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Study sets matching "acid base imbalance"

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Study sets matching "acid base imbalance"

19 terms
Pathophysiology: Acid-Base Imbalance
#4 Acid-Base Imbalance
Volatile acids
Nonvolatile Acids
Buffers
...
carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Strong acids from the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates,…
Any molecule accepting H+... 1. Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)... 2. Hemog…
#4 Acid-Base Imbalance
...
Volatile acids
carbonic acid (H2CO3)
76 terms
Acid base imbalance
Normal plasma pH
pH represents the
Concentration of
The greater the concentration of H+
acidity or alkalinity of a solution
hydrogen ions H+
the more acidic the solution
Normal plasma pH
pH represents the
acidity or alkalinity of a solution
37 terms
ACID/BASE IMBALANCE
Acid-Base Review of Basics
ACIDOSIS vs. ALKALOSIS
ABGs: What is Measured?
Acid-Base Regulation
- Plasma pH is 7.35-7.45.... - Measured by arterial blood gases…
- A state of acidosis exists if blood pH decreases below 7.…
- ABGs: Arterial Blood Gases... - pH: 7.35-7.45 (hydrogen ion c…
3 systems that maintain homeostasis... - Buffer System... - Respira…
Acid-Base Review of Basics
- Plasma pH is 7.35-7.45.... - Measured by arterial blood gases…
ACIDOSIS vs. ALKALOSIS
- A state of acidosis exists if blood pH decreases below 7.…
92 terms
Acid-Base Balance & Imbalance
Acid vs. Base & Extracellular Buffers
pH
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation to calcu…
Normal Acid/Base Ratio
An acid donates a proton whereas a base accepts a proton... Ext…
A measure of H⁺ concentration.... pH = -log₁₀[H⁺]
For a solution containing a weak acid, pH = pK + log [base]/[…
Reminder: pH is dependent on the *ratio* of HCO₃⁻ to dissolve…
Acid vs. Base & Extracellular Buffers
An acid donates a proton whereas a base accepts a proton... Ext…
pH
A measure of H⁺ concentration.... pH = -log₁₀[H⁺]
8 terms
Acids and acid-base imbalance
Fluid imbalance
Electrolyte imbalance
Acid
Base
A fluid imbalance refers to an abnormal level of fluids in th…
The symptoms of electrolyte imbalance are based on which of t…
Substance that realizes hydrogen ions. The concentration of h…
Substance that take up hydrogen ions. The concentration of hy…
Fluid imbalance
A fluid imbalance refers to an abnormal level of fluids in th…
Electrolyte imbalance
The symptoms of electrolyte imbalance are based on which of t…
11 terms
Acid Base Imbalance
pH
pO2
PCO2
HCO3
7.35-7.45 pH units
80-100 mmHg
35-45 mmHg
22-26 mmol/L
pH
7.35-7.45 pH units
pO2
80-100 mmHg
51 terms
Acid Base Imbalance and Electrolyte Imbalance
ROME
Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Acidosis
RESPIRATORY... OPPOSITE... METABOLIC... EQUAL
Ph elevated... PaCO2 decreased
pH is decreased... PaCO2 is elevated
Ph decreased... HCO3 is decreased
ROME
RESPIRATORY... OPPOSITE... METABOLIC... EQUAL
Respiratory Alkalosis
Ph elevated... PaCO2 decreased
35 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Logarithm of pH
normal blood pH
pH buffering system
metabolic acidosis check anion gap
pH=6.1(dissociation constant)+log[HCO3-]/[H2CO3]... H2CO3=PaCO2x…
7.35-7.45
H+<-->HCO3-<-->H2CO3<-->CO2+H2O
ion gap=Na+-(cl-+HCO3-)... normal then give bicarb... high (greater…
Logarithm of pH
pH=6.1(dissociation constant)+log[HCO3-]/[H2CO3]... H2CO3=PaCO2x…
normal blood pH
7.35-7.45
74 terms
electrolyte imbalance, acid/base
what is general fluid intake for adult…
what is the difference between sensibl…
intracellular vrs extracellular?
what is the desirable amount of fluid…
2600ml/day general fluid intake... 1000ml coming from ingested f…
sensible: can be meausred i.e urination, defecation, and woun…
intracellular inside cells makes up 70% (2/3)... extracellular…
1500ml-3500ml
what is general fluid intake for adult…
2600ml/day general fluid intake... 1000ml coming from ingested f…
what is the difference between sensibl…
sensible: can be meausred i.e urination, defecation, and woun…
46 terms
Acid/Base imbalance
Oxygen is 97% combined with...
