Study sets matching "3 molecular biology sec"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "3 molecular biology sec"

108 terms
Bio Sec.1: Molecular Biology
Macromolecules
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Main source of ener…
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simp…
Macromolecules
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Polymers
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
23 terms
Molecular Biology 2.3
Monosaccharides monomers
Monomers
Polymer
Disaccharides
Single sugar units linked together by condensation reactions…
A molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules
A large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated…
Two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond, formed during…
Monosaccharides monomers
Single sugar units linked together by condensation reactions…
Monomers
A molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules
21 terms
Unit 3 Molecular Biology
monomer
polymer
carbohydrates
monosaccharides
"one part"; subunit that serves as the building block of a po…
"many parts"; long chain of subunits (monomers); also called…
used for short-term energy; Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen in a 1:2…
"one sugar"; subunit/monomer of carbohydrates; combine togeth…
monomer
"one part"; subunit that serves as the building block of a po…
polymer
"many parts"; long chain of subunits (monomers); also called…
54 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Shine-Dalgarno Sequence
Translational coupling
Eukaryotic recruitment of ribosomes
Kozak sequence
Ribosome-binding site (RBS) found on many prokaryotic mRNAs u…
If there is an ORF located just after another (in polycistron…
Done via the 5' cap on the mRNA... - A methylated guanine attach…
Eukaryotic mRNAs... A purine three bases upstream of the start…
Shine-Dalgarno Sequence
Ribosome-binding site (RBS) found on many prokaryotic mRNAs u…
Translational coupling
If there is an ORF located just after another (in polycistron…
98 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Types of RNA (by complexity)
Types of RNA (by mass)
mRNA
rRNA
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
messenger RNA - RNA molecules that are created during transcr…
ribosomal RNA, foms the basic structure of the ribosome and c…
Types of RNA (by complexity)
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
Types of RNA (by mass)
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
104 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
What are the three methods of DNA repl…
DNA Helicase
DNA Polymerase
DNA-DNA-RNA-Protein... DNA is replicated into more DNA by DNA po…
1. Conservative Replication: One daughter molecule will have…
The "zipper" enzyme that unwinds the DNA for replication.
The enzyme that makes the complementary daughter DNA strands…
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA-DNA-RNA-Protein... DNA is replicated into more DNA by DNA po…
What are the three methods of DNA repl…
1. Conservative Replication: One daughter molecule will have…
63 terms
Molecular biology U.3
matter
Atomic structure
Elements
Compounds
physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spir…
the structure of an atom
each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemi…
a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are che…
matter
physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spir…
Atomic structure
the structure of an atom
102 terms
Molecular Biology 3
What are the two consequences of error…
What are the two types of mutations th…
Transition mutation
Translation mutation
1. permanent DNA mutations can alter the coding sequence of a…
Transition and Transversion
pyrimidine --> pyrimidine ( T to C)... or purine --> purine ( A…
pyrimidine --> purine or vice versa.... ( T to A/G) or ( A to T/C)
What are the two consequences of error…
1. permanent DNA mutations can alter the coding sequence of a…
What are the two types of mutations th…
Transition and Transversion
34 terms
Molecular Biology Vocabulary <3
organelle
cellular respiration
photosynthesis
digestion
one of the small bodies in the cell's cytoplasm that are spec…
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from…
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sun…
the process of breaking down and digesting nutrients for ener…
organelle
one of the small bodies in the cell's cytoplasm that are spec…
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from…
3.5 - Molecular Biology
AMYL-
Calc-, calci-
CARCIN-
centr-
starch, polysaccharide (Greek Base)
calcium (Latin Base x2)
cancer (Greek Base)
center (Latin Base)
AMYL-
starch, polysaccharide (Greek Base)
Calc-, calci-
calcium (Latin Base x2)
87 terms
Molecular Biology (5.3)
tRNA
anticodon
amino acid acceptor site
tRNA for valine is written as ____
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
always the same: CCA at the 3' end of tRNA... each tRNA is speci…
tRNAval
tRNA
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
anticodon
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
DAT biology thooooo: Sec. 7 (Molecular Genetics)
DNA codes for ____, which regulate che…
both DNA and RNA are polymers of ___
a nucleotide monomer consists of: (3 p…
this type of RNA provides the instruct…
enzymes
nucleotides
—nitrogen base... —sugar... —phosphate
mRNA
DNA codes for ____, which regulate che…
enzymes
both DNA and RNA are polymers of ___
nucleotides
89 terms
Biology: Molecular Genetics 3?
