Study sets matching "acids proteins"

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Study sets matching "acids proteins"

16 terms
Nucleic Acids and Proteins
macromolecule
monomer
hydrolysis reaction
protein
a large biological molecule
What every polymer is made up of.
when polymers break up into smaller molecules
organic molecule that exhibit specific shapes to perform a sp…
macromolecule
a large biological molecule
monomer
What every polymer is made up of.
30 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Amines... Carboxylic acids
Nitrogen
Amide bond... Peptide Bond
Dipeptide
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
What element links amino acids together?
When amino acids are linked together the link is call a _____…
When 2 amino acids are linked together they are called a ____…
Amines... Carboxylic acids
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
Nitrogen
What element links amino acids together?
21 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
What is the chemical formula for an am…
What element is found in protein but n…
Peptide bond
carboxyl group
NH2
carbon
bond between two amino acids
proteins are made up of organic acids that contain carboxyl g…
What is the chemical formula for an am…
NH2
What element is found in protein but n…
carbon
PROTEINS AND ACIDS
proteins facts #1
elements in protein
Monomer
polymer
no energy ... found in meat ... organic compound ... makes muscle... cell…
Carbon... nitrogen ... oxygen ... hydrogen
amino acids
proteins/polypeptide
proteins facts #1
no energy ... found in meat ... organic compound ... makes muscle... cell…
elements in protein
Carbon... nitrogen ... oxygen ... hydrogen
45 terms
amino acids and proteins
central dogma
nucleic acids
amino acids
retrovirus
DNA makes RNA makes proteins
make up RNA DNA, made up of a phosphate, 5 C sugar, and a bas…
make up proteins
uses reverse transcriptase to transcribe RNA to cDNA (complim…
central dogma
DNA makes RNA makes proteins
nucleic acids
make up RNA DNA, made up of a phosphate, 5 C sugar, and a bas…
45 terms
Acids and Proteins
buffers
Saliva
children pH verse adult pH
Xerostomia
resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid r base…
-Normal pH is 5.6-7.9... -decay can start when pH is below 5.5... -…
children pH - 7.5 and adult pH - 6.5
- dry mouth... - most often dry mouth is the result of a decreas…
buffers
resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid r base…
Saliva
-Normal pH is 5.6-7.9... -decay can start when pH is below 5.5... -…
ACids / proteins
monosaccharides
starch
cellulose
chitin
glucose, fructose, galactose
used for energy storage in plants
is structural and supports young portions of plants
is structural and forms exoskeletons of insects, crabs and lo…
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
starch
used for energy storage in plants
71 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Enzyme
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, an…
Amino acid
20
A type of protein that speeds up reactions
Elements found in the body
Monomer of a protein
Number of types of amino acids that make proteins in the huma…
Enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up reactions
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, an…
Elements found in the body
25 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
protein
protein
protein
protein
monomer = amino acid
transports oxygen
hemoglobin
speed up chemical reactions
protein
monomer = amino acid
protein
transports oxygen
Biochemistry: Proteins + Nucleic Acids
Proteins help carry out chemical react…
Permeases
Hormones
Antibodies
Enzymes
Serve as these, pump small molecules in/out of cells
Proteins serve as these chemical messengers
Proteins help form these disease-fighting
Proteins help carry out chemical react…
Enzymes
Permeases
Serve as these, pump small molecules in/out of cells
11 terms
Nucleic Acids and Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Nucleotides
Polynucleotide
Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon,…
Consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group,…
Individual nucleotides can be joined by covalent bonds to for…
Polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleoti…
Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon,…
Nucleotides
Consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group,…
73 terms
Biochemistry Proteins and Amino Acids
How many biologically important Amino…
What is the basic structure of Amino A…
What element does the amine functional…
What elements are found in the Carboxy…
20
Nitrogen
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen
How many biologically important Amino…
20
What is the basic structure of Amino A…
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
amino acid
nucleotide
DNA & RNA
polypeptide
the monomer of a protein
the monomer of a nucleic acid
2 types of nucleic acids
another name for a protein
amino acid
the monomer of a protein
nucleotide
the monomer of a nucleic acid
92 terms
Chapter 11 Amino Acids and Proteins
5 major elements found in proteins
the % nitrogen content in proteins
general structure of amino acids
What does an amine group do in an amin…
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
16%
amphoteric containing 2 ionizable sites,... protein accepting gr…
the amine group acts as a base and can accept a H ion
5 major elements found in proteins
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
the % nitrogen content in proteins
16%
25 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
monomer
polymer
protein functions
example of protein
a small molecule that is a single unit in a larger molecule
a large molecule formed by many monomers bonded together
1. muscle movement... 2. oxygen transport... 3. speed up chemical r…
hemoglobin and enzymes
monomer
a small molecule that is a single unit in a larger molecule
polymer
a large molecule formed by many monomers bonded together
26 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Glutamine
Asparagine
Glutamate
Aspartate
can be glycosylated (N-linked)
decarboxylate to form GABA, pKa 4
pKa 4
Glutamine
Asparagine
can be glycosylated (N-linked)
10 terms
Proteins & Nucleic Acids
Amino Acids
Peptide Bond
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Building blocks of protein
The bond between two amino acids in a protein.
