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Study sets matching "adaptation chapter 42"

90 terms
Chapter 42 Stress and Adaptation
A condition in which the human system…
Stress can be ____ or _____
This type of stress may be an illness,…
This type of stress may be a loud nois…
stress
internal or external
internal stress
external stress
A condition in which the human system…
stress
Stress can be ____ or _____
internal or external
32 terms
Chapter 42
The nurse elects to use a scale of str…
The client has just received news of t…
The nursing student admits to being mi…
While attempting to choose a nursing d…
"This scale will give us some idea about your stress related…
2. A more bounding pulse: During this shock phase, the sympat…
1. The student's perception and learning is enhanced.... With mi…
The source of fear is identifiable, but anxiety may be vague.…
The nurse elects to use a scale of str…
"This scale will give us some idea about your stress related…
The client has just received news of t…
2. A more bounding pulse: During this shock phase, the sympat…
33 terms
Immune system chapter 42
Characteristics of Immune system
2 types of immunity
innate immunity
acquired immunity
specificity... diversity (all pathogens = different/mutate)... memo…
innate immunity... acquired immunity
present before any exposure to pathogens... involves non specifi…
adapted immunity... develops after exposure to agents... involves v…
Characteristics of Immune system
specificity... diversity (all pathogens = different/mutate)... memo…
2 types of immunity
innate immunity... acquired immunity
121 terms
MCDB 1B Chapter 42
Why are humans nutritious to pathogens?
Pathogen... (examples)
immune system
Two general types of defense mechanisms
We have a lot of nutrients, a constant, warm body temp, const…
infectious biological agent that causes disease... virus, bacte…
a set of mechanisms that protect an organism from infection b…
nonspecific and specific defense system
Why are humans nutritious to pathogens?
We have a lot of nutrients, a constant, warm body temp, const…
Pathogen... (examples)
infectious biological agent that causes disease... virus, bacte…
39 terms
BIOLOGY CHAPTER 42 NOTES
Anatomy
physiology
adaptations
Trade-offs
the study of an organisms physical build
the study of how this physical build in an organism works
traits that are received from the parents and they allow you…
A limitation factor of adaptation which compromises traits ar…
Anatomy
the study of an organisms physical build
physiology
the study of how this physical build in an organism works
105 terms
Chapter 42 BIO 3000
unicellular organisms
cells making up multicellular organisms
simple animals (ex. cnidarians)
gastrovascular cavity
exchanges occur directly with the environment
direct exchange with the environment is not possible
have a body wall only two cells thick that encloses a gastrov…
functions in both digestion and distribution of substances th…
unicellular organisms
exchanges occur directly with the environment
cells making up multicellular organisms
direct exchange with the environment is not possible
Biology Chapter 42 Animal Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
Advantage of Asexual Reproduction
Binary Fission
Prokaryotes Increase Genetic Variation
the production of genetically identical cells or individuals…
does not involve find and attracting a mate which takes time…
from of asexual reproduction which the genome replicates ad t…
they can transfer DNA from one individual to another... obtain…
Asexual Reproduction
the production of genetically identical cells or individuals…
Advantage of Asexual Reproduction
does not involve find and attracting a mate which takes time…
39 terms
Chapter 42- Animal Form and Function
anatomy
physiology
Heritable traits
trade-offs
Study of the organism's physical structure
Study of how the physical structures in an organism function
allow individuals to service and reproduce in a certain envir…
Inescapable compromises between traits, also called a fitness…
anatomy
Study of the organism's physical structure
physiology
Study of how the physical structures in an organism function
13 terms
Chapter 42 - Circulatory and Respiration
What is the main function of circulato…
In animals with simple body plans, wha…
Describe the circulatory system in com…
What drives double circulation in mamm…
they link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body
a gastrovascular cavity
1. Long distance to travel = slow diffusion... 2. circulatory sy…
coordinated cycles of heart contraction
What is the main function of circulato…
they link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body
In animals with simple body plans, wha…
a gastrovascular cavity
Chapter 42: Immunology - Animal Defense Systems
pathogens
innate defenses
adaptive defenses
blood plasma
harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease
nonspecific defenses that provide the first line of defense a…
specific defenses aimed at specific pathogens and are activat…
yellowish solution containing ions, small molecule solutes, a…
pathogens
harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease
innate defenses
nonspecific defenses that provide the first line of defense a…
40 terms
Chapter 42
anatomy
Phisiology
trade- offs
tissue
the study of an organism's physical structures
the study of how the physical structurs in an organism function
inescapable compromises between traits... ex: the compromise bet…
a group of cells that have the same function ... 4 types: loose,…
anatomy
the study of an organism's physical structures
Phisiology
the study of how the physical structurs in an organism function
60 terms
Chapter 42, Biology 120
Adaptation
Acclimatization
How much sun exposure is recommended?
