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Study sets matching "3 molecular biology sec"

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Study sets matching "3 molecular biology sec"

108 terms
Bio Sec.1: Molecular Biology
Macromolecules
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Main source of ener…
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simp…
Macromolecules
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Polymers
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
21 terms
Unit 3 Molecular Biology
monomer
polymer
carbohydrates
monosaccharides
"one part"; subunit that serves as the building block of a po…
"many parts"; long chain of subunits (monomers); also called…
used for short-term energy; Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen in a 1:2…
"one sugar"; subunit/monomer of carbohydrates; combine togeth…
monomer
"one part"; subunit that serves as the building block of a po…
polymer
"many parts"; long chain of subunits (monomers); also called…
89 terms
Biology: Molecular Genetics 3?
Genes are composed of ________.
Where is DNA found in the cell?
A _______ is the basic unit of the pol…
What are the 3 components of a nucleot…
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Only in the nucleus
nucleotide
1. deoxyribose sugar... 2. nitrogenous base... 3. phosphate group
Genes are composed of ________.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Where is DNA found in the cell?
Only in the nucleus
44 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3 (Lecture 16)
Types of regulated genes
- regulation
+ regulation
Regulated Genes
- regulation ... + regulation
Genes that are always on, can be turned off by inhibitor that…
Genes that are always off, can be turned on (eukaryotes)
not continuously expressed, turned on when needed (growth/div…
Types of regulated genes
- regulation ... + regulation
- regulation
Genes that are always on, can be turned off by inhibitor that…
98 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Types of RNA (by complexity)
Types of RNA (by mass)
mRNA
rRNA
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
messenger RNA - RNA molecules that are created during transcr…
ribosomal RNA, foms the basic structure of the ribosome and c…
Types of RNA (by complexity)
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
Types of RNA (by mass)
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
97 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Types of RNA (by complexity)
Types of RNA (by mass)
mRNA
rRNA
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
messenger RNA - RNA molecules that are created during transcr…
ribosomal RNA, foms the basic structure of the ribosome and c…
Types of RNA (by complexity)
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
Types of RNA (by mass)
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
104 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
What are the three methods of DNA repl…
DNA Helicase
DNA Polymerase
DNA-DNA-RNA-Protein... DNA is replicated into more DNA by DNA po…
1. Conservative Replication: One daughter molecule will have…
The "zipper" enzyme that unwinds the DNA for replication.
The enzyme that makes the complementary daughter DNA strands…
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA-DNA-RNA-Protein... DNA is replicated into more DNA by DNA po…
What are the three methods of DNA repl…
1. Conservative Replication: One daughter molecule will have…
83 terms
Topic 3: Molecular Biology
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Organic Compounds
The web of all the enzyme catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules inc…
- All carbon containing compounds except oxides of carbon and…
Metabolism
The web of all the enzyme catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
Anabolism
The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
63 terms
Molecular biology U.3
matter
Atomic structure
Elements
Compounds
physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spir…
the structure of an atom
each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemi…
a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are che…
matter
physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spir…
Atomic structure
the structure of an atom
54 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Shine-Dalgarno Sequence
Translational coupling
Eukaryotic recruitment of ribosomes
Kozak sequence
Ribosome-binding site (RBS) found on many prokaryotic mRNAs u…
If there is an ORF located just after another (in polycistron…
Done via the 5' cap on the mRNA... - A methylated guanine attach…
Eukaryotic mRNAs... A purine three bases upstream of the start…
Shine-Dalgarno Sequence
Ribosome-binding site (RBS) found on many prokaryotic mRNAs u…
Translational coupling
If there is an ORF located just after another (in polycistron…
22 terms
Molecular Cell Biology 3
seal
clamp
translocate
proximal
to close/fasten something tightly
to hold or fasten something very tightly so that it does not…
to move or transfer from one place to another; cause to chang…
near the point of attachment
seal
to close/fasten something tightly
clamp
to hold or fasten something very tightly so that it does not…
34 terms
Molecular Biology Vocabulary <3
organelle
cellular respiration
photosynthesis
digestion
one of the small bodies in the cell's cytoplasm that are spec…
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from…
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sun…
the process of breaking down and digesting nutrients for ener…
organelle
one of the small bodies in the cell's cytoplasm that are spec…
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from…
31 terms
Molecular biology Lecture 3
2' OH
uracil
single stranded
tertiary structures
One of the properties of RNA that differs from DNA
replaces T in RNA... basically the same as T with out a methane…
RNA
absent in DNA but exist in RNA... form of folding in
2' OH
One of the properties of RNA that differs from DNA
uracil
replaces T in RNA... basically the same as T with out a methane…
66 terms
biology: molecular bio. ch. 4 sec. 1-3 judd honors 1
subatomic particle
atom
element
molecule
...
