Study sets matching "anesthesia"

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Study sets matching "anesthesia"

118 terms
Anesthesia
First primitive efforts of achieving a…
One of the first anasthetics was
Second discovered anesthetic that was…
When were most anesthetics developed
People used to try things like opium leaves, mandrake root, p…
Ether. People all got high with this and they had tons of par…
Nitris Oxide
1980s-1990s
First primitive efforts of achieving a…
People used to try things like opium leaves, mandrake root, p…
One of the first anasthetics was
Ether. People all got high with this and they had tons of par…
13 terms
Anesthesia
anesthesia
spinal anesthesia
epidural anesthesia
bier block
Absence of sensation/blocking of sensation... medically induced…
Refers to nerves blocked in the subarachnoid space.
Regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the…
The Bier block is an intravenous regional anesthesia techniqu…
anesthesia
Absence of sensation/blocking of sensation... medically induced…
spinal anesthesia
Refers to nerves blocked in the subarachnoid space.
208 terms
Anesthesia
Halothane side effects (2)
Methoxyflurane side effect
Enflurane side effect
Isoflurane
(1) fulminant hepatic necrosis... (2) sensitization of the myoca…
dose related nephrotoxicity
evidence of seizure activity on EEG
- MAC 1.2%... -Less toxicity, more rapid onset and faster awaken…
Halothane side effects (2)
(1) fulminant hepatic necrosis... (2) sensitization of the myoca…
Methoxyflurane side effect
dose related nephrotoxicity
42 terms
Anesthesia
Analgesia vs Anesthesia
Regional General vs Local anesthesia
Contraindications to Regional Anesthes…
How does Spinal/Epidural anesthesia wo…
Analgesia - absence of pain... Anesthesia - absence of sensation
Regional (blocks) - anesthetizing a larger section of the bod…
chronic back pain, hypovolemia, patient refusal, infection at…
blocks conduction of impulses by altering Na movement into th…
Analgesia vs Anesthesia
Analgesia - absence of pain... Anesthesia - absence of sensation
Regional General vs Local anesthesia
Regional (blocks) - anesthetizing a larger section of the bod…
80 terms
Anesthesia
general anesthesia
analgesia
amnesia
Types of general anesthesia
a state of controlled and reversible unconsciousness characte…
lack of pain sensation
lack of memory
injectable IM, injectable IV, and gas agents
general anesthesia
a state of controlled and reversible unconsciousness characte…
analgesia
lack of pain sensation
208 terms
Anesthesia
Halothane side effects (2)
Methoxyflurane side effect
Enflurane side effect
Isoflurane
(1) fulminant hepatic necrosis... (2) sensitization of the myoca…
dose related nephrotoxicity
evidence of seizure activity on EEG
- MAC 1.2%... -Less toxicity, more rapid onset and faster awaken…
Halothane side effects (2)
(1) fulminant hepatic necrosis... (2) sensitization of the myoca…
Methoxyflurane side effect
dose related nephrotoxicity
316 terms
Anesthesia
*Know and understand the definitions o…
What is pain?
What is general anesthesia?... What is an…
*Know and understand the components of…
Anesthesia- loss of sensation to all or part of the body - "w…
CONSCIOUS perception of a noxious stimulus
General anesthesia: animal is unconscious and unaware of its…
Temporary/reversible state of drug intoxication of the centra…
*Know and understand the definitions o…
Anesthesia- loss of sensation to all or part of the body - "w…
What is pain?
