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61 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Number of Electrons: 2
Number of Electrons: 3
Number of Electrons: 4
Number of Electrons: 5
Linear (180°)
Trigonal Planar (120°)
Tetrahedral (109.5°)
Trigonal Bipyramidal (120° and 90°)
Number of Electrons: 2
Linear (180°)
Number of Electrons: 3
Trigonal Planar (120°)
21 terms
Chapter 9 AP Chemistry
bond angles
AB(n)
Importance of the n in AB(n)
AB2 molecule shapes
determine the shape of the molecules based off of the angles…
the general formula of of molecules where A is the central at…
n determines the number of shapes possible for that molecule
-either a linear (bond angle =180) or bent (bond angle not 180)
bond angles
determine the shape of the molecules based off of the angles…
AB(n)
the general formula of of molecules where A is the central at…
16 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 9
Hybridization
sp³ hybridization
Hybrid orbitals
sp² hybridization
A mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
Four orbitals of equal energy and strength formed from one 's…
A set of atomic orbitals on a given atom to form special atom…
Three orbitals of equal energy and strength formed from one '…
Hybridization
A mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
sp³ hybridization
Four orbitals of equal energy and strength formed from one 's…
15 terms
Chapter 9 AP Chemistry Shapes
Linear 3-D Shape
Trigonal Planar 3-D Shape
Bent 3-D Shape
Tetrahedral 3-D Shape
Its electron domain geometry is linear. It has 2 electron dom…
Its electron domain geometry is trigonal planar. It has 3 ele…
Its electron domain geometry can be trigonal planar. It has 3…
Its electron domain geometry is tetrahedral. It has 4 electro…
Linear 3-D Shape
Its electron domain geometry is linear. It has 2 electron dom…
Trigonal Planar 3-D Shape
Its electron domain geometry is trigonal planar. It has 3 ele…
38 terms
AP chemistry chapter 9
Why do elements form bonds?
Ionic bonds
Covalent bond
Metallic bond
Because bonds lower the potential energy between the charged…
Metals tend to have low ionization energies (their electrons…
Nonmetals tend to have high ionization energies (their electr…
The relatively low ionization energy of metals allows them to…
Why do elements form bonds?
Because bonds lower the potential energy between the charged…
Ionic bonds
Metals tend to have low ionization energies (their electrons…
61 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Number of Electrons: 2
Number of Electrons: 3
Number of Electrons: 4
Number of Electrons: 5
Linear (180°)
Trigonal Planar (120°)
Tetrahedral (109.5°)
Trigonal Bipyramidal (120° and 90°)
Number of Electrons: 2
Linear (180°)
Number of Electrons: 3
Trigonal Planar (120°)
55 terms
AP Chemistry Ch. 8 + 9
Bond (Chemical bond)
Bond Energy
Ionic Bond
Ionic Compound
the force that holds two or more atoms together and makes the…
The energy required to BREAK a bond
The attraction between oppositely charged ions ... - due to Coul…
A compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal t…
Bond (Chemical bond)
the force that holds two or more atoms together and makes the…
Bond Energy
The energy required to BREAK a bond
10 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
hybridization
sp3 hybridization
hybrid orbitals
sp2 hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
four hybrid orbitals arranged in a tetrahedral shape around t…
a set of atomic orbitals adopted by an atom in a molecule dif…
three hybrid orbitals arranged in a trigonal planar shape (12…
hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
sp3 hybridization
four hybrid orbitals arranged in a tetrahedral shape around t…
27 terms
Chapter 9 // AP Chemistry
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
bonding pair
nonbonding pair
electron domain
model that shows hos so many ABn molecules have shapes relate…
electrons involved in making bonds
an electron domain that is located principally on one atom
region in which the electrons will most likely be found, (reg…
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
model that shows hos so many ABn molecules have shapes relate…
bonding pair
electrons involved in making bonds