Genes are composed of ________.
Where is DNA found in the cell?
A _______ is the basic unit of the pol…
What are the 3 components of a nucleot…
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Only in the nucleus
nucleotide
1. deoxyribose sugar... 2. nitrogenous base... 3. phosphate group
Genes are composed of ________.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Where is DNA found in the cell?
Only in the nucleus
11 terms
Molecular Biology: Lecture 3
Define transposition
Name the chromosomal variant types (5)
Define karyotype
Define tranposon
Inserting a transposon
Normal... Duplication... Deletion... Insertion... Inversion
# of chromosomes of an individual
DNA segments capable of moving from one place in the genome t…
Define transposition
Inserting a transposon
Name the chromosomal variant types (5)
Normal... Duplication... Deletion... Insertion... Inversion
38 terms
Molecular Biology Lecture 3
Semi-conservative
Bidirectional' opposite directions
DNA polymerases
Template, primer, incoming dNTP, magne…
DNA replication is ______, each strand acts as a template for…
DNA replication is _____; in eukaryotes its moves in ______
________ are enzymes that synthesize DNA
DNA synthesis requires
Semi-conservative
DNA replication is ______, each strand acts as a template for…
Bidirectional' opposite directions
DNA replication is _____; in eukaryotes its moves in ______
Molecular biology Lecture 3
2' OH
uracil
single stranded
tertiary structures
One of the properties of RNA that differs from DNA
replaces T in RNA... basically the same as T with out a methane…
RNA
absent in DNA but exist in RNA... form of folding in
2' OH
One of the properties of RNA that differs from DNA
uracil
replaces T in RNA... basically the same as T with out a methane…
102 terms
Molecular biology chapter 3
Who discovered DNA and when?
Significance of Friedrich Wohler
Significance of Oswald Avery
Components of nucleotides
Frederich Miescher, 1869, extracted from pus of infected wounds
1828, showed living organisms obey the laws of chemistry
Displayed the significance of DNA with virulent strains of ba…
A phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base
Who discovered DNA and when?
Frederich Miescher, 1869, extracted from pus of infected wounds
Significance of Friedrich Wohler
1828, showed living organisms obey the laws of chemistry
Molecular Biology (Part 3)
Prophase 1
Metaphase 1
Anaphase 1
Telophase 1
each duplicated chromosome comes near its similar duplicated…
the pairs of duplicated chromosomes line up in the center of…
Chromatids do not seperate. The two pairs of chromatids of ea…
The cytoplasm divides and two new cells form. Each new cell h…
Prophase 1
each duplicated chromosome comes near its similar duplicated…
Metaphase 1
the pairs of duplicated chromosomes line up in the center of…
35 terms
Unit 3: Molecular Biology
Monomer
Polymer
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units…
Broken down to simple sugars
Carbohydrate monomers
Monomer
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
Polymer
A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units…
97 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Types of RNA (by complexity)
Types of RNA (by mass)
mRNA
rRNA
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
messenger RNA - RNA molecules that are created during transcr…
ribosomal RNA, foms the basic structure of the ribosome and c…
Types of RNA (by complexity)
mRNA, IncRNAs > 30,000... tRNA, other small RNAs < 100... rRNA, 3
Types of RNA (by mass)
rRNA - 80%... tRNA, other small stable RNAs - 15%... mRNA, IncRNAs…
41 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
acetyltransferase
activator
allosteric modification of CAP
allosteric modification of the lac rep…
transcribed by the lac A structural gene of the lac operon
increase the frequency of initiation
this increases the ability to bind to DNA after binding cAMP.…
this decreases the ability to bind DNA upon binding allolacto…