What is the cutoff point for the winte…
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to sur…
Short term adaptations. Example, getting a tan is a short ter…
15 minute exposure 3 times a week to hands and face.... Dark sk…
Roughly everything north of Charlotte, NC.
Adaptation
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to sur…
Acclimatization
Short term adaptations. Example, getting a tan is a short ter…
29 terms
Chapter 42
What processes are essential to ecosys…
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
How are ecosystems open systems?
energy flow through the ecosystem & matter cycles (within and…
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or tr…
every exchange of energy increases the entropy of the univers…
they absorb energy and mass... they release heat and waste produ…
What processes are essential to ecosys…
energy flow through the ecosystem & matter cycles (within and…
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or tr…
93 terms
Biology Chapter 42
There's two basic adaptations that all…
Components of circulatory system
Instead of blood the open circulatory…
How does hemolymph moves?
Body plan and circulatory system
circulatory fluid, set of interconnected vessels and muscular…
Circulatory fluid or hemolymphalso called interstitial fluid…
moves with squeezing sinuses
There's two basic adaptations that all…
Body plan and circulatory system
Components of circulatory system
circulatory fluid, set of interconnected vessels and muscular…
97 terms
Chapter 42
anatomy is the study of an organisms _…
Physiology is the study of how the ___…
Biologists who study animal anatomy an…
Adaptions are heritable traits that al…
physical structure
physical structures
adaptions
survive... reproduce
anatomy is the study of an organisms _…
physical structure
Physiology is the study of how the ___…
physical structures
32 terms
chapter 42
arid
broadleaf evergreen forest
climate
Commercial fishing
dry or lacking rainfall; also a climate or climate zone that…
a vegetation zone of mainly tall trees that remain green all…
the pattern of weather over a long period climate
catching fish for sale, often with the use of large ships
arid
dry or lacking rainfall; also a climate or climate zone that…
broadleaf evergreen forest
a vegetation zone of mainly tall trees that remain green all…
113 terms
Chapter 42
immunity
three phases of defense response
recognition
activation
rxn involving immune system cells in response to foreign subs…
recognition, activation, effector
discriminate between self and non-self
recognition leads to mobilization of cells and molecules to f…
immunity
rxn involving immune system cells in response to foreign subs…
three phases of defense response
recognition, activation, effector
chapter 42
Pathogens
Steps in the Defensive Response of Ani…
Two Types of Defense Mechanisms in Ani…
Innate Defenses
Def: harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease.
1. Recognition phase - the organism must be able to discrim…
1. Innate defenses - nonspecific defenses, provide the firs…
Def: nonspecific defenses, provide the first line of defense…
Pathogens
Def: harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease.
Steps in the Defensive Response of Ani…
1. Recognition phase - the organism must be able to discrim…
83 terms
Chapter 42
acclimatization
adaptations
adaptive
adipose tissue
...
...
...
...
acclimatization
...
adaptations
...
