with protein.
B. DNA in mitochondria.
C. several circular DNA molecules.
D. one circular DNA molecule.
E. one circular RNA molecule.
In a typical human body cell, how many chromosomes are there?
The difference between two alleles is the result of _______.
A. the sequence of nucleotides
B. the type of bonds between the nucleotides
C. the arrangement of phosphate groups
D. the arrangement of deoxyribose sugar
A person is heterozygous for hair texture, which is determined by gene T. Which of these statements is correct about this person's DNA?
A. This person has two copies of gene T in all gametes.
B. This person has two different alleles for hair texture on their chromosomes.
C. This person has a single copy of gene T in all body cells.
D. This person has the same allele for hair texture on their chromosomes.
E. All of the above are correct statements.
How do mutations affect an organism?
A. In some cases, they may have no noticeable effect.
B. They may cause the development of a beneficial allele.
C. They may cause the development of a disease-causing allele.
D. All of the above are ways that a mutation could affect an organism.
What is meant by the term "dominant alleles"?
A. Dominant alleles are healthier than recessive alleles.
B. Dominant alleles are passed on more often than recessive alleles.
C. Dominant alleles are more common in the population than recessive alleles.
D. Dominant alleles mask the presence of recessive alleles.
D. Dominant alleles are more important than recessive alleles.
If a person homozygous for an autosomal recessive disorder and a healthy person have children, what is the likelihood that the children will have the disorder?
D. There is not enough information to determine this.
The physical manifestation of an organism's genes is its:
B. number of chromosomes.
E. genetic code.
Which of the following is most likely to be passed on to the next generation?
A. a mutation that caused breast cancer
B. a mutation resulting from too many sun burns
C. blindness from drinking methanol
D. increased muscle mass resulting from exercise
E. a mutation in the DNA in cells in the testicles
A pea plant with purple flowers is crossed with a pea plant with white flowers. One-half of the offspring have purple flowers and one-half have white flowers. What are the genotypes of the parent plants?
A. Pp x pp
B. PP x pp
C. pp x pp
D. Pp x Pp
In people, a dimpled chin is a dominant trait. Many famous celebrities, such as John Travolta and Michael and Kirk Douglas, have this condition. Assume that the wrestler and actor Hulk Hogan is homozygous for the dimpled chin, and he married a woman with a round chin. They had two children, Brooke and Nick.
What percentage of their kids will show the trait?
If a disease is caused by a recessive allele, it means that a person with the disease ________.
A. is more likely to be male
B. needs only one copy of the allele that causes the disease
C. will always pass the disease on to children
D. needs two copies of the allele that causes the disease
E. is more likely to be female
When the two gametes that fuse to form a zygote contain different alleles of a given gene, the offspring is:
D. a new species.
A gene is composed of what?
A human sperm cell possesses autosomes and:
A. a Y chromosome always.
B. exactly the same genetic information as a body cell.
C. an X chromosome always.
D. either an X or a Y chromosome.
E. both an X and a Y chromosome.
Why can't a color-blind father pass this condition on to his sons?
A. The father only gives his X chromosome to his sons.
B. The father only gives his Y chromosome to his sons.
C. Fathers only pass on dominant alleles for color vision to their sons.
D. Children can only receive the color-blind allele from their mother.
Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive gene that causes a blood disorder. What are the chances that the daughter of a normal man and a heterozygous woman will have hemophilia?
A man who carries a harmful sex-linked (on the X chromosome) gene will pass the gene on to:
A. half of his daughters.
B. all of his daughters.
C. all of his sons.
D. half of his sons.
E. all of his sons and daughters.
Color blindness is more common in men than in women because:
A. men get more copies of the gene than do women.
B. men have only one X chromosome.
C. women cannot inherit the gene from their fathers.
D. crossing over occurs only in women.
E. the gene is located on the Y chromosome.
A pure-breeding plant with red flowers is crossed with a pure-breeding plant with white flowers. The offspring all have pink flowers. In this scenario, the pattern of inheritance is different then described by Mendel's experiments. Which statement describes this alteration?
A. Flower color is influenced by the environment.
B. Flower color is determined by more than one gene - a multi-gene trait.
C. The gene for flower color has more than two alleles.
D. Heterozygotes for this flower color gene have an intermediate phenotype
A female is heterozygous for a recessive, sex-linked trait. She is called a ________ for that trait.
Nondisjunction involving the X chromosome has occured during gamete (egg) formation in a female and results in two types of egg. If normal sperm fertilize the two types of eggs, which of the following pairs of genotypes are possible?
A. XYY and XO
B. XX and XY
C. XYY and YO
D. XXY and XO
Which of the following statements best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders?
A. The presence of a lethal dominant allele causes sterility.
B. Unlike lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles, lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles usually cause the death of the embryo.
C. Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce.
D. Many lethal recessive alleles cause enhanced disease resistance when they are present in the heterozygous state, and carriers of these alleles have more children, on average, than other people.
E. Lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles are usually more severe than lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles.
a heritable feature
a variation of character
gametes (pollen and egg) from the same plant
mixing of gametes from two plants (pollen from one, egg from another)
all offspring have the same trait
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