1. Laboratory Basics and Pertinent Safety
This set will prepare you for the Patient Safety portion of the MLT/MLS ASCP registry exam. We will go over basic lab math and common calculations, as well as what the different warning placards mean.
Terms in this set (55)
The sum of all values divided by the total number of values
The middle value in a series of numbers
The most common value in a series of numbers
What is the equation for Standard Deviation?
In a standard bell curve, what percentage of values will fall within +/- 1 SD?
In a standard bell curve, what percentage of values will fall within +/- 2 SD?
What are the requirements for the Levy-Jennings chart to be within control?
These are called the Westgard Rules
1 2s rule
1 3s rule
2 2s rule
R 4s rule
4 1s rule
10 x rule
What is the first Westgard rule that is encountered?
How do you calculate the coefficient of variation?
CV= (SD/mean) x 100
Explain disease and reference curve overlap
Some of the test values which can be found in a healthy person can also be found in a patient with the disease. This makes interpreting tests rather complicated sometimes. This is why most diseases are diagnosed with BOTH clinical and laboratory evidence
Name the different types of centrifuges
fixed angle rotor
swinging bucket rotor
In what laboratory tool do you primarily find Borosilicate?
Beakers (Think B for borosilicate beakers), flasks and test tubes (Pyrex, Kimax). This glass has a high thermal resistance and NO heavy metal residues
In what laboratory tool do you primarily find Aluminum Silicate?
This is used when we need extremely Strong glass to be resistant to Scratching and clouding. (Think Silicate, Strong and resistant to Scratching) Even though it is no longer manufactured, you may still see this on exams and in some laboratories.
In what laboratory tool do you primarily find Low Actinic Glass?
This is used when protection from Light is necessary, usually with an added red dye to the glass. We usually find low actinic glass being used for control material, standards, and reagents.
Where is PolyProPylene found?
Plastic Pipette tips (notice the P's)
In what tools is poly(e)Thylene found?
Test Tubes (notice the T's). May (e)bsorb proteins, dyes, stains, and picric acid.
In what tools is polyCarbonate found?
Centrifuge tubes, graduated Cylinders, and flasks (notice the C's). Can be used in a wide range of temperature, but not for strong acids, bases, or oxidizing agents.
In what tools is polyStyrene found?
Rigid plastics which can Splinter and should NOT be autoclaved. Do NOT use hydrocarbons, ketones, or alcohols.
What centrifuge was this likely spun on?
Fixed rotor centrifuge
What centrifuge was this likely spun on?
swinging bucket centrifuge
What are the 5 requirements for CLRW?
Resistivity @ 25˚C >10 M(ohms)*cm
Bacteria Maximum of 10 CFU/mL
Total Organic Carbon <500 ng/g (ppb)
Silicates 0.05 mg SiO2/L
Particulates passed through a 0.22 um filter
What are the different levels of CLRW?
Level 3 is clean to wash out glassware
Level 2 is pure for use in buffers, and media prep
Level 1 is ultra pure for use in HPLC, AAS, or IVF
What is the requirement of analytical grade chemicals?
A complete listing of ALL impurities
What grade of chemicals is used for most reagents?
What grade is only of good enough quality for industrial processes?
What is a common preanalytical error with blood draws that you need to watch out for?
Improper filling of the tubes, leading to a reduced blood to anticoagulant ratio
List some preanalytical factors that can result in the sample becoming compromised
Exposure to light
Exposure to air
How many liters is a quart?
0.95 L = 1 Quart
How many mL equal one fluid ounce?
30mL = 1Fl. Oz
How many grams equal one ounce?
1 Ounce = 28.35 grams
How many grams equal one pound?
454 grams = 1 pound
How many feet are in a meter?
1 meter = 3.28 feet
What is the order of the common metric system prefixes?
Kilo = 10^3 = 1,000
Deci = 10^-1 = 0.1
Centi = 10^-2 = 0.01
Milli = 10^-3 = 0.001
Micro = 10^-6 = 0.000001
Nano = 10^-9 = 0.000000001
Pico = 10^-12 = 0.0000000000
How would you write a dilution in which you diluted 50uL of sample with 200 uL of water?
How would you write a dilution in which you diluted 50 uL of sample with 2000 uL of water?
1:41 dilution (We always write the dilution as parts we're diluting [50uL]/total number of parts [2,000+50 uL])
What is the equation to remember for any dilution problem?
C1V1 = C2V2
What is the difference between molarity and molality?
molarity is the molar concentration divided by the volume, whereas molality is the molar concentration divided by the weight. Since the weight of 0.1 mL is 1g, then molarity and molality in aqueous solutions are basically equivalent. Just know that they're different units and they technically mean different things.
What are the purposes of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)?
prevention of bloodborne pathogens
use of safety data sheets
appointment of a chemical hygiene officer
What legislation governs the resources in the medical laboratory?
Clean water act
Resource conservation and recovery act
Toxic substances control act
What does the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) provide?
general laboratory safety and exposure control guidelines. Previously known as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) written in 1988.
What should you always wear in the laboratory?
Gloves and a lab coat, other PPE when performing tests
What is the most important factor in infection control and chemical hygiene?
Washing your hands after taking your gloves off. The use of antibacterial soap is NOT as important as the physical act of washing your hands with water.
Where is all relevant chemical data found for chemicals in your laboratory?
Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
What classification is a fire of ordinarily combustible things like wood and paper?
What classification is a fire of flammable grease?
What classification is a fire which was started and is being perpetuated by electricity?
What classification is a fire that involves flammable metals?
What fire extinguisher can be used for Class A, B, and C fires?
Dry chemical extinguisher
What fire extinguisher can be used for Class B and C fires?
Carbon dioxide extinguisher
What fire extinguisher can be used for Class A fires?
What fire extinguisher can be used for Class D fires?
Metal X extinguisher, sometimes sand can exclude enough oxygen from the reaction
What 3 elements need to be present for a fire to promulgate?
Heat, Fuel, and Oxygen
What does a 4 in the blue quadrant of the hazardous materials placard mean?
Deadly if exposed
What does a 4 in the yellow quadrant of the hazardous materials placard mean?
What does a 4 in the red quadrant of the hazardous materials placard mean?
Flash point <73˚F
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