Sequence of Amino Acids
The second level of protein structure. The shapes are either…
Amino Acids
Building blocks of protein
Peptide Bond
The bond between two amino acids in a protein.
MCP - Amino Acids and Proteins
L-configuration at the alpha carbon.
No, glycine is an achiral amino acid.
An amine group, a carboxyl group, a hy…
A molecule that has both positive and…
What is the natural configuration for virtually all biologica…
Are all Amino Acids chiral?
What are the components of an Amino Acid?
What does it mean for a molecule to be zwitterionic?
L-configuration at the alpha carbon.
What is the natural configuration for virtually all biologica…
No, glycine is an achiral amino acid.
Are all Amino Acids chiral?
7 - Protein Synthesis : Amino Acids & Proteins
Amino acids are complex ...
There are ...
The chain of amino acids become bundle…
Primary structure ...
... molecules that are formed in a chain to make proteins.
... 20 different amino acids (10 of which are necessary parts…
... and folded to form the unique shape of the protein.
... protein in a chain.
Amino acids are complex ...
... molecules that are formed in a chain to make proteins.
There are ...
... 20 different amino acids (10 of which are necessary parts…
Amino acids and proteins
pH
pH
Pure water
PH
pH=-log[H+]... Measures the concentration of H+ in solution
Important in environment affects charge on molecul and theref…
At 25 degrees, is 1X10-7 moles/L (M)
PH=-log 0.1 = 1.0
pH
pH=-log[H+]... Measures the concentration of H+ in solution
pH
Important in environment affects charge on molecul and theref…
Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids.
Lipid
Triglyceride
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Saturated Fatty Acid
Macromolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrophobic.
Also known as fats. Contain a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatt…
Long chain of hydrogen and carbon with some carbon double bon…
Long chain of hydrogen and carbon with only single bonds betw…
Lipid
Macromolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrophobic.
Triglyceride
Also known as fats. Contain a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatt…
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Composed of CHOP. ... Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fat…
Composed of CHON. ... All are composed of the same twenty amino…
Composed of CHOPN.... DNA and RNA. The genetic information withi…
Carbohydrates
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Lipids
Composed of CHOP. ... Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fat…
58 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Geometric isomers
Structural isomer
Isomer
Functional groups
Have same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial stateme…
Different covalent arrangements of their atoms
Compounds with same molecular formula but different structure…
Components of organic molecules that are most commonly involv…
Geometric isomers
Have same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial stateme…
Structural isomer
Different covalent arrangements of their atoms
12 terms
Proteins and nucleic acids
Protein
Amino acid
Polypeptide
R-group
Large organic compound made of CHON and sometimes S.
Monomer of a protein
Polymer made of many amino acids
variable group found on amino acids- gives amino acids differ…
Protein
Large organic compound made of CHON and sometimes S.
