Study sets matching "anthropology human variation"

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Study sets matching "anthropology human variation"

23 terms
Anthropology: Modern human variation
homeostasis
stress
adaptation
acclimatization
when the body is at equilibrium
something that knocks the body out of equilibrium
response to stress
short term adaptation to stress
homeostasis
when the body is at equilibrium
stress
something that knocks the body out of equilibrium
14 terms
Anthropology Human Variation and Human Society
Human Variation
Acclimatization
Adaptation
Allen's Rule
The study of why human populations have many different charac…
Impermanent physical changes people make to adapt to their en…
Genetic changes that allow for people and animals to survive…
Rule that people whose ancestors came from colder areas have…
Human Variation
The study of why human populations have many different charac…
Acclimatization
Impermanent physical changes people make to adapt to their en…
12 terms
Human variation and forensic anthropology
Geographic subdivision
Branching evolution
Phenotype
Forensic Anthropology
races evolve in relative isolated in different locations
- common ancestor for all humans... - splitting of ancestral pop…
genes plus environments
Application of anthropological and osteological techniques to…
Geographic subdivision
races evolve in relative isolated in different locations
Branching evolution
- common ancestor for all humans... - splitting of ancestral pop…
30 terms
Anthropology Human Variation and Adaptation
Adaptation
Acclimatization
Bergmann's Rule
Allen's Rule
Genetic changes that make you better equipped to live in an e…
Physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental con…
Slenderer populations of a species inhabit the warmer parts o…
Body parts are shorter in cooler areas than in warmer areas
Adaptation
Genetic changes that make you better equipped to live in an e…
Acclimatization
Physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental con…
Anthropology: Chapter 11 - Human Variation
3 processes of human variation:... 1). N…
3 processes of human variation:... 1). _…
3 processes of human variation:... 1). N…
3 categories of Natural Selection:... 1)…
Genetic Drift
Natural Selection
Gene Flow
Balancing Selection
3 processes of human variation:... 1). N…
Genetic Drift
3 processes of human variation:... 1). _…
Natural Selection
21 terms
Human Variation Anthropology Exam 2
Adaptation
Acclimatization
Clinal Adaptations
Skin Color
a functional response to environmental conditions in populati…
short term physiological response to environmental change, de…
gradual change in allele frequency over geographic space i.e.…
determined by genes that control production of carotene, hemo…
Adaptation
a functional response to environmental conditions in populati…
Acclimatization
short term physiological response to environmental change, de…
16 terms
Introduction to Anthropology: Human Variation & Archaeology
Racial Classification
Clines
Race
Phenotypes
The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories based on…
gradual genetic shifts in groups of people, removes idea of r…
The idea that subspecies have been created through geographic…
an organisms evident traits, "manifest biology". AKA- skin co…
Racial Classification
The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories based on…
Clines
gradual genetic shifts in groups of people, removes idea of r…
36 terms
Second Test Anthropology-Human Variation
Subspecies
Population
Discrete Traits
Continuous Traits
Shares geographic range of species... Different phenotypic trait…
Geographically separated subsets of a species
-Tongue Rolling... -Tongue folding... -Thumb on top... -Hanging Earlobes
-Height... -Head Shape... -Nose Shape... -Torso Length
Subspecies
Shares geographic range of species... Different phenotypic trait…
Population
Geographically separated subsets of a species
Anthropology Exam- Evolution and Human Variation
Pidgin
Primitalogy
Paleoanthopology
Ethnology
produced language when speakers of unrelated languages are fo…
Study of the closest living relatives of human beings, non-hu…
Study of fossilized bones and teeth of early ancestors
The comparative study of two or more cultures
Pidgin
produced language when speakers of unrelated languages are fo…
Primitalogy
Study of the closest living relatives of human beings, non-hu…
19 terms
Anthropology (Chapter 6: Human Variation and Adaptation)
Allen's rule
Phenotypical adaptation
Thomson's nose rule
Bergmann's rule
Protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas.
Adaptive biological changes during an individual lifetime.
Average nose length increases in cold areas.
Larger bodies found in colder areas and smaller bodies in war…
Allen's rule
Protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas.
Phenotypical adaptation
Adaptive biological changes during an individual lifetime.
41 terms
Physical Anthropology: Race, Human Variation & Human Adaptations
Classifying Human Diversity:... *during t…
Classifying Human Diversity:... *during t…
who was Carolus Linnaeus - "The Great…
who was Blumenbach
europeans had limited contact with other groups
europeans came into contact with many different people
• Classified all living things... • Invented taxonomy (science o…
- German anatomist who categorized humans into five races... - B…
Classifying Human Diversity:... *during t…
europeans had limited contact with other groups
Classifying Human Diversity:... *during t…
europeans came into contact with many different people
9 terms
Anthropology (Chapter 4- Human Variation & Adaptation)
Adaptation
Acclimatization
Bergmann's Rule
Allen's Rule
Genetic changes that allow and organism to survive and reprod…
Impermanent physiological changes that people make when they…
The rule that smaller-sized subpopulations of a species inhab…
The rule that protruding body parts, particularly the arms an…
Adaptation
Genetic changes that allow and organism to survive and reprod…
Acclimatization
Impermanent physiological changes that people make when they…
41 terms
Anthropology Chapter 4: Evolution, Genetics and Human Variation
Creationism
Catastrophism
Evolution
Uniformitariansim
Biological similarities and differences originated at creation.