CONSCIOUS perception of a noxious stimulus
254 terms
Anesthesia
Analgesia
Pre-emptive analgesia
General anesthesia (GA)
Anesthesia
absence of the awareness of pain, relief of pain without the…
preventing pain before it starts
CNS depression( loss of consciousness), analgesia (absence of…
loss of sensation in a body part or in the whole body
Analgesia
absence of the awareness of pain, relief of pain without the…
Pre-emptive analgesia
preventing pain before it starts
Anesthesia
Definition: Anesthesia
Types of Anesthesia
Anesthesiologists
General Anesthesia
Partial or complete loss of sensation with or with out loss o…
General Anesthesia... Regional Anesthesia... Monitored Anesthetic C…
Physicians (MD or DO) with residency in Anesthesiology (4 yea…
No Awareness... No Memory... No Pain... No Response to Stimulation
Definition: Anesthesia
Partial or complete loss of sensation with or with out loss o…
Types of Anesthesia
General Anesthesia... Regional Anesthesia... Monitored Anesthetic C…
15 terms
Anesthesia
conscious sedation
CRNA
qualifying circumstances
P1
decreased level of consciousness in which the patient is not…
certified registered nurse anesthetist
five-digit CPT codes that describe situations or conditions t…
a normal healthy patient
conscious sedation
decreased level of consciousness in which the patient is not…
CRNA
certified registered nurse anesthetist
171 terms
Anesthesia
General Anesthesia
Where is the site of action of general…
Local anesthetics work by
MOA is based on
reversibel state of unconsciousness, analgesia, and amnesia w…
exclusively in the CNS
blocking pain impulses to the spinal cord
blockade of Na+ channels
General Anesthesia
reversibel state of unconsciousness, analgesia, and amnesia w…
Where is the site of action of general…
exclusively in the CNS
30 terms
Anesthesia
Goals of Anesthesia
Classes of Anesthesia- General
Classes of Anesthesia- Sedation (MAC)
Classes of Anesthesia- Regional
Anesthetic Triad: Anesthesia, Analgesia, Muscle Relaxation ... U…
General-suppresses central nervous system... -patient is complet…
-inhibits transmission of nerve impulses from high and low ce…
Regional - blocks transmission of nerve impulses between area…
Goals of Anesthesia
Anesthetic Triad: Anesthesia, Analgesia, Muscle Relaxation ... U…
Classes of Anesthesia- General
General-suppresses central nervous system... -patient is complet…
Anesthesia
anesthesia
analgesia
components of general anesthesia
general principles of anesthesia
loss of sensation to all or part of the body
without pain
-unconsciousness... -temporary and reversible state of drug into…
-identify and prepare for potential complications... -establish…
anesthesia
loss of sensation to all or part of the body
analgesia
without pain
18 terms
Anesthesia
Analgesia
Anesthesia
Anesthetic
Aspirate
Stage of anesthesia in which the patient is relaxed and consc…
Temporary loss of feeling or sensation
Medication that produces temporary loss of feeling or sensation
To draw back or to draw within
Analgesia
Stage of anesthesia in which the patient is relaxed and consc…
Anesthesia
Temporary loss of feeling or sensation
47 terms
Anesthesia
What is the mechanism of action of ben…
What are the clinical signs of seroton…
What drugs are implicated in Serotonin…
What other drugs are implicated in ser…
Enhances chloride channels at GABA receptors.
- Cognitive effects: headache, agitation, hypomania, mental c…
What is the mechanism of action of ben…
Enhances chloride channels at GABA receptors.
What are the clinical signs of seroton…
- Cognitive effects: headache, agitation, hypomania, mental c…
5 terms
anesthesia
anesthesia
aspirate
gauge
lumen
temporary loss of feeling or sensation
to draw back
standard dimensions of the thickness of an injection needle
the hallow center of an injection needle
anesthesia
temporary loss of feeling or sensation
aspirate
to draw back
45 terms
Anesthesia
T/F: AAs and NAs are equivalent provid…
Anesthesia is a state that incorporate…
What was the first modern anesthetic?