Hemoglobin levels
more affinity for hemoglobin at...
less affinity for hemoglobin at..
hemoglobin
115-160
lung level
tissue level
Oxygen is 97% combined with...
hemoglobin
Hemoglobin levels
115-160
16 terms
acid-base imbalance
Metabolic acid base imbalance
metabolic acidosis
metabolic acidosis causes
metabolic acidosis compensation
change in serum bicarbonate ion
decreased bicarbonate ioln
shock, renal failure, diarrhea
increased respiration, increased renal expiration of acid and…
Metabolic acid base imbalance
change in serum bicarbonate ion
metabolic acidosis
decreased bicarbonate ioln
Acid-Base Imbalance
Acidosis
Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Acidosis
-Excess hydrogen ions... -Decrease in serum pH
-Deficit of hydrogen ions... -increase in serum pH
-result of impaired ventilation... -acute problems (pneumonia, a…
-Excessive loss of bicarbonate ions to buffer hydrogen... -diarr…
Acidosis
-Excess hydrogen ions... -Decrease in serum pH
Alkalosis
-Deficit of hydrogen ions... -increase in serum pH
15 terms
Acid Base Balance and Imbalances
pH
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) Analysis
Regulators of Acid/Base Balance
Physiologic Buffers
*most effective way to evaluate acid-base balance and oxygena…
pH
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) Analysis
*most effective way to evaluate acid-base balance and oxygena…
73 terms
acid base imbalance
What diseases commonly cause acid-base…
_________ and ________ can cause acid-…
The __________ are the essential buffe…
Why are older adults more prone to aci…
Diabetes, COPD, kidney disease
Vomiting and diarrhea
Kidneys
Their kidneys are less able to compensate for an acid load an…
What diseases commonly cause acid-base…
Diabetes, COPD, kidney disease
_________ and ________ can cause acid-…
Vomiting and diarrhea
22 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Acid is a compound that releases what
pH is the numerical expression of the
Lower the pH the stronger the what is
Base is a compound that decreases what
hydrogen ions (H+)
acidity or alkalinity of a solution
acidity and more H+ ions present
the amount of free H+ ions by releasing hydroxide (OH-) ions
Acid is a compound that releases what
hydrogen ions (H+)
pH is the numerical expression of the
acidity or alkalinity of a solution
43 terms
Acid Base Imbalances
pH
acid
base
arterial blood gas (ABG)
The negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
A substance which donates a hydrogen ion (H+).
A substance which accepts a hydrogen ion
sample from an artery used to determine acid base status and…
pH
The negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
acid
A substance which donates a hydrogen ion (H+).
44 terms
Patho: Acid/Base Imbalances
Lab Value: Normal pH
Death occurs outside of what pH range?
Acidosis is pH below
Alkalosis is pH above
7.38-7.42
Below 6.8 or above 7.8
7.38... too many H+
7.42... too few H+
Lab Value: Normal pH
7.38-7.42
Death occurs outside of what pH range?
Below 6.8 or above 7.8
43 terms
Acid Base Imbalances
pH
acid
base
arterial blood gas (ABG)
The negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
A substance which donates a hydrogen ion (H+).
A substance which accepts a hydrogen ion
sample from an artery used to determine acid base status and…
pH
The negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
acid
A substance which donates a hydrogen ion (H+).
