STATISTICS
The media often present short reports of the results of experiments. To the critical reader or listener, such reports often raise more questions than they answer. Comment on possible pitfalls in the interpretation of each of the following. a. It is reported that patients whose hospital rooms have a window recover faster than those whose rooms do not. b. Nonsmoking wives whose husbands smoke have a cancer rate twice that of wives whose husbands do not smoke. c. A 2-year study in North Carolina found that 75% of all industrial accidents in the state happened to workers who had skipped breakfast. d. A school integration program involved busing children from minority schools to majority (primarily white) schools. Participation in the program was voluntary. It was found that the students who were bused scored lower on standardized tests than did their peers who chose not to be bused. e. When a group of students were asked to match pictures of newborns with pictures of their mothers, they were correct 36% of the time. f. A survey found that those who drank a moderate amount of beer were healthier than those who totally abstained from alcohol. g. A 15-year study of more than 45,000 Swedish soldiers revealed that heavy users of marijuana were six times more likely than nonusers to develop schizophrenia. h. A University of Wisconsin study showed that within 10 years of the wedding, 38% of those who had lived together before marriage had split up, compared to 27% of those who had married without a “trial period.” i. A study of nearly 4,000 elderly North Carolinians has found that those who attended religious services every week were 46% less likely to die over a six-year period than people who attended less often or not at all, according to researchers at Duke University Medical Center.