20 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Ionic Bonding
Covalent Bonding
Metallic Bonding
Lewis electron-dot symbol
Bonding between metals and nonmetals by electron transfer
Bonding between non metals by electron sharing
Bonding between metals by electron pooling
Symbol in which element symbol represents nucleus and inner e…
Ionic Bonding
Bonding between metals and nonmetals by electron transfer
Covalent Bonding
Bonding between non metals by electron sharing
27 terms
Chapter 9 // AP Chemistry
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
bonding pair
nonbonding pair
electron domain
model that shows hos so many ABn molecules have shapes relate…
electrons involved in making bonds
an electron domain that is located principally on one atom
region in which the electrons will most likely be found, (reg…
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
model that shows hos so many ABn molecules have shapes relate…
bonding pair
electrons involved in making bonds
61 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 9
representative elements
octet rule
octet rule
lewis structures
s & p blocks
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
applies to representative elements
diagrams that show an element with its valence e-
representative elements
s & p blocks
octet rule
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Bond angles
ABn
linear; bent
trigonal planar; trigonal pyramidal; t…
the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
molecules in which the central atom A is bonded to n B atoms
AB2 can be what shapes:
AB3 can be what shapes:
Bond angles
the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
ABn
molecules in which the central atom A is bonded to n B atoms
31 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
VSEPR
Bonding Pair
Nonbonding Pair
Electron Domain Geometry
The structure around a given atom is determined principally b…
Electron domain in which the electrons will most likely be fo…
Electron domain that is located principally on one atom (Lone…
The arrangement of electron domains about the central atom of…
VSEPR
The structure around a given atom is determined principally b…
Bonding Pair
Electron domain in which the electrons will most likely be fo…
6 terms
AP Chemistry-CH 9
Monatomic ion
Binary Compound
Acid
Base
A single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting fr…
A compound composed of two elements, NaCl and Al2O3 are binar…
A compound that produces hydrogen ions in Solutions ;see also…
A compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution; see also…
Monatomic ion
A single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting fr…
Binary Compound
A compound composed of two elements, NaCl and Al2O3 are binar…
23 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
ionic bonding
covalent bonding
metallic bonding
Lewis center dot symbol
transfer of electrons from nonmetal atoms to metal atoms to f…
Mostly occurs with nonmetal atoms. each nonmetal atom holds o…
all metal atoms in a sample pool their valence electrons into…
the symbol element represents the nucleus and inner electrons…
ionic bonding
transfer of electrons from nonmetal atoms to metal atoms to f…
covalent bonding
Mostly occurs with nonmetal atoms. each nonmetal atom holds o…
14 terms
AP Chemistry- Chapter 9
bond angle
VSEPR theory
electron domain
electron-domain geometry
the angle formed by lines connecting the nuclei of atomis in…
states that the best arrangement for a given number of electr…
a region occupied by a pair of electrons for a single bond, d…
shows the arrangement of the electron domains
bond angle
the angle formed by lines connecting the nuclei of atomis in…
VSEPR theory
states that the best arrangement for a given number of electr…
29 terms
AP Chemistry Ch. 8+9
when are bonds polar?
which bonds are longest/shortest?
△H=
How do you draw lewis structures?
When the electronegativities between the two atoms are differ…
single: longest... triple: shortest
∑(bond energies reactants) -∑(bond energies products)... *sum of…
1)Draw skeleton structure by single bonding every atom to the…
when are bonds polar?
When the electronegativities between the two atoms are differ…
which bonds are longest/shortest?