acid base imbalance
normal ph range
normal PACO2
normal HCO3
normal PAO2
7.35-7.45
30-45
22-26
80-100
normal ph range
7.35-7.45
normal PACO2
30-45
36 terms
acid-base imbalance
acids
bases
acid-base imbalances
7.35-7.45
- part of normal metabolism ... - the production alters the body…
- Body is constantly producing bases (Bicarbonate)... - Neutrali…
symptoms of an underlying issue, not a disease
normal serum pH range
acids
- part of normal metabolism ... - the production alters the body…
bases
- Body is constantly producing bases (Bicarbonate)... - Neutrali…
14 terms
Acid Base Imbalance
Normal PaO2
Normal PaCO2
Normal pH
Normal HCO3
80-100 mmHg
35-45 mm Hg
7.35-7.45
22-26 mEq/L
Normal PaO2
80-100 mmHg
Normal PaCO2
35-45 mm Hg
27 terms
Acid base imbalance
PH
PCO2
PO2
HCO3
7.35-7.45
35-45 mmhg
70-100 mmhg
22-26 mEq/L
PH
7.35-7.45
PCO2
35-45 mmhg
25 terms
Acid base imbalance
Repiratiry acidosis
Reapiratory alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic alkalosis
pH⬇️ pco2 ⬆️ h⬆️ k+⬆️ Ca⬆️... Hypoventilation➡️hypoxia➡️confusio…
pH⬆️ pco2 ⬇️ h⬇️ k+⬇️ Ca⬇️ ... Hyperventilation(⬆️rate and depth…
pH⬇️hco3⬇️h⬆️ k+⬆️ ... Too much bicarbonate caused by uncontroll…
pH⬆️ hco3 ⬆️ h⬇️k+⬇️ Ca⬇️... Antacids and baking soda... Hypocalcem…
Repiratiry acidosis
pH⬇️ pco2 ⬆️ h⬆️ k+⬆️ Ca⬆️... Hypoventilation➡️hypoxia➡️confusio…
Reapiratory alkalosis
pH⬆️ pco2 ⬇️ h⬇️ k+⬇️ Ca⬇️ ... Hyperventilation(⬆️rate and depth…
20 terms
acid-base imbalance
acid
base
amphoteric
volatile acids
dissociate and release hydrogen ion; pH less than 7.35-6.8
compound that can accept or combine with hydrogen ion; pH gre…
protein can fxn as acid or base
H2CO3 in equilibrium & dissolved with CO2; leave by way of th…
acid
dissociate and release hydrogen ion; pH less than 7.35-6.8
base
compound that can accept or combine with hydrogen ion; pH gre…
30 terms
Acid Base Imbalance
pH normal range
Acidosis
Alkalosis
7.35-7.45
If below 7.40
If above 7.40
pH normal range
7.35-7.45
Acidosis
If below 7.40
28 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Acidosis
Alkalosis
Normal blood pH range
Homeostatic mechanisms that keep pH in…
An acid-base imbalance characterized by an increase in H+ con…
An acid-base imbalance characterized by a reduction in H+ con…
7.35-7.45
- Buffer systems... - Kidneys... - Lungs
Acidosis
An acid-base imbalance characterized by an increase in H+ con…
Alkalosis
An acid-base imbalance characterized by a reduction in H+ con…
46 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Normal Blood pH
Normal PaCo2
Normal HCO3-
Normal PaO2
7.35-7.45
35-45
22-26
80-100
Normal Blood pH
7.35-7.45
Normal PaCo2
35-45
16 terms
Acid Base imbalance
Respiratory Acidosis, causes of
Resp. Acidosis interventions
Resp. Acidosis ABG
Resp acidosis s/s
Hypoventilation; Slow, shallow breathing, drug OD... Resp. Conge…
Est/maintain airway... Admin O2... Postural drainage... Deep breathing…
⬇️ pH... ⬆️ CO2
Hypoventilation ➡️ hypoxia... Rapid shallow breathing... ⬇️BP... HA... ⬆️…
Respiratory Acidosis, causes of
Hypoventilation; Slow, shallow breathing, drug OD... Resp. Conge…
Resp. Acidosis interventions
Est/maintain airway... Admin O2... Postural drainage... Deep breathing…
12 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
(HCO3 loss, acid retention)... Possible causes: diarrhea>>lose H…
(HCO3 retention, acid loss)... Possible causes: vomiting>>lose H…
(excess excretion of CO2)... Possible causes: hyperventilation... C…
(excess CO2 retention)... Possible causes: airway obstruction, s…
Metabolic Acidosis
(HCO3 loss, acid retention)... Possible causes: diarrhea>>lose H…
Metabolic Alkalosis
(HCO3 retention, acid loss)... Possible causes: vomiting>>lose H…
35 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Logarithm of pH
normal blood pH
pH buffering system