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down; build…
a substance made up of atoms that have the same number of pro…
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
subatomic particle
...
atom
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down; build…
8 terms
Molecular Biology (Part 3)
Prophase 1
Metaphase 1
Anaphase 1
Telophase 1
each duplicated chromosome comes near its similar duplicated…
the pairs of duplicated chromosomes line up in the center of…
Chromatids do not seperate. The two pairs of chromatids of ea…
The cytoplasm divides and two new cells form. Each new cell h…
Prophase 1
each duplicated chromosome comes near its similar duplicated…
Metaphase 1
the pairs of duplicated chromosomes line up in the center of…
35 terms
Unit 3: Molecular Biology
Monomer
Polymer
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units…
Broken down to simple sugars
Carbohydrate monomers
Monomer
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
Polymer
A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units…
12 terms
Cell & Molecular Biology #3
activation energy
enzyme
substrate
product
the energy that must be acquired by a molecule to undergo a c…
a protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
a molecule on which an enzyme acts
...
activation energy
the energy that must be acquired by a molecule to undergo a c…
enzyme
a protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
102 terms
Molecular Biology 3
What are the two consequences of error…
What are the two types of mutations th…
Transition mutation
Translation mutation
1. permanent DNA mutations can alter the coding sequence of a…
Transition and Transversion
pyrimidine --> pyrimidine ( T to C)... or purine --> purine ( A…
pyrimidine --> purine or vice versa.... ( T to A/G) or ( A to T/C)
What are the two consequences of error…
1. permanent DNA mutations can alter the coding sequence of a…
What are the two types of mutations th…
Transition and Transversion
85 terms
Molecular Biology (EXAM 3)
Specific sequences at 5' end of an mRN…
Retrograde transport from cis-Golgi ne…
The final orientation of membrane prot…
Polyadenylation at the 3' UTR of mRNA…
True
False
True
True
Specific sequences at 5' end of an mRN…
True
Retrograde transport from cis-Golgi ne…
False
143 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
A(n)
CAT
CAAT
Histone
Abbreviation for the number of A's attached in the Poly A tai…
Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase; assay for eukaryotic prom…
An upstream motif, having the sequence CCAAT, found in many e…
A class of five small, basic proteins intimately associated w…
A(n)
Abbreviation for the number of A's attached in the Poly A tai…
CAT
Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase; assay for eukaryotic prom…
35 terms
Molecular Biology 3
Describe the causes and effects of mut…
List the 3 effects of substituting one…
Describe conservative mutation.
Describe non conservative mutation.
Errors in DNA synthesis occur spontaneously at low frequency…
Conservative mutation... Non-conservative mutation... No mutation
The amino acid is replaced by one with similar properties- th…
The amino acid is replaced by one with different properties-…
Describe the causes and effects of mut…
Errors in DNA synthesis occur spontaneously at low frequency…
List the 3 effects of substituting one…
Conservative mutation... Non-conservative mutation... No mutation
41 terms
3.5 - Molecular Biology
AMYL-
Calc-, calci-
CARCIN-
centr-
starch, polysaccharide (Greek Base)
calcium (Latin Base x2)
cancer (Greek Base)
center (Latin Base)
AMYL-
starch, polysaccharide (Greek Base)
Calc-, calci-
calcium (Latin Base x2)
87 terms
Molecular Biology (5.3)
tRNA
anticodon
amino acid acceptor site
tRNA for valine is written as ____
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
always the same: CCA at the 3' end of tRNA... each tRNA is speci…
tRNAval
tRNA
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
anticodon
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
26 terms
Molecular biology 3
What are the differences in DNA and RN…
Describe transcription
What is the coding strand?