50 terms
Chapter 42
chemautotrophs
ecosystem dynamics
ecosystem based on law of p and c
law of conservation of mass
obtain energy by oxidizing sulfur taken up from their sulfate…
its dynamics involve two main processes: energy flow and chem…
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be…
states that matter cannot be created or destroyed; through th…
chemautotrophs
obtain energy by oxidizing sulfur taken up from their sulfate…
ecosystem dynamics
its dynamics involve two main processes: energy flow and chem…
27 terms
Chapter 42
acclimatization
adaptation
tissue
neuron
A change in an individual's phenotype that occurs in response…
Any heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individu…
A group of cells that function as a unit, such as muscle tiss…
A cell that is specialized for the transmission of nerve impu…
acclimatization
A change in an individual's phenotype that occurs in response…
adaptation
Any heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individu…
51 terms
Biology Chapter 42
adaptive immunity
affinity
allergy
antibody
immunity that has memory and occurs after exposure to an anti…
attraction of molecular complementary between antigen and ant…
immune reaction that results from immediate hypersensitivitie…
protein that is produced by plasma cells after stimulation by…
adaptive immunity
immunity that has memory and occurs after exposure to an anti…
affinity
attraction of molecular complementary between antigen and ant…
101 terms
Chapter 42
Inhale
between the alveoli and capillaries
Exhale
Mammalian Respiratory Systems
Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi bronchioles aveoli
Where does gas exchange occur?
Air passes over vocal cords in the larynx to create sound
A system of branching ducts conveys air to the lungs
Inhale
Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi bronchioles aveoli
between the alveoli and capillaries
Where does gas exchange occur?
15 terms
Chapter 42
Internal Stressors
External Stressors
Developmental
Situationional
Within the person... -Emotional (anger, depression)... -Physiologic…
Outside the person ... -Death of loved one... -Peer Pressure
Stressors at certain stages of life
Unpredictable situations that occur (divorce, accident)
Internal Stressors
Within the person... -Emotional (anger, depression)... -Physiologic…
External Stressors
Outside the person ... -Death of loved one... -Peer Pressure
40 terms
Chapter 42
Anatomy
Physiology
Adaptations
Trade offs
Study of an organism's physical structure.
Study of how the physical structures in an organism function
Heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
inescapable compromises between traits.
Anatomy
Study of an organism's physical structure.
Physiology
Study of how the physical structures in an organism function
43 terms
Chapter 42
Immune System
Blood
Lymph
Macrophages
...
...
...
Engulf and digest microorganisms; activate T cells
Immune System
...
Blood
...
11 terms
Chapter 42
Countercurrent Exchange
Alveoli
Hemoglobin
BOHR Effect
Adaptation to maximize O2 intake; blood and water flow in opp…
Spherical sacs at end of bronchioles with blood vessels; incr…
transports oxygen throughout blood
When blood pH drops to 7.2, it triggers more oxygen to be rel…
Countercurrent Exchange
Adaptation to maximize O2 intake; blood and water flow in opp…
Alveoli
Spherical sacs at end of bronchioles with blood vessels; incr…
24 terms
Chapter 42
Role of Fitness trade offs
acclimatization
Structure = ?
Connective tissues
compromises between traits.
short term reversible responses to the environment.
Function
Loose(Padding Ex. adipose tissue)... Dense(Connections Ex.Tendon…
Role of Fitness trade offs
compromises between traits.
acclimatization
short term reversible responses to the environment.
53 terms
Chapter 42
Anatomy
Physiology
Adaptations
Trade Offs
Study of organism's physical structure
How these structures in an organism function
Genetic change that happens over a period of time as a result…
Compromises that must be made between traits and functions. E…
Anatomy
Study of organism's physical structure
Physiology
How these structures in an organism function
50 terms
Chapter 42
Metabolic Water
Anatomy
Physiology
trade-offs
The water is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration.
The study of the physical structure of organisms.
The study of how an organism's body functions.
In evolutionary biology, an inescapable compromise between tw…
Metabolic Water
The water is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration.
Anatomy
The study of the physical structure of organisms.