acetyltransferase
transcribed by the lac A structural gene of the lac operon
activator
increase the frequency of initiation
142 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
3' polyadenylation
5' capping
core promoter element
enhancer sequence
-the addition of a tail to messenger RNA, consisting of a str…
a specially altered nucleotide on the end of mRNA that protec…
these are minimal sequences needed to establish or initiate t…
-they bind regulated transcription factors... -stimulate transcr…
3' polyadenylation
-the addition of a tail to messenger RNA, consisting of a str…
5' capping
a specially altered nucleotide on the end of mRNA that protec…
83 terms
Molecular Biology Quiz 3
EMBL
DDBJ
UniProt
PIR
Nucleotide Sequence Database that is equivalent to the US Gen…
based in Japan's National institute of Genetics, 3rd of three…
single protein database that combines information from major…
Grew out of the Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure which…
EMBL
Nucleotide Sequence Database that is equivalent to the US Gen…
DDBJ
based in Japan's National institute of Genetics, 3rd of three…
Molecular Biology- Chapter 3
Organic Compounds
Carbon
Single bond
Double bond
Primarily made up of carbon atoms
An element that can bond to itself (other carbon atoms)... Makes…
Two atoms sharing one pair of electrons
Two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons
Organic Compounds
Primarily made up of carbon atoms
Carbon
An element that can bond to itself (other carbon atoms)... Makes…
83 terms
Topic 3: Molecular Biology
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Organic Compounds
The web of all the enzyme catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules inc…
- All carbon containing compounds except oxides of carbon and…
Metabolism
The web of all the enzyme catalysed reactions in a cell or or…
Anabolism
The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules inc…
22 terms
Molecular Cell Biology 3
seal
clamp
translocate
proximal
to close/fasten something tightly
to hold or fasten something very tightly so that it does not…
to move or transfer from one place to another; cause to chang…
near the point of attachment
seal
to close/fasten something tightly
clamp
to hold or fasten something very tightly so that it does not…
127 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
Function of snRNA's
Function of miRNA's
Function of siRNA's
Give error rate of RNA pol compared to…
help in splicing of pre-mRNA
regulate gene expression by blocking translation of selective…
turn off gene expressiong by directing degradation of selecti…
1,000x greater
Function of snRNA's
help in splicing of pre-mRNA
Function of miRNA's
regulate gene expression by blocking translation of selective…
16 terms
#3 Molecular Biology
Nucleoside-
Nucleotide-
Purines
Pyrimidines
ribose + base
ribose + base + 3 phophates
guanine + adenine
cytosine + thymine + uracil
Nucleoside-
ribose + base
Nucleotide-
ribose + base + 3 phophates
Molecular Biology: Chapter 3
Polymer
Monomer
Hydrolisis
Macromolecules
a long chain of repeated linked molecules (units)
one unit of a polymer
water is used to break down a polymer
large molecules
Polymer
a long chain of repeated linked molecules (units)
Monomer
one unit of a polymer
143 terms
Molecular Biology Exam 3
A(n)
CAT
CAAT
Histone
Abbreviation for the number of A's attached in the Poly A tai…
Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase; assay for eukaryotic prom…
An upstream motif, having the sequence CCAAT, found in many e…
A class of five small, basic proteins intimately associated w…
A(n)
Abbreviation for the number of A's attached in the Poly A tai…
CAT
Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase; assay for eukaryotic prom…
Molecular Biology Ch. 3
DNA methylation
Protein Modifications
Mendelian Characteristics
Non Mendelian Characteristics
...
...
...
...
DNA methylation
...
Protein Modifications
...