What is a promoter?
1. DNA = stable double helix... 2. RNA = more complex structure,…
1. Unwound DNA is the template... 2. Promoter attract RNA polyme…
1. Non-template strand ... 2. Similar to RNA except U for T
1. Short region of 100-200 bases... 2. Upstream to transcription…
What are the differences in DNA and RN…
1. DNA = stable double helix... 2. RNA = more complex structure,…
Describe transcription
1. Unwound DNA is the template... 2. Promoter attract RNA polyme…
20 terms
2.3 Molecular biology
alpha glucose
beta glucose
cellulose
starch
-OH group points downwards
-OH group points upwards
made by linking together beta glucose molecules, cellulose is…
made by linking together alpha glucose molecules, only made i…
alpha glucose
-OH group points downwards
beta glucose
-OH group points upwards
23 terms
Molecular Biology L3
What does RNA consist of?
Main Difference between RNA and DNA
Most RNA strands are single stranded u…
What are the three RNA's used in Trans…
Ribonucleotide monomer
RNA contains Uracil not Thymine
they fold into 3-dimensional structures with structural, cata…
-mRNA (Messenger)... -rRNA (Ribosomal)... -tRNA (transfer)
What does RNA consist of?
Ribonucleotide monomer
Main Difference between RNA and DNA
RNA contains Uracil not Thymine
11 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 3
Define transposition
Name the chromosomal variant types (5)
Define karyotype
Define tranposon
Inserting a transposon
Normal... Duplication... Deletion... Insertion... Inversion
# of chromosomes of an individual
DNA segments capable of moving from one place in the genome t…
Define transposition
Inserting a transposon
Name the chromosomal variant types (5)
Normal... Duplication... Deletion... Insertion... Inversion
38 terms
Molecular Biology Lecture 3
Semi-conservative
Bidirectional' opposite directions
DNA polymerases
Template, primer, incoming dNTP, magne…
DNA replication is ______, each strand acts as a template for…
DNA replication is _____; in eukaryotes its moves in ______
________ are enzymes that synthesize DNA
DNA synthesis requires
Semi-conservative
DNA replication is ______, each strand acts as a template for…
Bidirectional' opposite directions
DNA replication is _____; in eukaryotes its moves in ______
34 terms
Biology Test #3: Molecular Biology
transcription, translation and proteins
Replication
Transcription
Translation
What is the the Central Dogma?
What is the process between DNA -> DNA called?
What is the process between DNA -> RNA called?
What is the process between RNA -> Proteins called?
transcription, translation and proteins
What is the the Central Dogma?
Replication
What is the process between DNA -> DNA called?
102 terms
Molecular biology chapter 3
Who discovered DNA and when?
Significance of Friedrich Wohler
Significance of Oswald Avery
Components of nucleotides
Frederich Miescher, 1869, extracted from pus of infected wounds
1828, showed living organisms obey the laws of chemistry
Displayed the significance of DNA with virulent strains of ba…
A phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base
Who discovered DNA and when?