69 terms
Chapter 42
study of an organism's physical struct…
study of how the physical structures i…
heritable traits (phenotypic features)…
inescapable compromises between traits…
anatomy
physiology
adaptations
trade-offs
study of an organism's physical struct…
anatomy
study of how the physical structures i…
physiology
24 terms
Chapter 42
adaptation
natural selection
fitness trade off
acclimatization
heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
individuals with certain alleles leave more offspring to surv…
inescapable compromises between both traits because organisms…
phenotypic change in response to short-term changes in natura…
adaptation
heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
natural selection
individuals with certain alleles leave more offspring to surv…
Chapter 42
anatomy
physiology
adaptations
trade-offs
the study of an organism's physical structure
the study of how the physical structures in an organism funct…
heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
inescapable compromises between traits
anatomy
the study of an organism's physical structure
physiology
the study of how the physical structures in an organism funct…
57 terms
chapter 42
Fertilization
aquatic habitat
nest construction and laying eggs
reproductive investment
requires a wet environment for survival of gambits;sperm can'…
external fertilization is common but NOT exclusive... -male and…
must be surrounded by water... mom and dad will protect eggs
rate of offspring production and level of care/protection of…
Fertilization
requires a wet environment for survival of gambits;sperm can'…
aquatic habitat
external fertilization is common but NOT exclusive... -male and…
95 terms
Chapter 42
Pathogens
3 Phases of defense response
Recognition Phase
Activation Phase
bacteria, viruses, fungi, animal parasites, rogue cells
Recognition, Activation, Effector
determining self from non-self
Mobilization of cells and molecules to fight the invader
Pathogens
bacteria, viruses, fungi, animal parasites, rogue cells
3 Phases of defense response
Recognition, Activation, Effector
24 terms
Chapter 42
Four categories of real property
What is a fixture?
What are the three "manifestations of…
Explain the decision in the Freeman vs…
(1) Land... (2) Buildings... (3) Plant life (trees, crops)... (4) Fixt…
an object is a fixture if a reasonable person would consider…
1 - Attachment... 2 - Adaption... 3 - Other manifestations of perma…
Mary Ann Barrs paid 3.5 mil for 4,000 acres of ranch land
Four categories of real property
(1) Land... (2) Buildings... (3) Plant life (trees, crops)... (4) Fixt…
What is a fixture?
an object is a fixture if a reasonable person would consider…
15 terms
Chapter 42.7: Adaptations for Gas Exchange include Pigments that Bind and Transport Gases
blood arriving in the lungs has a low…
in the alveoil, O2 diffuses into the _…
in tissue capillaries, partial pressur…
a single hemoglobin molecule can carry…
-O2... -CO2... -alveoli
-blood... -air
-interstitial fluids... -blood
four
blood arriving in the lungs has a low…
-O2... -CO2... -alveoli
in the alveoil, O2 diffuses into the _…
-blood... -air
29 terms
Chapter 42
acclimation
acclimitization
Different types of tissues
Conductive Tissue
The evolutionary process leading to a physiology... or a behavio…
Short term (within the life of an individual)... behavioral or p…
Conductive, nervous, muscle, epithelial
Loose connective tissue, bone, cartilage, and blood.
acclimation
The evolutionary process leading to a physiology... or a behavio…
acclimitization
Short term (within the life of an individual)... behavioral or p…
41 terms
CHAPTER 42
Define gas exchange and distinguish be…
Describe respiratory adaptations of aq…
Describe the advantages and disadvanta…
Describe countercurrent exchange in fi…
GAS EXCHANGE: the intake of Oxygen and the expulsion of Carbo…
Have the ability to move to constantly have water (respirator…
Advantages ... - simplist mode of respiration is through diffus…
COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGE: blood flows opposite direction in wh…
Define gas exchange and distinguish be…
GAS EXCHANGE: the intake of Oxygen and the expulsion of Carbo…
Describe respiratory adaptations of aq…
Have the ability to move to constantly have water (respirator…
34 terms
Chapter 42
Adaptations
Trade-offs
Acclimatization
Tissue
Heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
Inescapable compromises between traits
A phenotypic change that occurs in an individual in response…
A group of similar cells that function as a unit
Adaptations
Heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
Trade-offs
Inescapable compromises between traits
69 terms
Chapter 42
Define chronic renal failure.