Amino acid
Monomer of a protein
32 terms
Amino acids and proteins
Amino acids
Absolute configuration at the α positon
Amino acids as dipolar ions
Acidic amino acid
Building blocks of proteins... varying physical and chemical pro…
L: common in nature and proteins... D: less common in nature and…
Low pH = cation (NH3+)... Neutral = Zwitteron (pH=pI)... High pH =…
R = Carboxylic acid (COO-)... Aspartic acid... Glutamic acid
Amino acids
Building blocks of proteins... varying physical and chemical pro…
Absolute configuration at the α positon
L: common in nature and proteins... D: less common in nature and…
31 terms
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.... All are c…
DNA and RNA. The genetic information within cells that determ…
Carbohydrates
These are sugars and starches. They are all composed of only…
Lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
nucleic acids and proteins
monomers of proteins
peptides and polypeptides are polymers…
Amino acids consist of a WHAT and an W…
On an amino acid the final bond on the…
amino acids
amino acids
carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) and α-carbon
hydrogen
monomers of proteins
amino acids
peptides and polypeptides are polymers…
amino acids
16 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids Vocabulary
Monomers of proteins
Polymers of proteins
R group:
Most important role in protein function:
amino acids
polypeptides
a chemical group that varies between the twenty different ami…
enzymes
Monomers of proteins
amino acids
Polymers of proteins
polypeptides
9 terms
Proteins and Amino Acids
Proteins
Helicase
Actin
Amino Acids
-Macromolecules consisting of 1 or more long chains of amino…
-Found in the nucleus, forms around DNA and unwinds it to ope…
-a long line of proteins that spans the length of a cell to f…
*All polar covalent bonds... -Amino: Basic... -Carboxyl: Acidic
Proteins
-Macromolecules consisting of 1 or more long chains of amino…
Helicase
-Found in the nucleus, forms around DNA and unwinds it to ope…
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
amino acid
nucleotide
DNA & RNA
polypeptide
the monomer of a protein
the monomer of a nucleic acid
2 types of nucleic acids
another name for a protein
amino acid
the monomer of a protein
nucleotide
the monomer of a nucleic acid
18 terms
Proteins and nucleic acids
amino acid (all amino acids have the a…
monomer
nucleotides
shared nitrogenous bases
a compound containing an amine group that is the building blo…
a small unit that can join with other units to form polymers
the building blocks of nucleic acids are made up of a five-ca…
guanine, adenine and cytosine
amino acid (all amino acids have the a…
a compound containing an amine group that is the building blo…
monomer
a small unit that can join with other units to form polymers
32 terms
BIO (PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS)
Dehydration Reaction
Hydrolysis
Polypeptides
Protein
occurs when a monomer is added... to a growing polymer, resultin…
a reaction that is essentially the... reverse of the dehydration…
are unbranched polymers of amino acids.
is a biologically functional macromolecule... composed of one or…
Dehydration Reaction
occurs when a monomer is added... to a growing polymer, resultin…
Hydrolysis
a reaction that is essentially the... reverse of the dehydration…
10 terms
Amino Acids/Proteins
Name four essential and four non-essen…
Which are absorbed faster - peptides o…
What two mechanisms are utilised to tr…
Within intestinal cells, amino acids m…
essential - histadine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine... Nonesse…
free amino acids
sodium independent transport ( when AA conc in gut is high)... s…
apoproteins for lipoprotein formation... new digestive enzymes... h…
Name four essential and four non-essen…
essential - histadine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine... Nonesse…
Which are absorbed faster - peptides o…
free amino acids
10 terms
Proteins: Amino Acids
Important biological functions of prot…
Zwitterions
Stereoisomers
Enantiomers
1. Many proteins functions as enzymes.... 2. Some proteins bind…
...
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in…
Non-superimposable mirror images
Important biological functions of prot…
1. Many proteins functions as enzymes.... 2. Some proteins bind…
Zwitterions
...
40 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Basic Structure
Zwitterion
Metabolism
Aminoacidopathies
-an amino acid (-NH3)... -a carboxyl group (-COOH)... -alpha carbon…
amino acid has an equal number of opposing charges... -neutral m…
primary purpose is synthesis of proteins and... -synthesizes non…
inborn errors in metabolism
Basic Structure
-an amino acid (-NH3)... -a carboxyl group (-COOH)... -alpha carbon…
Zwitterion
amino acid has an equal number of opposing charges... -neutral m…
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules
Properties of Water
Hydrophobic
Hydrophilic
-Chain like molecule made of monomer... -known as a polymer
-Polar... -High surface tension... -High specific heat... -Strong adhe…
-Substances with no affinity for water... -nonionic or nonpolar
-Substances with an affinity for water... -ions or polar molecules
Macromolecules
-Chain like molecule made of monomer... -known as a polymer
Properties of Water
-Polar... -High surface tension... -High specific heat... -Strong adhe…
71 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Enzyme
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, an…
Amino acid
20
A type of protein that speeds up reactions
Elements found in the body
Monomer of a protein
Number of types of amino acids that make proteins in the huma…
Enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up reactions
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, an…
Elements found in the body
20 terms
Amino Acids in Proteins
Glycine (nonpolar side chain)
Alanine (nonpolar side chain)
Valine (nonpolar side chain)
Leucine (nonpolar side chain)
Gly, G
Ala, A
Val, V
Leu, L
Glycine (nonpolar side chain)
Gly, G
Alanine (nonpolar side chain)
Ala, A
10 terms
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Mulder
Cancer research
RNA
DNA
discovered that proteins contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and…
has lead to more people being treated, especially if they car…
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with…
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of r…
Mulder
discovered that proteins contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and…
Cancer research
has lead to more people being treated, especially if they car…
Proteins & Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Monomer of Proteins
Where are proteins found?