Frederich Miescher, 1869, extracted from pus of infected wounds
Significance of Friedrich Wohler
1828, showed living organisms obey the laws of chemistry
22 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 3
How are DNA errors corrected? (3 ways)
Why do germ cells have low mutation ra…
Why do somatic cells have low mutation…
How is the "finger-tightening" mechani…
Proofreading.... Repair.... Post-replication repair
To preserve species
Avoid uncontrolled proliferation/cancer
Enzyme tightens around active site, easy to do if correct bas…
How are DNA errors corrected? (3 ways)
Proofreading.... Repair.... Post-replication repair
Why do germ cells have low mutation ra…
To preserve species
87 terms
Molecular Biology - Exam 3
Ways in which RNA is processed in euka…
The component(s) of an mRNA's 5' cap
The mechanism that attracts various ma…
Functions of the 5' mRNA cap
1. 5' cap... 2. Splicing... 3. Polyadenine tail
7-methyl guanosine... 5'-5' triphosphate linkage
Phosphorylation state of CTD tail
1. Protection from 5' exonucleases... 2. Increased ribosomal rec…
Ways in which RNA is processed in euka…
1. 5' cap... 2. Splicing... 3. Polyadenine tail
The component(s) of an mRNA's 5' cap
7-methyl guanosine... 5'-5' triphosphate linkage
142 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
3' polyadenylation
5' capping
core promoter element
enhancer sequence
-the addition of a tail to messenger RNA, consisting of a str…
a specially altered nucleotide on the end of mRNA that protec…
these are minimal sequences needed to establish or initiate t…
-they bind regulated transcription factors... -stimulate transcr…
3' polyadenylation
-the addition of a tail to messenger RNA, consisting of a str…
5' capping
a specially altered nucleotide on the end of mRNA that protec…
112 terms
molecular biology 3
dna profiling
sequences used in DNA profiling
intergenic sequences
genome wide repeats
set of technologies that allows comparison between variable g…
noncoding; intergenic, genome wide repeats, micro/minisatelli…
more variation, specifically noncoding repeats at centromere…
generated by transposons, have longer repeat unit
dna profiling
set of technologies that allows comparison between variable g…
sequences used in DNA profiling
noncoding; intergenic, genome wide repeats, micro/minisatelli…
9 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 3
DNA methylation
Protein Modifications
Mendelian Characteristics
Non Mendelian Characteristics
...
...
...
...
DNA methylation
...
Protein Modifications
...
78 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
Photosynthesis
Photoautotroph
What kind of organisms have chloroplas…
Chlorophyll
Chloroplasts absorb light to make sugar for cellular respirat…
- Self feeding, makes its own food... - ex: plants, some bacteri…
Eukaryotic photoautotrophs (some protist and plant cells)
Found in the chloroplast, a green pigment that captures light…
Photosynthesis
Chloroplasts absorb light to make sugar for cellular respirat…
Photoautotroph
- Self feeding, makes its own food... - ex: plants, some bacteri…
83 terms
Molecular Biology Quiz 3
EMBL
DDBJ
UniProt
PIR
Nucleotide Sequence Database that is equivalent to the US Gen…
based in Japan's National institute of Genetics, 3rd of three…
single protein database that combines information from major…
Grew out of the Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure which…
EMBL
Nucleotide Sequence Database that is equivalent to the US Gen…
DDBJ
based in Japan's National institute of Genetics, 3rd of three…
69 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
Transposable elements or transposons
1. Autonomous elements vs. 2. non-auto…
types of transposable elements
discovery of transposons
Are pieces of DBA that can move around the genome and insert…
1. Elements that encode their mobility proteins, create own t…
1. DNA vs. RNA - some transposons requires only DNA (Class II…
...
Transposable elements or transposons
Are pieces of DBA that can move around the genome and insert…
1. Autonomous elements vs. 2. non-auto…
1. Elements that encode their mobility proteins, create own t…
45 terms
Molecular Biology- Chapter 3
Organic Compounds
Carbon
Single bond
Double bond
Primarily made up of carbon atoms
An element that can bond to itself (other carbon atoms)... Makes…
Two atoms sharing one pair of electrons
Two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons
Organic Compounds
Primarily made up of carbon atoms
Carbon
An element that can bond to itself (other carbon atoms)... Makes…
66 terms
Bio 3: Molecular Biology
pyrimidines
purines
GC pair
AT pair
C U and T
A and G
held together by 3 hydrogen bonds
held together by 2 hydrogen bonds
pyrimidines
C U and T
purines
A and G
12 terms
Glencoe Biology Chapter 3 Sec 3
sediment
littoal zone
limnetic zone
plankton
material deposited by water, wind and glaciers
area of a lake or pond closest to the shore
In a lake, the well-lit, open surface waters farther from sho…
tiny marine or freshwater organisms that serve as a food sour…
sediment
material deposited by water, wind and glaciers
littoal zone
area of a lake or pond closest to the shore
104 terms
Exam 3 Molecular Biology
Structure of DNA
Purines and Pyrimidines why will they…
Purines
Pyrimidines
They covalently link together to form a stand with a backbone…
Contain 2 rings and have Guanine (G) and Adenine (A)
Contain single ring and has Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C)
Structure of DNA
Purines and Pyrimidines why will they…
They covalently link together to form a stand with a backbone…
59 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
What is a transcription factor?