single: longest... triple: shortest
15 terms
Chapter 9 AP Chemistry Shapes
Linear 3-D Shape
Trigonal Planar 3-D Shape
Bent 3-D Shape
Tetrahedral 3-D Shape
Its electron domain geometry is linear. It has 2 electron dom…
Its electron domain geometry is trigonal planar. It has 3 ele…
Its electron domain geometry can be trigonal planar. It has 3…
Its electron domain geometry is tetrahedral. It has 4 electro…
Linear 3-D Shape
Its electron domain geometry is linear. It has 2 electron dom…
Trigonal Planar 3-D Shape
Its electron domain geometry is trigonal planar. It has 3 ele…
53 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
bond angle def
An AB2 molecule must be ___ OR __
AB3 molecule shapes (3 of them) descri…
the trigonal bipyramid is two _____
angle made by lines joining nuclei of the atoms in the molecule
linear/bent
all on same plane - trigonal planar, A atom above plane of B…
trigonal pyramids
bond angle def
angle made by lines joining nuclei of the atoms in the molecule
An AB2 molecule must be ___ OR __
linear/bent
31 terms
AP Chemistry Ch. 8 and 9
Chemical Bond
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
Valence Electrons
net force of attraction between atoms
one or more valence electrons is transferred from one atom to…
one or more valence electrons is shared between two atoms (no…
outer most layer of electrons, responsible for chemical bond…
Chemical Bond
net force of attraction between atoms
Ionic Bond
one or more valence electrons is transferred from one atom to…
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chpt 8 and 9: VSEPR Theory
VSEPR Theory
2 atoms bonded to central atom... 0 unsha…
3 atoms bonded to central atom... 0 unsha…
2 atoms bonded to central atom... 1 unsha…
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory... Predicts shapes…
Linear... sp Hybridization... 180 deg... no dipole
Trigonal Planar... sp² Hybridization... 120 deg... no dipole
Bent... sp² Hybridization... ~ 120 deg... has dipole
VSEPR Theory
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory... Predicts shapes…
2 atoms bonded to central atom... 0 unsha…
Linear... sp Hybridization... 180 deg... no dipole
44 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 9
Why Do Atoms Bond?
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Metallic Bond
Chemical bonds form because they lower the potential... energy b…
attraction between oppositely charge ions, metal and non-meta…
SHARE - formed between two non-metals that have similar elect…
The delocalization of the valence electrons among metal atoms…
Why Do Atoms Bond?
Chemical bonds form because they lower the potential... energy b…
Ionic Bonds
attraction between oppositely charge ions, metal and non-meta…
11 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
VSEPR
Electron Domain Geometry
Molecular Domain Geometry
Two bonded pairs and zero nonbonded pa…
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model
Looking at electron domains to determine the shape of the str…
Looking at electron domain geometry to determine what the mol…
Electron Domains: 2... Geometry: Linear... Molecular Geometry: Line…
VSEPR
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model
Electron Domain Geometry
Looking at electron domains to determine the shape of the str…
35 terms
AP Chemistry - Unit 9 Equilibrium
Equilibrium
Concentrations
Mass Action Expression
Reaction constant Kc
when the forward and backward reactions essentially cancel ea…
mol/L, what numbers are used in the expression of mass action
concentration of the products raised to the power of their co…
What is the mass action expression used to find
Equilibrium
when the forward and backward reactions essentially cancel ea…
Concentrations
mol/L, what numbers are used in the expression of mass action
8 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Electron domain geometry
Molecular geometry
Bonding domains
Nonbonding domains
3D arrangement of electron domains around central atom of a m…
Arrangement of only atoms in the molecule
Domains that have atoms bonding with central atom
Domains that have nonbonded electrons in it
Electron domain geometry
3D arrangement of electron domains around central atom of a m…
Molecular geometry
Arrangement of only atoms in the molecule
8 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Localized Electron Modle
Valence Bond (VB) Theory
Basic Theory
S Orbitals
A molecular is a collection of atoms that share electrns betw…
Electrons in molecules occupy atomic orbitals o individual at…
Covenant bond consists o a pair of electrons in atomic orbitals
Spherical; two 1s orbitals for the two H atoms in H2 bonds by…
Localized Electron Modle
A molecular is a collection of atoms that share electrns betw…
Valence Bond (VB) Theory
Electrons in molecules occupy atomic orbitals o individual at…
13 terms
AP Chemistry- Chapter 9 shapes
edg- linear mg- linear
edg- trigonal planar mg- trigonal planar
edg- trigonal planar mg- bent
edg- tetrahedral mg- tetrahedral
2 electron domains
3 electron domains
3 electron domains
4 electron domains
edg- linear mg- linear
2 electron domains
edg- trigonal planar mg- trigonal planar
3 electron domains
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
hybridization
sp3 hybridization
hybrid orbitals
sp2 hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
four hybrid orbitals arranged in a tetrahedral shape around t…
a set of atomic orbitals adopted by an atom in a molecule dif…
three hybrid orbitals arranged in a trigonal planar shape (12…
hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