Functions of Proteins
composed mainly of C,H,O,N
amino acid
hair, horns, skin, muscles, enzymes
-Structural ... -Movement... -Storage... -Receptors ... -Transport
Proteins
composed mainly of C,H,O,N
Monomer of Proteins
amino acid
23 terms
Proteins - Amino Acids
Amino Acid
Dipeptide
Tripeptide
Polypeptides
Building Block of Protein... -11 essential... -9 nonessential
2 peptides, 1 peptide bond
3 peptides, 2 peptide bonds
Greater than 3 amino acids/peptides... (many)
Amino Acid
Building Block of Protein... -11 essential... -9 nonessential
Dipeptide
2 peptides, 1 peptide bond
44 terms
proteins and amino acids vocab
a-carbon
a-helix
active site (binding site)
amino acid
tetrahedral carbon in an amino acid, center of chiralty
helical shape formed as a result of hydrogen bonding between…
the pocket within an enzyme where the substrates bond and a b…
molecule in which all proteins are formed, :amine, carboxylic…
a-carbon
tetrahedral carbon in an amino acid, center of chiralty
a-helix
helical shape formed as a result of hydrogen bonding between…
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
functions of proteins
Regulation
Enzymatic activity
Movement
1. Growth and Repair... 2. Signaling from one cell to another... 3.…
Hormones such as insulin lower blood sugar
catalyzing chemical reactions
Actin and myosin are protein fibers responsible for muscle co…
functions of proteins
1. Growth and Repair... 2. Signaling from one cell to another... 3.…
Regulation
Hormones such as insulin lower blood sugar
Amino Acids and Proteins
Amines... Carboxylic acids
Nitrogen
Amide bond... Peptide Bond
Dipeptide
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
What element links amino acids together?
When amino acids are linked together the link is call a _____…
When 2 amino acids are linked together they are called a ____…
Amines... Carboxylic acids
What 2 functional groups are a part of all Amino Acids?
Nitrogen
What element links amino acids together?
39 terms
Amino acids and Proteins
Amino acids basic structure
Amino acids at neutral pH
Classification of amino acids
Nonpolar and hydrophobic amino acids
amino group (H-N-H)... side chain (R-group)... alpha-carbon/chiral…
Zwiterion... (+)and (-)charge
20 amino acids... =based on side chain (R-group)
in the interior of protein... hydrophobic interactions... =stabiliz…
Amino acids basic structure
amino group (H-N-H)... side chain (R-group)... alpha-carbon/chiral…
Amino acids at neutral pH
Zwiterion... (+)and (-)charge
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
B. Polypeptides
D. Maintenance, Repair, Growth, Build…
C. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen,…
A. Nucleic Acids
What do all proteins equal?... A. Dipeptide... B. Polypeptides... C. N…
What are the functions of proteins? ... A. Heredity, DNA and RNA…
What are the elements of nucleic acids?... A. Sulfur, Helium, Se…
_____________ store and transmit genetic information.... A. Nucl…
B. Polypeptides
What do all proteins equal?... A. Dipeptide... B. Polypeptides... C. N…
D. Maintenance, Repair, Growth, Build…
What are the functions of proteins? ... A. Heredity, DNA and RNA…
28 terms
Nucleic acids and proteins
7.1.1 Describe the structure of DNA, i…
7.1.2 Outline the structure of nucleos…
7.1.3 State that nucleosomes help to s…
7.1.4 Distinguish between unique or si…
DNA is made up of two strands. At one end of each strand ther…
Nucleosomes consiste of DNA wrapped around eight histone prot…
Nucleosomes help to supercoil chromosomes and help regulate t…
Not all of the base sequences in DNA are translated. Highly r…
7.1.1 Describe the structure of DNA, i…
DNA is made up of two strands. At one end of each strand ther…
7.1.2 Outline the structure of nucleos…
Nucleosomes consiste of DNA wrapped around eight histone prot…
101 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
Function
Tetrahedral, Calpha
Chirality
Chiral
Protein structure determines ___
Amino acids are ___ in shape with 4 different substituents ar…
The ability to form non-superimposable mirror images from a s…
19/20 amino acids are [achiral/chiral] in nature
Function
Protein structure determines ___
Tetrahedral, Calpha
Amino acids are ___ in shape with 4 different substituents ar…
18 terms
Amino Acids and Proteins
absolute configuration of amino acids
amino acids found in proteins
two acidic amino acids
three basic amino acids
L/D... *different from R/S
L-amino acids
aspartic acid and glutamic acid
lysine, arginine, and histidine
absolute configuration of amino acids
L/D... *different from R/S
amino acids found in proteins
L-amino acids
11 terms
Amino acids and proteins
Central dogma
Expansion of the Central dogma (violat…
Epigenetics
alpha amino acid structure
-revere transcription, RNA to DNA... -reverse transcriptase gene…
-study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not cau…
Central dogma
Expansion of the Central dogma (violat…
-revere transcription, RNA to DNA... -reverse transcriptase gene…
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