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Study sets matching "acids proteins"

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Study sets matching "acids proteins"

16 terms
Nucleic Acids and Proteins
macromolecule
monomer
hydrolysis reaction
protein
a large biological molecule
What every polymer is made up of.
when polymers break up into smaller molecules
organic molecule that exhibit specific shapes to perform a sp…
macromolecule
a large biological molecule
monomer
What every polymer is made up of.
21 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
What is the chemical formula for an am…
What element is found in protein but n…
Peptide bond
carboxyl group
NH2
carbon
bond between two amino acids
proteins are made up of organic acids that contain carboxyl g…
What is the chemical formula for an am…
NH2
What element is found in protein but n…
carbon
30 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Amines... Carboxylic acids
Nitrogen
Amide bond... Peptide Bond
Dipeptide
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
What element links amino acids together?
When amino acids are linked together the link is call a _____…
When 2 amino acids are linked together they are called a ____…
Amines... Carboxylic acids
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
Nitrogen
What element links amino acids together?
14 terms
ACids / proteins
monosaccharides
starch
cellulose
chitin
glucose, fructose, galactose
used for energy storage in plants
is structural and supports young portions of plants
is structural and forms exoskeletons of insects, crabs and lo…
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
starch
used for energy storage in plants
45 terms
Acids and Proteins
buffers
Saliva
children pH verse adult pH
Xerostomia
resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid r base…
-Normal pH is 5.6-7.9... -decay can start when pH is below 5.5... -…
children pH - 7.5 and adult pH - 6.5
- dry mouth... - most often dry mouth is the result of a decreas…
buffers
resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid r base…
Saliva
-Normal pH is 5.6-7.9... -decay can start when pH is below 5.5... -…
13 terms
PROTEINS AND ACIDS
proteins facts #1
elements in protein
Monomer
polymer
no energy ... found in meat ... organic compound ... makes muscle... cell…
Carbon... nitrogen ... oxygen ... hydrogen
amino acids
proteins/polypeptide
proteins facts #1
no energy ... found in meat ... organic compound ... makes muscle... cell…
elements in protein
Carbon... nitrogen ... oxygen ... hydrogen
45 terms
amino acids and proteins
central dogma
nucleic acids
amino acids
retrovirus
DNA makes RNA makes proteins
make up RNA DNA, made up of a phosphate, 5 C sugar, and a bas…
make up proteins
uses reverse transcriptase to transcribe RNA to cDNA (complim…
central dogma
DNA makes RNA makes proteins
nucleic acids
make up RNA DNA, made up of a phosphate, 5 C sugar, and a bas…
73 terms
Biochemistry Proteins and Amino Acids
How many biologically important Amino…
What is the basic structure of Amino A…
What element does the amine functional…
What elements are found in the Carboxy…
20
Nitrogen
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen
How many biologically important Amino…
20
What is the basic structure of Amino A…
26 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Glutamine
Asparagine
Glutamate
Aspartate
can be glycosylated (N-linked)
decarboxylate to form GABA, pKa 4
pKa 4
Glutamine
Asparagine
can be glycosylated (N-linked)
16 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
amino acid
nucleotide
DNA & RNA
polypeptide
the monomer of a protein
the monomer of a nucleic acid
2 types of nucleic acids
another name for a protein
amino acid
the monomer of a protein
nucleotide
the monomer of a nucleic acid
25 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
monomer
polymer
protein functions
example of protein
a small molecule that is a single unit in a larger molecule
a large molecule formed by many monomers bonded together
1. muscle movement... 2. oxygen transport... 3. speed up chemical r…
hemoglobin and enzymes
monomer
a small molecule that is a single unit in a larger molecule
polymer
a large molecule formed by many monomers bonded together
12 terms
Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids.
Lipid
Triglyceride
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Saturated Fatty Acid
Macromolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrophobic.
Also known as fats. Contain a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatt…
Long chain of hydrogen and carbon with some carbon double bon…
Long chain of hydrogen and carbon with only single bonds betw…
Lipid
Macromolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrophobic.
Triglyceride
Also known as fats. Contain a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatt…
57 terms
Biochemistry: Proteins + Nucleic Acids
Proteins help carry out chemical react…
Permeases
Hormones
Antibodies
Enzymes
Serve as these, pump small molecules in/out of cells
Proteins serve as these chemical messengers
Proteins help form these disease-fighting
Proteins help carry out chemical react…
Enzymes
Permeases
Serve as these, pump small molecules in/out of cells
25 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
protein
protein
protein
protein
monomer = amino acid
transports oxygen
hemoglobin
speed up chemical reactions
protein
monomer = amino acid
protein
transports oxygen
11 terms
Nucleic Acids and Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Nucleotides
Polynucleotide
Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon,…
Consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group,…
Individual nucleotides can be joined by covalent bonds to for…
Polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleoti…
Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon,…
Nucleotides
Consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group,…
10 terms
Proteins & Nucleic Acids
Amino Acids
Peptide Bond
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Building blocks of protein
The bond between two amino acids in a protein.