sp3 hybridization
four hybrid orbitals arranged in a tetrahedral shape around t…
61 terms
Chapter 9- AP Chemistry
Bond Angle
Bond angles
180 degrees
120 degrees
The angle formed by lines connecting the nuclei of atoms in a…
The overall shape of a molecule depends on the molecule's ___…
Bond Angle: 2 electron domains (linear)
Bond Angle: 3 electron domains (trigonal planar)
Bond Angle
The angle formed by lines connecting the nuclei of atoms in a…
Bond angles
The overall shape of a molecule depends on the molecule's ___…
58 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Bond angles
ABn
linear; bent
trigonal planar; trigonal pyramidal; t…
the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
molecules in which the central atom A is bonded to n B atoms
AB2 can be what shapes:
AB3 can be what shapes:
Bond angles
the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
ABn
molecules in which the central atom A is bonded to n B atoms
86 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
chemical bond
metallic bonding
salts
ionic bond
strong attractive force that exists between certain atoms in…
type of bonding exhibited in metals; all valence electrons of…
compounds composed of ions
chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between…
chemical bond
strong attractive force that exists between certain atoms in…
metallic bonding
type of bonding exhibited in metals; all valence electrons of…
20 terms
AP chemistry chapter 9
hybridization
sp3 hybridization
hybrid orbitals
sp2 hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
the formation of a hybrid orbital from one 2s and three 2p or…
a set of atomic orbitals adopted by an atom in a molecule dif…
the formation of a hybrid orbital from one 2s and two 2p orbi…
hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
sp3 hybridization
the formation of a hybrid orbital from one 2s and three 2p or…
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
bond angles
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
electron domains
bonding pairs
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
A model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of share…
In the VSEPR model, regions about a central atom in which ele…
In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by tw…
bond angles
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
A model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of share…
25 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
bond angles
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
electron domains
bonding pairs
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
A model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of share…
In the VSEPR model, regions about a central atom in which ele…
In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by tw…
bond angles
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
A model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of share…
23 terms
AP CHEMISTRY: Chapter 9
Ionic bonding
Covalent bonding
Metallic bonding
Lewis electron dot symbol
The idealized type of bonding based on the attraction of oppo…
The idealized bonding type that is based on localized electro…
An idealized type of bonding based on the attraction between…
A notation in which the element symbol represents the nucleus…
Ionic bonding
The idealized type of bonding based on the attraction of oppo…
Covalent bonding
The idealized bonding type that is based on localized electro…
23 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 8 & 9
Born-Haber Cycle
Steps in the Born-Haber Cycle (not in…
Covalent bond energy well diagram
ionic bond
a simplified method to correlate the lattice energies of ioni…
1. ionization energy... 2. electron affinity... 3. dissociation ene…
as the intermolecular distance increases, potential energy de…
metal --> nonmetal
Born-Haber Cycle
a simplified method to correlate the lattice energies of ioni…
Steps in the Born-Haber Cycle (not in…
1. ionization energy... 2. electron affinity... 3. dissociation ene…
18 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 9
Localized Electron Model
What are the two problems with using L…
Valence Bond Theory
Because of orbital overlap, the pair o…
views a molecule as a collection of atoms bound together by s…
(1) Using the 2p and the 2s orbitals from carbon in methane w…
This is an extension of the localized electron model, but it…
bonding
Localized Electron Model
views a molecule as a collection of atoms bound together by s…
What are the two problems with using L…
(1) Using the 2p and the 2s orbitals from carbon in methane w…
24 terms
AP chemistry Unit 9
ion dipole forces
dipole dipole forces
dipole induced dipole forces
stronger dispersion forces
ion and polar molecule interaction ex Na+ with O
non covalent interaction between 2 polar molecules
dipole dipole moment in non polar molecules- caused by moment…
more molar mass causes
ion dipole forces
ion and polar molecule interaction ex Na+ with O
dipole dipole forces
non covalent interaction between 2 polar molecules
27 terms
AP Chemistry Unit 9
linear EPG
trigonal planar EPG
trigonal planar AX3
trigonal planar AX2E
180˚... 2 bond pairs, no lone pair ... sp hybridization ... linear geo…
120˚... sp2 hybridization ... AX3 or AX2E
trigonal planar
bent
linear EPG
180˚... 2 bond pairs, no lone pair ... sp hybridization ... linear geo…
trigonal planar EPG
120˚... sp2 hybridization ... AX3 or AX2E
21 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9:
Hybridization
sp3 hybridization
Hybrid orbitals
sp2 hybridizations
...