44 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3 (Lecture 16)
Types of regulated genes
- regulation
+ regulation
Regulated Genes
- regulation ... + regulation
Genes that are always on, can be turned off by inhibitor that…
Genes that are always off, can be turned on (eukaryotes)
not continuously expressed, turned on when needed (growth/div…
Types of regulated genes
- regulation ... + regulation
- regulation
Genes that are always on, can be turned off by inhibitor that…
23 terms
Molecular Biology - Booklet 3
Transcription
Introns
Exons
Initiation in Transcription
Occurs in the nucleus, synthesis of RNA from a parental DNA t…
Junk sections of genetics
Coding (relevant) portions of genetics
RNA Polymerase binds with promoter and DNA strand unwinds to…
Transcription
Occurs in the nucleus, synthesis of RNA from a parental DNA t…
Introns
Junk sections of genetics
12 terms
Cell & Molecular Biology #3
activation energy
enzyme
substrate
product
the energy that must be acquired by a molecule to undergo a c…
a protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
a molecule on which an enzyme acts
...
activation energy
the energy that must be acquired by a molecule to undergo a c…
enzyme
a protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
Molecular Cell Biology 3
ligand
intracellular receptors
cell surface receptors
endocrine signaling
attach to membrane receptor and trigger changes inside the ce…
hormone secreted & released; diffuses across cell membrane an…
ligands bind to membrane receptor sites and create a change w…
hypothalamus release hormones into blood stream to distant ta…
ligand
attach to membrane receptor and trigger changes inside the ce…
intracellular receptors
hormone secreted & released; diffuses across cell membrane an…
87 terms
Molecular Biology (5.3)
tRNA
anticodon
amino acid acceptor site
tRNA for valine is written as ____
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
always the same: CCA at the 3' end of tRNA... each tRNA is speci…
tRNAval
tRNA
stem-and-loop structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds b/w base…
anticodon
a sequence of 3 ribonucleotides complementary to the mRNA codon
48 terms
molecular biology week 3
Central dogma
Replication
Transcription
Translation
DNA -> RNA -> Protein... States that information flows in one di…
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself bef…
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a…
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in m…
Central dogma
DNA -> RNA -> Protein... States that information flows in one di…
Replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself bef…
66 terms
biology: molecular bio. ch. 4 sec. 1-3 judd honors 1
subatomic particle
atom
element
molecule
...
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down; build…
a substance made up of atoms that have the same number of pro…
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
subatomic particle
...
atom
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down; build…
59 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
What is a transcription factor?
What is a general transcription factor?
What is a tissue specific transcriptio…
What is RNA polymerase II?
A molecule that controls the expression of a gene and the acc…
Transcription factor that binds to the core promoter on DNA f…
TF that mediates entry of DNA in cell specific manners
Synthesizes most mRNA (in association with transcription fact…
What is a transcription factor?
A molecule that controls the expression of a gene and the acc…
What is a general transcription factor?
Transcription factor that binds to the core promoter on DNA f…
34 terms
Biology Test #3: Molecular Biology
transcription, translation and proteins
Replication
Transcription
Translation
What is the the Central Dogma?
What is the process between DNA -> DNA called?
What is the process between DNA -> RNA called?
What is the process between RNA -> Proteins called?
transcription, translation and proteins
What is the the Central Dogma?
Replication
What is the process between DNA -> DNA called?
37 terms
Molecular Biology Chapter 3
codon
Template strand
Is the non-template strand used in tra…
what are proteins?
3 base sequence that determines what amino acid is used
the DNA strand that is used to generate the mRNA
no
chain-like polymers of small subunits called amino acids
codon
3 base sequence that determines what amino acid is used
Template strand
the DNA strand that is used to generate the mRNA
Molecular Biology Unit 3
What does RecBCD do in prokaryotic dou…
What does RecA do in prokaryotic doubl…
What are the eukaryotic analogues of R…
What are the 3 stages of RecA strand e…
RecBCD processes DNA to produce a 3' ssDNA tail.
RecA promotes strand invasion and recognizes homologous seque…
Rad51 in mitotic cells, and DMC1 in meiotic cells.
Presynapsis (Coating), Synapsis (Aligning complementary seque…
What does RecBCD do in prokaryotic dou…
RecBCD processes DNA to produce a 3' ssDNA tail.