metabolic acidosis check anion gap
pH=6.1(dissociation constant)+log[HCO3-]/[H2CO3]... H2CO3=PaCO2x…
7.35-7.45
H+<-->HCO3-<-->H2CO3<-->CO2+H2O
ion gap=Na+-(cl-+HCO3-)... normal then give bicarb... high (greater…
Logarithm of pH
pH=6.1(dissociation constant)+log[HCO3-]/[H2CO3]... H2CO3=PaCO2x…
normal blood pH
7.35-7.45
41 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
things that depend on regulated pH
high concentration of H+ ions
low concentration of H+ ions
normal pH range
membrane excitabilty, enzyme systems, chemical reactions
low pH, acidosis
high pH, alkalosis
7.35 - 7.45
things that depend on regulated pH
membrane excitabilty, enzyme systems, chemical reactions
high concentration of H+ ions
low pH, acidosis
35 terms
Pharm Acid-Base Imbalance
Acid
Base
PO2
PCO2
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of…
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in…
partial pressure of oxygen
partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of…
Base
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in…
11 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Respiratory Acidosis (Raised CO2)
Metabolic Alkalosis ... loss of acid from…
Metabolic Acidosis (decreased HCO3)... Re…
Respiratory Alkalosis... (decreased CO2)…
Patient has a:... pH - 7.2... PaCO2 - 70... HCO3 - 27 (this might be s…
Patient has a: ... pH - 7.5... PaCO2 - 45... HCO3 - 37 (this might be…
Patient has a:... pH- 7.2 ... PaCO2 - 25... HCO3 - 10 (this might be s…
Patient has a:... pH - 7.5 ... PaCO2 - 29... HCO3 - 24 (this might be…
Respiratory Acidosis (Raised CO2)
Patient has a:... pH - 7.2... PaCO2 - 70... HCO3 - 27 (this might be s…
Metabolic Alkalosis ... loss of acid from…
Patient has a: ... pH - 7.5... PaCO2 - 45... HCO3 - 37 (this might be…
14 terms
Acid/ Base Imbalance
Acidosis
Alkalosis
Normal serum pH
Buffers
Increase i hydrogen ions or decrease in serum pH : increase i…
Decrease in hydrogen ions or increase in serum pH: decrease i…
7.35-7.45 ... 6.8-7.8 death
increase or decrease the amounts of the compounds to get a ba…
Acidosis
Increase i hydrogen ions or decrease in serum pH : increase i…
Alkalosis
Decrease in hydrogen ions or increase in serum pH: decrease i…
31 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Correction
Compensation
Bicarbonate
Carbon Dioxide
Original problem is being fixed
One system helping the other
Kidneys regulate this
Lungs regulate this
Correction
Original problem is being fixed
Compensation
One system helping the other
18 terms
Acid Base Imbalance
What regulates acid-base balance?
pH
PaCO2
HCO3
#1 Buffer systems: bicarbonate and carbonic acid... #2 Lungs: co…
7.35-7.45
35-45 mm Hg
22-26 mEq/L
What regulates acid-base balance?
#1 Buffer systems: bicarbonate and carbonic acid... #2 Lungs: co…
pH
7.35-7.45
13 terms
ACID-BASE IMBALANCE
Spent 1 day
Arterial blood gases 109-116
Know values of:... pH... PCO2... HCO3... PO2... O2 sa…
Acidosis
...
...
...
...
Spent 1 day
...
Arterial blood gases 109-116
...
7 terms
Acid-Base imbalance
Chemical Buffers
Respiratory Buffers
Kidney Buffers
Metabolic Acidosis
first line of defense, (seconds). They can bind to H ions whe…
second line of defense, (Minutes) Primarily assist buffering…
Third line of defense, (24-48hours). Stronger and take longer…
DKA, seizures, Kidney and Liver Failure, pancreatitis, dehydr…
Chemical Buffers
first line of defense, (seconds). They can bind to H ions whe…
Respiratory Buffers
second line of defense, (Minutes) Primarily assist buffering…
20 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Acid
Base
Amphoteric
Volatile Acids
A chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some…
Form hydroxyl ions (OH) when dissolved in water, and whose aq…
Capable of reacting chemically as an acid or a base.