...
...
...
Hybridization
...
sp3 hybridization
...
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Hybridization
Localized electron (LE) model
Atomic Orbitals
sp³ Hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
assumes a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound togeth…
The localized electron model assumes that the electrons occup…
orbitals formed from one 2s and three 2p orbitals (s1p3)
Hybridization
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
Localized electron (LE) model
assumes a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound togeth…
21 terms
AP Chemistry Ch.9
Bond Angles
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion…
Bonding Pair
Electron Domain
the angle formed by two bonds to the same atom
A model that explains molecular geometries in terms of electr…
an electron pair found in the space between two atoms
a region about a central atom in which an electron pair is co…
Bond Angles
the angle formed by two bonds to the same atom
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion…
A model that explains molecular geometries in terms of electr…
57 terms
AP Chemistry- Chapter 8 and 9
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
metallic bond
a strong attractive force between atoms or ions
the electrostatic force between positive and negative ions
results from the sharing of electrons between 2 atoms
exists between atoms of a metal. bonding electrons move freel…
chemical bond
a strong attractive force between atoms or ions
ionic bond
the electrostatic force between positive and negative ions
56 terms
AP/ACC Chemistry Goeddel Chapter 9
Bond angles
General formula for molecules (and ion…
Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion…
Bonding pair of electrons
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
ABn... -Central atom A is bonded to n B atoms
A model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of share…
An electron domain that is located principally on 1 atom
Bond angles
The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms…
General formula for molecules (and ion…
ABn... -Central atom A is bonded to n B atoms
28 terms
AP Chemistry Chapters 7-9
Chemical Bond
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
Metallic Bond
Attractive force bewtween atoms or ions
Electrostatic Foce between Positve and Negative ikons
Sharing of electrons between 2 atoms
Bonding electrons move freely between atoms ... Between atoms of…
Chemical Bond
Attractive force bewtween atoms or ions
Ionic Bond
Electrostatic Foce between Positve and Negative ikons
22 terms
AP Chemistry: VSEPR Geometries (Ch 9)
Linear
Trigonal Planar
Bent
Tetrahedral
2 bonding electron domains... 180 degree angles
3 bonding electron domains... 120 degree angles
2 bonding electron domains... 1 non-bonding electron domain... <120…
4 bonding electron domains... 109.5 degree angles
Linear
2 bonding electron domains... 180 degree angles
Trigonal Planar
3 bonding electron domains... 120 degree angles
22 terms
AP Chemistry: VSEPR Geometries (Ch 9)
Linear
Trigonal Planar
Bent
Tetrahedral
2 bonding electron domains... 180 degree angles
3 bonding electron domains... 120 degree angles
2 bonding electron domains... 1 non-bonding electron domain... <120…
4 bonding electron domains... 109.5 degree angles
Linear
2 bonding electron domains... 180 degree angles
Trigonal Planar
3 bonding electron domains... 120 degree angles
54 terms
AP Chemistry VSEPR and IMFs (Ch 8 & 9)
Hybridization
sp³ hybridization
Hybrid orbitals
sp² hybridization
When orbitals come together
when there are four effective pairs on the central atom, 109.…
Different set of orbitals than free state atom orbitals
three effective pairs on central atom, 120 degree angles
Hybridization
When orbitals come together
sp³ hybridization
when there are four effective pairs on the central atom, 109.…
44 terms
AP chemistry chapter 9
what is the electron domain geometry a…
what is the electron domain geometry a…
what is the electron domain geometry a…
what is the electron domain geometry a…
trigonal planar, bent
tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal
trigonal bipyramidal, seesaw
octahedral, square pyramidal
what is the electron domain geometry a…
trigonal planar, bent
what is the electron domain geometry a…
tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal
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