At 50% of the normal glomerular filtra…
At 30-35% of normal glomerular filtrat…
At less than 20-25% normal glomerular…
Progressive an irreversible destruction of kidney structures
1. Diminished renal reserve.... 2. asymptomatic
1. Renal insufficiency... 2. azotemia (accumulation of nitrogeno…
1. Renal failure... 2. uremia, edema, metabolic acidosis... 3. dial…
Define chronic renal failure.
Progressive an irreversible destruction of kidney structures
At 50% of the normal glomerular filtra…
1. Diminished renal reserve.... 2. asymptomatic
55 terms
Biology Chapter 42 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy
Physiology
Adaptation
Trade-offs
-the study of an organism's physical structure
-the study of how the physical structures in an organism func…
-heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and repro…
-inescapable compromises between traits... -ie. quality and qua…
Anatomy
-the study of an organism's physical structure
Physiology
-the study of how the physical structures in an organism func…
23 terms
Chapter 42: Ecosystems and Energy
Ecologists study...
The first law of thermodynamics states…
The second law of thermodynamics state…
the law of conservation of mass states…
the transformations of energy and matter within ecosystems
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or tr…
very exchange of energy increases the entropy of the universe…
matter cannot be created or destroyed... Chemical elements are c…
Ecologists study...
the transformations of energy and matter within ecosystems
The first law of thermodynamics states…
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or tr…
134 terms
Biology Chapter 42
immunity
recognition, activation, effector
recognition
activation
a reaction by an organism involving cells of the immune syste…
three phases of defense response
organism must discriminate between self and non-self
recognition event leads to mobilization of cells and molecule…
immunity
a reaction by an organism involving cells of the immune syste…
recognition, activation, effector
three phases of defense response
57 terms
Chapter 42 Life Bio
pathogen
innate defenses
Adaptive defenses
Blood plasma
an organism that causes disease
nonspecific defenses that provide the first line of defense a…
one of the two general types of defenses against pathogens. I…
a yellowish brown solution containing ions, small molecule so…
pathogen
an organism that causes disease
innate defenses
nonspecific defenses that provide the first line of defense a…
53 terms
Chapter 42 Bio 111
anatomy
metabolic waste
physiology
adaptations
organism's physical structure
by product of cellular respiration
how the physical structures of an organism function
heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reprod…
anatomy
organism's physical structure
metabolic waste
by product of cellular respiration
37 terms
AP Biology Chapter 42
Biome
Terrestrial Biomes
Aquatic Biomes
Human Activities
distinct physical environments inhabited by ecologically simi…
distinguished largely by differences in vegetation
distinguished by abiotic characteristics such as salinity, de…
causes ecosystems that have fewer species and a more uniform…
Biome
distinct physical environments inhabited by ecologically simi…
Terrestrial Biomes
distinguished largely by differences in vegetation
32 terms
Chapter 42 Sleep
sleep
sleep
hypothalamus
2 brain systems control sleep-wake cycle
Science and technology are allowing us to examine _______ and…
is a "cyclical physiological process that alternates with lon…
control center for sleeping and waking
Reticular activating system (RAS)... Bulbar synchronizing region
sleep
Science and technology are allowing us to examine _______ and…
sleep
is a "cyclical physiological process that alternates with lon…
38 terms
BIO 101 - CHAPTER 42
Anatomy
Physiology
Heritable traits
Trade-offs
study of an organism's physical structure
study of how the physical structures in an organism function
allow individuals to survive and reproduce in a certain envir…
inescapable compromises between traits... traits are not all pos…
Anatomy
study of an organism's physical structure
Physiology
study of how the physical structures in an organism function
45 terms
Bio- Chapter 42: Immunology
Pathogens
Recognition Phase
Activation Phase
Effector phase
harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease
Ability to discriminate self vs. non-self
Recognition leads to mobilization of cells capable of fightin…
Mobilized cells and molecules they generate destroys the inva…
Pathogens
harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease
Recognition Phase
Ability to discriminate self vs. non-self
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