What was the first form of surgical an…
True
amnesia, analgesia, and narcosis
Halothane (1956)
Diethyl Ether (Crawford Long/William Clark in 1846)
T/F: AAs and NAs are equivalent provid…
True
Anesthesia is a state that incorporate…
amnesia, analgesia, and narcosis
13 terms
Anesthesia
Anesthesia
Analgesia
General anesthesia
Preanesthesia
State of controlled and reversible unconsciousness achieved t…
Absence of pain induced by analgesic drug agent
Complete unconsciousness and muscle relaxation that allows su…
Period of patient preparation
Anesthesia
State of controlled and reversible unconsciousness achieved t…
Analgesia
Absence of pain induced by analgesic drug agent
76 terms
Anesthesia
Fasciculation
General anesthesia
Anesthetist
Anesthesiologist
Muscle twitching involving contiguous groups of muscle fibers
A state of reversible unconsciousness produced by anesthetic…
A RN who has taken a course in anesthesiology and is certifie…
A MD who specializes in the administration of anesthesia
Fasciculation
Muscle twitching involving contiguous groups of muscle fibers
General anesthesia
A state of reversible unconsciousness produced by anesthetic…
14 terms
Anesthesia
Steps of Preoperative assessment
Thorough pt. history includes:
5 steps of physical examination:
Step 1 of P.E - Evaluate heart rate
1. Thorough patient history review... 2. Five step physical exam…
· Previous abnormal exam findings... · Chronic conditions... · Prev…
1. Evaluate heart rate... 2. Evaluate mucus membranes... 3. Perform…
When evaluating heart rate, note abnormalities such as, brady…
Steps of Preoperative assessment
1. Thorough patient history review... 2. Five step physical exam…
Thorough pt. history includes:
· Previous abnormal exam findings... · Chronic conditions... · Prev…
Anesthesia
Moderate hyperventilation
PaCO2 of 30-35
CPP = MAP - (ICP or CVP, whichever is…
MAP = [systolic pressure + 2x Diastoli…
1. this is useful in reducing cerebral blood flow and can red…
1. this level of PaCO2 is a moderate level of hyperventilatil…
Equation for Cerebral perfusion pressure
equation for MAP
Moderate hyperventilation
1. this is useful in reducing cerebral blood flow and can red…
PaCO2 of 30-35
1. this level of PaCO2 is a moderate level of hyperventilatil…
Anesthesia
5 "hypos"
category I patients
category II patients
category III patients
(1) hypothermia... (2) hypotension... (3) hypoventilation... (4) hypox…
normal, healthy ... elective sx - OVH
local or mild systemic dz... skin tumor, fracture, cryptorchid,…
severe systemic dz... fever, dehydration, anemia, cachexia, hypo…
5 "hypos"
(1) hypothermia... (2) hypotension... (3) hypoventilation... (4) hypox…
category I patients
normal, healthy ... elective sx - OVH
Anesthesia
v
BB, CCB, procainamide, or amiodarone
digoxin and non-DHP CCB
3 weeks before and 4 weeks after cardi…
Sudden appearance of prominent ___ wave on wedge waveform ind…
treatment of SVT in WPW
___ and ___ are contraindicated in treatment of a-fib w/ acce…
a-fib present for >48hrs or unknown, treat w/ anticoagulation…
v
Sudden appearance of prominent ___ wave on wedge waveform ind…
BB, CCB, procainamide, or amiodarone
treatment of SVT in WPW
58 terms
Anesthesia
analgesia
pre-emptive analgesia
anesthesia
general anesthesia (GA)
absence of the awareness of pain, relief of pain without loss…
preventing pain before it starts
loss of sensation in a body part or in the whole body