Sequence of Amino Acids
The second level of protein structure. The shapes are either…
Amino Acids
Building blocks of protein
Peptide Bond
The bond between two amino acids in a protein.
92 terms
Chapter 11 Amino Acids and Proteins
5 major elements found in proteins
the % nitrogen content in proteins
general structure of amino acids
What does an amine group do in an amin…
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
16%
amphoteric containing 2 ionizable sites,... protein accepting gr…
the amine group acts as a base and can accept a H ion
5 major elements found in proteins
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
the % nitrogen content in proteins
16%
70 terms
Amino Acids,Peptides,and Proteins
residue
aliphatic
glycine (gly)
alanine (ala)
殘基
脂肪族
G
A
residue
殘基
aliphatic
脂肪族
10 terms
Amino Acids/Proteins
Name four essential and four non-essen…
Which are absorbed faster - peptides o…
What two mechanisms are utilised to tr…
Within intestinal cells, amino acids m…
essential - histadine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine... Nonesse…
free amino acids
sodium independent transport ( when AA conc in gut is high)... s…
apoproteins for lipoprotein formation... new digestive enzymes... h…
Name four essential and four non-essen…
essential - histadine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine... Nonesse…
Which are absorbed faster - peptides o…
free amino acids
46 terms
1) Amino Acids and Proteins
basic amino acid structure
zwitter ion
chirality of AAs in the body
essential amino acid
amine (NH3+)... carboxyl group (COO-)... H... side chain (R)
in solution, an amino acid dissociates so that NH2 -> NH3+ an…
all LH chiral... except glycine
-your demands (of the body/individual) exceed your ability to…
basic amino acid structure
amine (NH3+)... carboxyl group (COO-)... H... side chain (R)
zwitter ion
in solution, an amino acid dissociates so that NH2 -> NH3+ an…
9 terms
Organic Chemistry: Proteins & Nucleic Acids
Amino acid
"R" group
Peptide bond
Polypeptide chain
small organic molecules comprised of a central carbon single…
the variable group on the central carbon of an amino acid, th…
the amide group that results when two amino acids undergo a c…
a polymer comprised of only amino acid monomers
Amino acid
small organic molecules comprised of a central carbon single…
"R" group
the variable group on the central carbon of an amino acid, th…
226 terms
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Composed of CHOP. ... Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fat…
Composed of CHON. ... All are composed of the same twenty amino…
Composed of CHOPN.... DNA and RNA. The genetic information withi…
Carbohydrates
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Lipids
Composed of CHOP. ... Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fat…
95 terms
MCP - Amino Acids and Proteins
L-configuration at the alpha carbon.
No, glycine is an achiral amino acid.
An amine group, a carboxyl group, a hy…
A molecule that has both positive and…
What is the natural configuration for virtually all biologica…
Are all Amino Acids chiral?
What are the components of an Amino Acid?
What does it mean for a molecule to be zwitterionic?
L-configuration at the alpha carbon.
What is the natural configuration for virtually all biologica…
No, glycine is an achiral amino acid.
Are all Amino Acids chiral?