What does RecA do in prokaryotic doubl…
RecA promotes strand invasion and recognizes homologous seque…
12 terms
Glencoe Biology Chapter 3 Sec 3
sediment
littoal zone
limnetic zone
plankton
material deposited by water, wind and glaciers
area of a lake or pond closest to the shore
In a lake, the well-lit, open surface waters farther from sho…
tiny marine or freshwater organisms that serve as a food sour…
sediment
material deposited by water, wind and glaciers
littoal zone
area of a lake or pond closest to the shore
87 terms
Molecular Biology - Exam 3
Ways in which RNA is processed in euka…
The component(s) of an mRNA's 5' cap
The mechanism that attracts various ma…
Functions of the 5' mRNA cap
1. 5' cap... 2. Splicing... 3. Polyadenine tail
7-methyl guanosine... 5'-5' triphosphate linkage
Phosphorylation state of CTD tail
1. Protection from 5' exonucleases... 2. Increased ribosomal rec…
Ways in which RNA is processed in euka…
1. 5' cap... 2. Splicing... 3. Polyadenine tail
The component(s) of an mRNA's 5' cap
7-methyl guanosine... 5'-5' triphosphate linkage
70 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 3
In the late 1950's early 1960's, Jacob…
Lactose is a disaccharide made of ____…
What is the function of B-galactosidase?
What is the function of Permease?
Metabolism.
glucose and galactose... B-galactosidase, permease, transacetyla…
Splits lactose into glucose and galactose
Acts at cell membrane to allow lactose into cells.
In the late 1950's early 1960's, Jacob…
Metabolism.
Lactose is a disaccharide made of ____…
glucose and galactose... B-galactosidase, permease, transacetyla…
54 terms
Molecular Biology Exam #3 (Lecture 13)
transgenics
exogenous
horizontal gene transfer
Why transgenic animals?
transferring genes from one organism to another which ends up…
introduced gene from the outside (artificial- horizontal gene…
same generation
-express mutant forms... - gene expression... - commercial importan…
transgenics
transferring genes from one organism to another which ends up…
exogenous
introduced gene from the outside (artificial- horizontal gene…
65 terms
Biology: Molecular and Cellular 3
Gene expression
Transcription
Promoter
Terminator
Process by which DNA directs protein synthesis. 2 stages (tra…
DNA directed synthesis of RNA (first stage).
DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches.
Sequence signaling the end of transcription.
Gene expression
Process by which DNA directs protein synthesis. 2 stages (tra…
Transcription
DNA directed synthesis of RNA (first stage).
17 terms
Molecular Biology Ch. 3
Nucleotide
Deoxyribonucleotide
Nucleoside
Ribose
contains a phosphate group, pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base
- nucleotide that makes up DNA polymers... - named for the type…
- contains only a sugar and a base
a pentose sugar found in RNA ... - has OH on 2'
Nucleotide
contains a phosphate group, pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base
Deoxyribonucleotide
- nucleotide that makes up DNA polymers... - named for the type…
78 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
Photosynthesis
Photoautotroph
What kind of organisms have chloroplas…
Chlorophyll
Chloroplasts absorb light to make sugar for cellular respirat…
- Self feeding, makes its own food... - ex: plants, some bacteri…
Eukaryotic photoautotrophs (some protist and plant cells)
Found in the chloroplast, a green pigment that captures light…
Photosynthesis
Chloroplasts absorb light to make sugar for cellular respirat…
Photoautotroph
- Self feeding, makes its own food... - ex: plants, some bacteri…
69 terms
Molecular Biology Test 3
Transposable elements or transposons
1. Autonomous elements vs. 2. non-auto…
types of transposable elements
discovery of transposons
Are pieces of DBA that can move around the genome and insert…
1. Elements that encode their mobility proteins, create own t…
1. DNA vs. RNA - some transposons requires only DNA (Class II…
...
Transposable elements or transposons
Are pieces of DBA that can move around the genome and insert…
1. Autonomous elements vs. 2. non-auto…
1. Elements that encode their mobility proteins, create own t…
1 of 10