H2CO3... Acids arises because H2CO3 is in equilibrium with disso…
Acid
A chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some…
Base
Form hydroxyl ions (OH) when dissolved in water, and whose aq…
12 terms
acid base imbalance
acid base imbalance
acid base imbalance types
acid base imbalance: acidosis
acid base imbalance: acidosis cause
normal pH 7.35-7.45
acidosis & alkalosis
pH below 7.35
gain of acids & loss of bases
acid base imbalance
normal pH 7.35-7.45
acid base imbalance types
acidosis & alkalosis
26 terms
AH Acid Base imbalance
Acid base imbalances
3 mech of acid base regulation
buffers
buffers in body
normally have balance between acids produced and bases that n…
i. Buffer system: immediately ... ii. Resp system: minutes and m…
chemically change strong acids into weaker acids or bind acid…
carbonic acid-bicarbonate, monohydrogen-dihydrogen phosphate,…
Acid base imbalances
normally have balance between acids produced and bases that n…
3 mech of acid base regulation
i. Buffer system: immediately ... ii. Resp system: minutes and m…
10 terms
IV. Acid- Base imbalance
acidosis
alkalosis
pCO2
reduced ventilation
bld pH < 7.35... a. depresses CNS and muscles by hyperpolarizing…
bld pH > 7.45... a. increases excitability of nervous syst, musc…
. respiratory acidosis and alkalosis: abnormal blood ___
blood carbon dioxide rises; pH drops
acidosis
bld pH < 7.35... a. depresses CNS and muscles by hyperpolarizing…
alkalosis
bld pH > 7.45... a. increases excitability of nervous syst, musc…
73 terms
acid base imbalance
What diseases commonly cause acid-base…
_________ and ________ can cause acid-…
The __________ are the essential buffe…
Why are older adults more prone to aci…
Diabetes, COPD, kidney disease
Vomiting and diarrhea
Kidneys
Their kidneys are less able to compensate for an acid load an…
What diseases commonly cause acid-base…
Diabetes, COPD, kidney disease
_________ and ________ can cause acid-…
Vomiting and diarrhea
19 terms
Acid/Base Imbalance
Imbalance associated with COPD, pneumo…
Elevation of CO2 due to ventilation de…
clinical manifestations of respiratory…
respiratory compensation for respirato…
respiratory acidosis
respiratory acidosis
lethargy... dizziness... coma... headache
none
Imbalance associated with COPD, pneumo…
respiratory acidosis
Elevation of CO2 due to ventilation de…
respiratory acidosis
21 terms
Metabolic acid base imbalance
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
pH less than 7.35
HCO3 less than 24
Cardiovascular: hypertension, dysrythmias, peripheral vasodil…
Respiratory: DEEP, rapid pattern (Kussmauls) -compensatory no…
Metabolic acidosis
pH less than 7.35
Metabolic acidosis
HCO3 less than 24
37 terms
Acid/Base Imbalance
Plasma pH is 7.35-7.45
ACIDOSIS vs. ALKALOSIS
ABGs: What is Measured?
Acid-Base Regulation
- Measured by arterial blood gases - ABGs... - Life cannot conti…
- A state of acidosis exists if blood pH decreases below 7.35…
- pH: 7.35-7.45 (hydrogen ion concentration)... - paO2: 80-100 m…
3 systems that maintain homeostasis:... - Buffer System... - Respir…
Plasma pH is 7.35-7.45
- Measured by arterial blood gases - ABGs... - Life cannot conti…
ACIDOSIS vs. ALKALOSIS
- A state of acidosis exists if blood pH decreases below 7.35…
23 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Correction
Compensation
Bicarbonate
Carbon Dioxide
Original problem is being fixed
One system helping the other
Kidneys regulate this
Lungs regulate this
Correction
Original problem is being fixed
Compensation
One system helping the other
12 terms
Acid/Base Imbalance
Causes of Respiratory Acidosis
Manifestations of Respiratory Acidosis
To compensate Respiratory Acidosis
Causes of Metabolic Acidosis
Decreased alveolar ventilation , increased CO2 production, CN…
HA, blurred vision, restlessness, confusion, decreased muscle…
Renal system retains bicarb and excretes H+
increased production of non-carbonic acids, hypoxemia, decrea…
Causes of Respiratory Acidosis
Decreased alveolar ventilation , increased CO2 production, CN…
Manifestations of Respiratory Acidosis
HA, blurred vision, restlessness, confusion, decreased muscle…
10 terms
Acid-Base Imbalance
Normarl blood pH
Acidosis
Respiratory acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
7.35-7.45
An excessively acid condition of the body fluids or tissues
Carbon dioxide accumulates due to factors that hinder pulmona…
Accumulation of no respiratory acids or loss of bases due to…
Normarl blood pH
7.35-7.45
Acidosis
An excessively acid condition of the body fluids or tissues
22 terms
Acid base imbalance
Normal serum oH range
Hydrogen ions
Nonvolatile metabolic acids
3 mechanisms control or compensate for…
7.35 - 7.45
Low amount=... High amount=acidosis
(Lactic acid, ketoacids, sulfates or phosphates)
1.buffer pairs circulating in the blood respond to pH changes…
Normal serum oH range
7.35 - 7.45
Hydrogen ions
Low amount=... High amount=acidosis
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