31 terms
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.... All are c…
DNA and RNA. The genetic information within cells that determ…
Carbohydrates
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
9 terms
Proteins & Nucleic Acids
Amino acid
"R" group
Peptide bond
Polypeptide chain
small organic molecules comprised of a central carbon single…
the variable group on the central carbon of an amino acid, th…
the amide group that results when two amino acids undergo a c…
a polymer comprised of only amino acid monomers
Amino acid
small organic molecules comprised of a central carbon single…
"R" group
the variable group on the central carbon of an amino acid, th…
59 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
storage
storage examples
transport
transport examples
store amino acids for later use
casein, albumin
carry substances within an orgaism
hemoglobin
storage
store amino acids for later use
storage examples
casein, albumin
44 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
functions of proteins
Regulation
Enzymatic activity
Movement
1. Growth and Repair... 2. Signaling from one cell to another... 3.…
Hormones such as insulin lower blood sugar
catalyzing chemical reactions
Actin and myosin are protein fibers responsible for muscle co…
functions of proteins
1. Growth and Repair... 2. Signaling from one cell to another... 3.…
Regulation
Hormones such as insulin lower blood sugar
44 terms
proteins and amino acids vocab
a-carbon
a-helix
active site (binding site)
amino acid
tetrahedral carbon in an amino acid, center of chiralty
helical shape formed as a result of hydrogen bonding between…
the pocket within an enzyme where the substrates bond and a b…
molecule in which all proteins are formed, :amine, carboxylic…
a-carbon
tetrahedral carbon in an amino acid, center of chiralty
a-helix
helical shape formed as a result of hydrogen bonding between…
8 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
B. Polypeptides
D. Maintenance, Repair, Growth, Build…
C. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen,…
A. Nucleic Acids
What do all proteins equal?... A. Dipeptide... B. Polypeptides... C. N…
What are the functions of proteins? ... A. Heredity, DNA and RNA…
What are the elements of nucleic acids?... A. Sulfur, Helium, Se…
_____________ store and transmit genetic information.... A. Nucl…
B. Polypeptides
What do all proteins equal?... A. Dipeptide... B. Polypeptides... C. N…
D. Maintenance, Repair, Growth, Build…
What are the functions of proteins? ... A. Heredity, DNA and RNA…
11 terms
Amino acids and proteins
Central dogma
Expansion of the Central dogma (violat…
Epigenetics
alpha amino acid structure
-revere transcription, RNA to DNA... -reverse transcriptase gene…
-study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not cau…
Central dogma
Expansion of the Central dogma (violat…
-revere transcription, RNA to DNA... -reverse transcriptase gene…
28 terms
Nucleic acids and proteins
7.1.1 Describe the structure of DNA, i…
7.1.2 Outline the structure of nucleos…
7.1.3 State that nucleosomes help to s…
7.1.4 Distinguish between unique or si…
DNA is made up of two strands. At one end of each strand ther…
Nucleosomes consiste of DNA wrapped around eight histone prot…
Nucleosomes help to supercoil chromosomes and help regulate t…
Not all of the base sequences in DNA are translated. Highly r…
7.1.1 Describe the structure of DNA, i…
DNA is made up of two strands. At one end of each strand ther…
7.1.2 Outline the structure of nucleos…
Nucleosomes consiste of DNA wrapped around eight histone prot…
37 terms
Proteins and Amino Acids
Alpha Carbon
Amino Acid At ph of 7
D and L stereoisomers
Which enantiomer is most common in the…
the one next to the carb acid group.
Only applies to chiral carbons on the alpha carbon.
L enantiomer.
Alpha Carbon
the one next to the carb acid group.
Amino Acid At ph of 7
30 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Amines... Carboxylic acids
Nitrogen
Amide bond... Peptide Bond
Dipeptide
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
What element links amino acids together?
When amino acids are linked together the link is call a _____…
When 2 amino acids are linked together they are called a ____…
Amines... Carboxylic acids
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
Nitrogen
What element links amino acids together?
10 terms
proteins and nucleic acids vocab
proteins
denaturation
polypeptide
dipeptide
Large complex polymer composed of C, H, O, N, & sometimes S;…
the break down of protein structure
many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
two amino acids linked together
proteins
Large complex polymer composed of C, H, O, N, & sometimes S;…
denaturation
the break down of protein structure
9 terms
Amino acids and proteins
structure of amino acid
synthesis
hydrolysis
primary structure
H2N-CHR-COOH
The -OH from one amino acid and the -H from the -COOH from th…
A water molecule is used to break the peptide bond. The -H jo…
The sequence of amino acids found in a protein molecule
structure of amino acid
H2N-CHR-COOH
synthesis
The -OH from one amino acid and the -H from the -COOH from th…
8 terms
Proteins & Amino Acids
Glycine (Zwitterion)
Alanine (Zwitterion)
Valine (Zwitterion)
Zwitterion
A zwitterion is a compound with no overall electrical charge,…
Glycine (Zwitterion)
Alanine (Zwitterion)
56 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Alanine
Arginine
Asparagine
Aspartic Acid
Ala, A
Arg, R
Asn, N
Asp, D
Alanine
Ala, A
Arginine
Arg, R
72 terms
Amino Acids & Proteins
Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Alanine
Valine
47 terms
Cell - Amino Acids - Proteins
Eukaryote
Prokaryote
Cell Functions
Cell Components
-Unicellular or multicellular... -Has distinct nucleus & membran…
-Single cell... -No distinct nucleus or organelles ... ....Bacteria…
-Receive nutrients... -oxidize fuel ... -excrete wastes... -grow and d…
1-Plasma Membrane: protein + lipids... >Selective permeable to l…
Eukaryote
-Unicellular or multicellular... -Has distinct nucleus & membran…
Prokaryote
-Single cell... -No distinct nucleus or organelles ... ....Bacteria…
77 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Biochem
Macromolecules
amino acids macromolecules
nucleotides macromolecules
how collection of molecules interact w/ each other to maintai…
Constructed from simple building blocks
proteins
DNA... RNA
Biochem
how collection of molecules interact w/ each other to maintai…
Macromolecules
Constructed from simple building blocks
34 terms
Amino acids and proteins
pH
pH
Pure water
PH
pH=-log[H+]... Measures the concentration of H+ in solution
Important in environment affects charge on molecul and theref…
At 25 degrees, is 1X10-7 moles/L (M)
PH=-log 0.1 = 1.0
pH
pH=-log[H+]... Measures the concentration of H+ in solution
pH
Important in environment affects charge on molecul and theref…
20 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
[Hydrophobic Amino Acid]... ⫸ Features
[Hydrophobic Aliphatic Amino Acids]... ⫸…
[Hydrophobic Aromatic Amino Acids]... ⫸ N…
[Hydrophillic Amino Acids] ... ⫸ Classes…
⫸ water fearing, non polar... ⫸ burried in the interior of prote…
"VAGIML"... Glycine (gly) G... Alanine (ala) A... Valine (val) V... Leuc…
phenylalanine (phe) F... proline (pro) P... tryptophan (trp) W
1) Polar-Neutral... 2) Polar- Acidic- Negative... 3) Polar - Basic…
[Hydrophobic Amino Acid]... ⫸ Features
⫸ water fearing, non polar... ⫸ burried in the interior of prote…
[Hydrophobic Aliphatic Amino Acids]... ⫸…
"VAGIML"... Glycine (gly) G... Alanine (ala) A... Valine (val) V... Leuc…
31 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids Quiz
Peptide bond
Polypeptide
Actin, myosin in muscles
Collagen
covalent bond between 2 amino acids.
amino acids that form in a long chain
Which protein has the function of movement and cell strength
Which protein protects connective tissues (tendons, ligaments…
Peptide bond
covalent bond between 2 amino acids.
Polypeptide
amino acids that form in a long chain
12 terms
Proteins and nucleic acids
Protein
Amino acid
Polypeptide
R-group
Large organic compound made of CHON and sometimes S.
Monomer of a protein
Polymer made of many amino acids
variable group found on amino acids- gives amino acids differ…
Protein
Large organic compound made of CHON and sometimes S.
Amino acid
Monomer of a protein
39 terms
nucleic acids and proteins
monomers of proteins
peptides and polypeptides are polymers…
Amino acids consist of a WHAT and an W…
On an amino acid the final bond on the…
amino acids
amino acids
carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) and α-carbon
hydrogen
monomers of proteins
amino acids
peptides and polypeptides are polymers…
amino acids
16 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids Vocabulary
Monomers of proteins
Polymers of proteins
R group:
Most important role in protein function:
amino acids
polypeptides
a chemical group that varies between the twenty different ami…
enzymes
Monomers of proteins
amino acids
Polymers of proteins
polypeptides
9 terms
Proteins and Amino Acids
Proteins
Helicase
Actin
Amino Acids
-Macromolecules consisting of 1 or more long chains of amino…
-Found in the nucleus, forms around DNA and unwinds it to ope…
-a long line of proteins that spans the length of a cell to f…
*All polar covalent bonds... -Amino: Basic... -Carboxyl: Acidic
Proteins
-Macromolecules consisting of 1 or more long chains of amino…
Helicase
-Found in the nucleus, forms around DNA and unwinds it to ope…
18 terms
Proteins and nucleic acids
amino acid (all amino acids have the a…
monomer
nucleotides
shared nitrogenous bases
a compound containing an amine group that is the building blo…
a small unit that can join with other units to form polymers
the building blocks of nucleic acids are made up of a five-ca…
guanine, adenine and cytosine
amino acid (all amino acids have the a…
a compound containing an amine group that is the building blo…
monomer
a small unit that can join with other units to form polymers
32 terms
BIO (PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS)
Dehydration Reaction
Hydrolysis
Polypeptides
Protein
occurs when a monomer is added... to a growing polymer, resultin…
a reaction that is essentially the... reverse of the dehydration…
are unbranched polymers of amino acids.
is a biologically functional macromolecule... composed of one or…
Dehydration Reaction
occurs when a monomer is added... to a growing polymer, resultin…
Hydrolysis
a reaction that is essentially the... reverse of the dehydration…
8 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Protein
Amino Acid
Nucleic Acid
Humans produce these amino acids
A molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed…
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and…
A biological macromolecule (DNA or RNA) composed of the eleme…
Unlike fat and starch, the human body does not store excess a…
Protein
A molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed…
Amino Acid
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and…
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