7th Grade Final Exam Study

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What does it mean to be a host for a virus?it means that you are giving the virus home and food.What does it mean to be a parasite?it means that it survives by living inside a host and harming itExplain each step of the lytic cycle.Need to invade the cell and attach and need to do biosynthesis, then the cell explodes.Explain what happens during the pathogenic cycle.multiplication/reproduction, spread, and infection of a new host.Bacteriasingle-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotesFlagellumA long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move.binary fissionA form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same sizeasexual reproductionProcess by which a single parent reproduces by itselfsexual reproductionA reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parentsConjugationA temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.EndosporeA small, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cellPasteurizationA process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food.Decomposerorganism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matterList three diseases caused by bacteriaInfectious disease. Cholera. Leprosy.What are the two groups of bacteria and what makes them different?Archea and Bacteria, what makes them different is that Archea can be in very harsh environments but bacteria can only be in normal conditions.What do the prefixes and suffixes often associate with bacteria mean?a. Staphlyo-Grows in clusters b. Strepto-Grows in chains c. -coccus: Sperical shape d. -bacillus: Bar shapedWhat do flagella do?help bacteria moveIn what ways are bacteria helpful?Ferments food, helps clean the environment, helps develop antiboitics, Produces insulin,and helps us digest foods.How do bacteria and fungi work together to provide for every ecosystem on the planet?They feed on dead things and break them down into minerals living things can use.Why would some types of bacteria be needed inside of the human body?Some need to stay in the human body because their some bacteria that help digest food and some that fight other bacteria which is harmful.Give an example of mutualism in natureOxpecker and rhinos/zebras: pest control for the rhinos and zebras Shark and fish that stays towards their gills: cleaning their gills The bacteria and the human : helping them fight off bad bacteriaHow do bacteria harm us?They keep duplicating in cells until they explodeWhat is the name of the process of how bacteria reproduce? Is this sexual or asexual?Binary Fission, It's asexual.Protistseukaryotes that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungiProtozoanAn animal-like protistPseudopodA "false foot" or temporary bulge of cytoplasm used for feeding and movement in some protozoans.contractile vacuolesaclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cellciliaThe hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike mannerSymbiosisrelationship in which two species live closely togetherMutualismboth organisms benefitAlgaePlantlike protistssporeA reproductive cell with a hard, protective coatingList the four types of animal-like protists. How does each move or live?Pseudopods: Enable sarcodines to move Cilia: Have hair-like projections from the cells Flagella: uses long, whiplike flagella to move. Parasites: have flagella, or depend on the host to move.How are these types of protists similar to animals? How are they different?They are both heterotrophic. They differ because the protists are unicellular and animals are multicellular.In what ways are diatoms, dinoflagellates, and other plantlike protists similar to plants?They both need sunlight to surviveWhy is sunlight important to plantlike protists?It helps them get the food they need.In what ways are fungi like protists similar to fungi?They are both heterotrophic and have call wallsFungiKingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matterHyphaeThe branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungifruiting bodyreproductive structure of a fungus that grows from the myceliumBuddingA form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent.lichenAn organism made of a fungus and either algae or autotrophic bacteria that live together in a mutualistic relationship.List 3 characteristics that a bread mold shares with a mushroomThey grow into it food and infect it Grow in moist places Have cell wallsHow does the cell structure of a fungus help it obtain food?It helps digest the food source found so it can be absorbed into the hyphae.What role do spores play in the reproduction of fungi?It helps fungi grow identically to their parent in asexual reproduction and in sexual reproduction,it helps the fungi develop fungi that are different to their parent.Outline the steps by which fungi produce spores are produce spores in sexual reproduction:The hyphae of two fungi grow together Genetic material is exchanged A new reproductive structure grows from joined hyphae Produces spores The spores develop into fungi that differ from each parentWhy is it advantageous to a fungus to produce millions of spores:It is advantageous because it helps speed up the production of fungi.Name six roles that fungi play in nature.1. Environmental Recycling 2.Disease-fighting 3.Disease-causing 4.Fungus in plat roots 5.Lichensvascular tissuea system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move.Zygotefertilized eggCuticleA waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.nonvascular plantsPlants that lack a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materialsvascular plantsplants with true vascular tissuesporophyteThe stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spores.gametophyteThe stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells.PhloemThe vascular tissue through which food moves in some plantsXylemvascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plantpollenA fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plantsseedplant embryo and a food supply encased in a protective coveringGymnospermsA plant that produces seeds that are exposed rather than seeds enclosed in fruitsAngiospermsA flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.What are the 5 adaptations for plants living on land?Need to have ways of getting water and other nutrients Need to retain water Need to transport materials through their bodies Support their body reproduceWhat are the 2 groups in which plants are classified? Describe each.Nonvascular plants: plants that don't have a well-developed system of tubes that helps to transport water and other nutrients in their bodies. Vascular plants: Plants that have true vascular tissueExplain the 2 stages of plant life cycles.Sporophyte: the stage where plants start producing sopres. Gametophyte: The stage that plants start producing two kinds of sex cells: sperm cells and egg cells