What is a general transcription factor?
What is a tissue specific transcriptio…
What is RNA polymerase II?
A molecule that controls the expression of a gene and the acc…
Transcription factor that binds to the core promoter on DNA f…
TF that mediates entry of DNA in cell specific manners
Synthesizes most mRNA (in association with transcription fact…
What is a transcription factor?
A molecule that controls the expression of a gene and the acc…
What is a general transcription factor?
Transcription factor that binds to the core promoter on DNA f…
Molecular Biology: Chapter 3
Polymer
Monomer
Hydrolisis
Macromolecules
a long chain of repeated linked molecules (units)
one unit of a polymer
water is used to break down a polymer
large molecules
Polymer
a long chain of repeated linked molecules (units)
Monomer
one unit of a polymer
26 terms
Molecular Biology 2.3
Describe Monosaccharides
Describe Disaccharides
Describe Polysaccharides
How does condensation build? What proc…
Single sugar units. E.g.Glucose, fructose, ribose and galactose
Two monosaccharides linked together. e.g.... Maltose (2 glucose…
Many monosaccharides linked together. E.g. Starch, Glycogen a…
Loss of an -OH from one molecule and an -H from another molec…
Describe Monosaccharides
Single sugar units. E.g.Glucose, fructose, ribose and galactose
Describe Disaccharides
Two monosaccharides linked together. e.g.... Maltose (2 glucose…
26 terms
BIOLOGY Molecular 2.3
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
An organic molecule, carbon links to H and OH
A carbohydrate monomer
A sugar/carb composed of two monosaccharides
A chain of monosaccharides
Carbohydrate
An organic molecule, carbon links to H and OH
Monosaccharide
A carbohydrate monomer
23 terms
Molecular Biology - Booklet 3
Transcription
Introns
Exons
Initiation in Transcription
Occurs in the nucleus, synthesis of RNA from a parental DNA t…
Junk sections of genetics
Coding (relevant) portions of genetics
RNA Polymerase binds with promoter and DNA strand unwinds to…
Transcription
Occurs in the nucleus, synthesis of RNA from a parental DNA t…
Introns
Junk sections of genetics
22 terms
Chapter 12-Molecular Genetics, sec. 3&4
RNA
Messenger RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Transfer RNA
Nucleic acid that is similar to DNA
Long strands of RNA nucleotides that are formed complementary…
Type of RNA that associates with proteins to form ribosomes i…
Smaller segments of RNA nucleotides that transport amino acid…
RNA
Nucleic acid that is similar to DNA
Messenger RNA
Long strands of RNA nucleotides that are formed complementary…
54 terms
Molecular Biology Exam #3 (Lecture 13)
transgenics
exogenous
horizontal gene transfer
Why transgenic animals?
transferring genes from one organism to another which ends up…
introduced gene from the outside (artificial- horizontal gene…
same generation
-express mutant forms... - gene expression... - commercial importan…
transgenics
transferring genes from one organism to another which ends up…
exogenous
introduced gene from the outside (artificial- horizontal gene…
87 terms
Molecular Biology (5.3)
tRNA
anticodon
amino acid acceptor site
tRNA for valine is written as ____
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
always the same: CCA at the 3' end of tRNA... each tRNA is speci…
tRNAval
tRNA
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
anticodon
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
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