CNS depression (loss of consciousness), analgesia (absence of…
analgesia
absence of the awareness of pain, relief of pain without loss…
pre-emptive analgesia
preventing pain before it starts
anesthesia
etomidate (induction)
propofol (induction)
thiopental (induction)
ketamine (induction)
0.2-0.3
2
3-5
1-2
etomidate (induction)
0.2-0.3
propofol (induction)
2
Anesthesia
State of insensibility to pain produce…
Sedation, tranquilizing, immobility, m…
Loss of sensitivity to pain
Minimum patient database
What is anesthesia
Effects of anesthesia
What is analgesia
What is MPD
State of insensibility to pain produce…
What is anesthesia
Sedation, tranquilizing, immobility, m…
Effects of anesthesia
19 terms
Anesthesia
General
IV induction agents
Desflurane
Isoflurane
Loss of senstation, consciousness and reflex... IV induction ag…
Barbiturates - Pentothal... Hypnotics - Propofol(most common)
Fast onset and inhalation agents
Best for cardiac, liver and renal problems and inhalation age…
General
Loss of senstation, consciousness and reflex... IV induction ag…
IV induction agents
Barbiturates - Pentothal... Hypnotics - Propofol(most common)
18 terms
anesthesia
1% solution =
mass=
volume (dose) =
concentration can be stated as:
10mg/ml
weight × dosage
mass ÷ concentration
each ml contains, each c contains, #% solution
1% solution =
10mg/ml
mass=
weight × dosage
17 terms
Anesthesia
Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Three subdivisions of nervous system
Cells of nervous system
Neurons
Overall control of body function
Central, Peripheral, Autonomic
Neurons
Responsible for conducting nerve impulses within brain and fr…
Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Overall control of body function
Three subdivisions of nervous system
Central, Peripheral, Autonomic
Anesthesia
Anesthesia
Local
General
Reasons for Anesthesia
A total loss of sensation in a body part or the entire body r…
Loosing sensation to a body part. Working around local nerves.
Lose sensation in entire body by depressing the central activ…
-Restraint (chemical restraint)... -Elimination of pain sensatio…
Anesthesia
A total loss of sensation in a body part or the entire body r…
Local
Loosing sensation to a body part. Working around local nerves.
19 terms
anesthesia
infraorbital foramen
alveolar process
anterior nasal septum
zygomatic process/zygomatic arch
infraorbital foramen
alveolar process
Anesthesia
ACP
Anesthesiologist (MDA)
Who supervises CRNA or AA?
CRNA
Anesthesia Care Provider
MD + 4 years specialty training in anesthesiology
MDA or Anesthesiologist
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
ACP
Anesthesia Care Provider
Anesthesiologist (MDA)
MD + 4 years specialty training in anesthesiology
Anesthesia
MOA needed for ALZ
4 components of Anesthesia
Describe the 4 stages of anesthesia
Return of regular respiration. What an…
Increase ACh due to loss of Cholinergic neurons
1. Analgesia stop pain... 2. Amnesia prevent memory... 3. Motor Con…
1. Stage 1 = Induction = beginning of altered consciousness…
Stage 3 This is the surgical stage surgeons start doing surgery
MOA needed for ALZ
Increase ACh due to loss of Cholinergic neurons
4 components of Anesthesia
1. Analgesia stop pain... 2. Amnesia prevent memory... 3. Motor Con…
Anesthesia
Glycopyrolate... Controlled..... Lasts..... Min…
Acepromazine... Family..... Controlled..... Met…
Morphine... Controlled..... may use when..
Diazepam... Name..... Controlled..... Group...…
No... 2-3h ... Crosses placental barrier
Phenothiazines... No ... Liver (not for geriatrics, pediatrics, liv…
Schedule II... Need dog to vomit
Valium... Yes... Benzodiazepines... Anticonvulsant, muscle relaxer, ap…
Glycopyrolate... Controlled..... Lasts..... Min…
No... 2-3h ... Crosses placental barrier
Acepromazine... Family..... Controlled..... Met…
Phenothiazines... No ... Liver (not for geriatrics, pediatrics, liv…
156 terms
Anesthesia
Anesthesia
Akinesia
Analgesia
Catalepsy
The total loss of sensation in a body part (local) or in the…
The absence of movement. The temporary paralysis (loss of mov…
The absence of sense of pain, ideally without the loss of con…
A condition of diminished responsiveness usually characterize…
Anesthesia
The total loss of sensation in a body part (local) or in the…
Akinesia
The absence of movement. The temporary paralysis (loss of mov…
73 terms
Anesthesia
Gen Anesth
Unconsciousness
Amnesia
Analgesia
Hypnosis, Areflexia, Amnesia, Analgesia and muscle relaxation…
Unconsciousness is particularly a property of:... *IV sedative…
Amnesia (lack of recall) is particularly a property of:... The…
Analgesia (pain relief)... Analgesia is particularly a property…
Gen Anesth
Hypnosis, Areflexia, Amnesia, Analgesia and muscle relaxation…
Unconsciousness
Unconsciousness is particularly a property of:... *IV sedative…
34 terms
Anesthesia
Stage 1 anesthesia
Stage 2 anesthesia
Stage 3 anesthesia
Stage 4 anesthesia
analgesia (sometimes amnesia)
disinhibition (patients are in delirium/excitement phase and…
Surgical anesthesia
Medullary depression: patients are at risk of death from anes…
Stage 1 anesthesia
analgesia (sometimes amnesia)
Stage 2 anesthesia
disinhibition (patients are in delirium/excitement phase and…
63 terms
Anesthesia
Anesthesia is a pharmacological induce…
What are the types of anesthesia?
A type of anesthesia that causes loss…
A type of anesthesia that causes loss…
Awareness, mobility, and pain
Local, regional, general, and surgical
Local anesthesia
Regional anesthesia
Anesthesia is a pharmacological induce…
Awareness, mobility, and pain
What are the types of anesthesia?
Local, regional, general, and surgical
Anesthesia
Anesthesia
Local
General
Reasons for Anesthesia
A total loss of sensation in a body part or the entire body r…
Loosing sensation to a body part. Working around local nerves.
Lose sensation in entire body by depressing the central activ…
-Restraint (chemical restraint)... -Elimination of pain sensatio…
Anesthesia
A total loss of sensation in a body part or the entire body r…
Local
Loosing sensation to a body part. Working around local nerves.
Anesthesia
Aisthesis
Local Anesthesia
Topical Anesthesia
Regional Anesthesia
-Greek term for "sensation." ... -"Anesthesia" literally means "…
-Loss of sensation in a small area of the body produced by th…
-Local anesthetic produced by the application of a directly t…
-Loss of sensation to a region of the body due to the drug be…
Aisthesis
-Greek term for "sensation." ... -"Anesthesia" literally means "…
Local Anesthesia
-Loss of sensation in a small area of the body produced by th…
173 terms
Anesthesia
Order of re-breather machine
How to perform a leak test
Steps on intubation:
Non-re-breather
Oxygen tank... Pressure reducing valve... fast flush valve Oxygen…
1) Turn oxygen tank on... 2) Turn oxygen flow meter off... 3) Close…
1) Get correct tube by patient's weight and measuring from th…
1) oxygen tank... 2) pressure reducing valve... 3) oxygen flow mete…
Order of re-breather machine
Oxygen tank... Pressure reducing valve... fast flush valve Oxygen…
How to perform a leak test
1) Turn oxygen tank on... 2) Turn oxygen flow meter off... 3) Close…
54 terms
Anesthesia
What is the most important thing in an…
Goals of general anesthesia
4 phases of anesthesia
Complications of induction
Bag mask ventilation
Analgesia... Amnesia... Anxiolysis... Muscle relaxation... ANS control
Sedation... Excitation (minimize stimulation to patient)... Surgica…
Aspiration... Hemodynamic instability... Bronchospasm... Cannot ventil…
What is the most important thing in an…
Bag mask ventilation
Goals of general anesthesia
Analgesia... Amnesia... Anxiolysis... Muscle relaxation... ANS control
Anesthesia
indications for premeds
4 types of premed anesthesia categories
A2 agonists
A1 antagonists
1: Calm and aide in restraint... 2: smooth induction and recover…
1: A2 agonists... 2: A1 antagonists (phenothiazine) ... 3: Benzodia…
Xylazine (small and large animals) ... Dexmedetomidine (small an…
Acepromazine
indications for premeds
1: Calm and aide in restraint... 2: smooth induction and recover…
4 types of premed anesthesia categories
1: A2 agonists... 2: A1 antagonists (phenothiazine) ... 3: Benzodia…
77 terms
Anesthesia
Cervical plexus block
Brachial plexus
Recommendations regarding continuation…
ASA physical status classification
Cervical plexus: 1st 4 cervical nerves. ... 1. Lesser Occipital…
C5-T1. ... Four anatomic locations (interscalene, supraclavicul…
• Beneficial drug therapy should probably be continued on the…
E...designated in addition for emergency surgery.... • I...patie…
Cervical plexus block
Cervical plexus: 1st 4 cervical nerves. ... 1. Lesser Occipital…
Brachial plexus
C5-T1. ... Four anatomic locations (interscalene, supraclavicul…
67 terms
Anesthesia
Where does the mandibular nerve pass t…
Where does the nasopalatine nerve pass…
What is the maxillary division of the…
What injection is needed to anesthetiz…
Foramen Ovale
Incisive Foramen
Sensory
Nasopalatine
Where does the mandibular nerve pass t…
Foramen Ovale
Where does the nasopalatine nerve pass…
Incisive Foramen
239 terms
anesthesia
Trigeminal nerve fibers- A alpha (myel…
Trigeminal nerve fibers- A beta (myeli…
Trigeminal nerve fibers- A gamma(myeli…
Trigeminal nerve fibers- A delta (thin…
size= 12-20 microns... conduction velocity= 70-120... function = fi…
size= 6-12 microns... conduction velocity= 35-170... function = pro…
size= 3-6 microns... conduction velocity= 15-35... function =muscle…
size= 1-6 microns... conduction velocity= 2.5-3.5... function = sup…
Trigeminal nerve fibers- A alpha (myel…
size= 12-20 microns... conduction velocity= 70-120... function = fi…
Trigeminal nerve fibers- A beta (myeli…
size= 6-12 microns... conduction velocity= 35-170... function = pro…
Anesthesia
Anesthesia
Akinesia
Analgesia
Catalepsy
The total loss of sensation in a body part (local) or in the…
The absence of movement. The temporary paralysis (loss of mov…
The absence of sense of pain, ideally without the loss of con…
A condition of diminished responsiveness usually characterize…
Anesthesia
The total loss of sensation in a body part (local) or in the…
Akinesia
The absence of movement. The temporary paralysis (loss of mov…
15 terms
Anesthesia
conscious sedation
CRNA
qualifying circumstances
P1
decreased level of consciousness in which the patient is not…
certified registered nurse anethetist
five-digit CPT codes that describe situations or conditions t…
a normal healthy patient
conscious sedation
decreased level of consciousness in which the patient is not…
CRNA
certified registered nurse anethetist
Anesthesia
Anticholinergic?
Glycopyrrolate is a?
Atropine duration?
Atropine is a?
Atropine and Glyco
Anticholinergic
60-90 minutes
Anticholinergic
Anticholinergic?
Atropine and Glyco
Glycopyrrolate is a?
Anticholinergic
56 terms
Anesthesia
Red
Light Blue
Brown
Tan
2% Lidocaine (Xylocaine)... 1:100k epi
2% Lidocaine (Xylocaine)... w/o vasoconstrictor
2% Mepivicaine (Polocaine)... 1:100k epi... 1:200k epi... 1:20k levo
3% Mepivicaine (Polocaine)... w/o vasoconstrictor... 1:200k epi
Red
2% Lidocaine (Xylocaine)... 1:100k epi
Light Blue
2% Lidocaine (Xylocaine)... w/o vasoconstrictor
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