Catastrophic events destroy species and then god creates agai…
Species arise from others through long periods of transformat…
States that the present is key to the past.
Creationism
Biological similarities and differences originated at creation.
Catastrophism
Catastrophic events destroy species and then god creates agai…
Anthropology (Chapter 6: Human Variation and Adaptation)
Allen's rule
Phenotypical adaptation
Thomson's nose rule
Bergmann's rule
Protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas.
Adaptive biological changes during an individual lifetime.
Average nose length increases in cold areas.
Larger bodies found in colder areas and smaller bodies in war…
Allen's rule
Protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas.
Phenotypical adaptation
Adaptive biological changes during an individual lifetime.
10 terms
Physical Anthropology Ch. 12 Human Variation and Adaptation
Classification
Monogenic Traits
Discrete Distribution
Polygenic Traits
In biology, the ordering of organisms into categories, such a…
Traits that are influenced by alleles at only one locus
Mendelian or monogenic traits, coded for by one gene, fall in…
Traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci
Classification
In biology, the ordering of organisms into categories, such a…
Monogenic Traits
Traits that are influenced by alleles at only one locus
31 terms
Anthropology 261: Race, Racism, and Human Variation
Mutation
Gene Flow
Genetic Drift
Norandom Mating
Alteration in an organism's DNA; generally has no effect or a…
the movment of alleles from one population to another. Occurs…
The chance alteration of gene frequencies in a small populati…
Occurs when one member of a population is not equally likely…
Mutation
Alteration in an organism's DNA; generally has no effect or a…
Gene Flow
the movment of alleles from one population to another. Occurs…
Anthropology Chapter 4: Human Variation and Adaptation
race
Racism
adaptation
Acclimation
in biology, race refers to sub population or variety of speci…
The belief, without scientific basis, that some "races" are i…
refers to genetic changes that allow an organism to survive a…
impermanent physiological changes that people make when they…
race
in biology, race refers to sub population or variety of speci…
Racism
The belief, without scientific basis, that some "races" are i…
Anthropology 1102 (chapter 6: Human Variation and Adaptation)
Racial Classification
Cline
Haplogroup
Melanin
Assigning humans to categories (purportedly) based on common…
Gradual shift in gene (allele) frequencies between neighborin…
Lineage or branch of a genetic tree marked by one or more spe…
"Natural sunscreen" produced by skin cells responsible for pi…
Racial Classification
Assigning humans to categories (purportedly) based on common…
Cline
Gradual shift in gene (allele) frequencies between neighborin…
Chapter 15: Human Skeletal Variation and Forensic Anthropology
Forensic science
Forensic physical anthropology
Forensic anthropology
Taphonomy
is defined as the application of scientific methods to the law
is the application of physical anthropology to legal question…
can literally mean the application of any sub discipline of a…
anything that happens to a body after death.
Forensic science
is defined as the application of scientific methods to the law
Forensic physical anthropology
is the application of physical anthropology to legal question…
24 terms
Anthropology 162 Vocab Human Variation and Genetics
Genetics
Nucleus
Chromosome
Allele
Scientific study of biological heredity
"mind" of a cell
Set of paired bodies in the nucleus of cells that are made of…
Variation in a common expressed gene (ex. gene for eye color…
Genetics
Scientific study of biological heredity
Nucleus
"mind" of a cell
9 terms
Anthropology: Chapter 12: Human Variation and Adaptation
Biological determinism
Breeding Isolates
Ethnocentrism
Eugenics
The concept that phenomena, including various aspects of beha…
A population that is distinctly isolated geographically and/o…
Viewing other cultures from one's own culture perspective.
A former scientific discipline, now largely discredited, that…
Biological determinism
The concept that phenomena, including various aspects of beha…
Breeding Isolates
A population that is distinctly isolated geographically and/o…
261 terms
Anthropology: Primatology test, Anthropology: Paleoanthropology, Anthropology intro and racial and human variation
Knucklewalking
Fistwalking
True brachiation
Modified brachiation
a form of modified Brachiation that gorillas, chimps and bono…
a form of modified Brachiation that orangutans do.
form of locomotion where primates swing using their arms. gib…
a slower and more cautious form of brachiation
Knucklewalking
a form of modified Brachiation that gorillas, chimps and bono…
Fistwalking
a form of modified Brachiation that orangutans do.
6 terms
Anthropology 1: Human Variation and Adaptations, Concept of "Race"
evolution of different skin colors
Bergmann and Allen's Rules
evolution of the epicanthic fold in ce…
O blood allele found at high frequenci…
-early humans in Africa had dark skin ... -later populations mig…
Bergmann's rule: larger body sizes (greater mass) in colder c…
-small flap of skin, extends from eyelid to bridge of nose ... -…
due to the founder effect ... -small, recently isolated populati…
evolution of different skin colors
-early humans in Africa had dark skin ... -later populations mig…
Bergmann and Allen's Rules
Bergmann's rule: larger body sizes (greater mass) in colder c…
Anthropology: Chapter 6- Human Variation and Adaptation
Racial classification
Cline
Haplogroup
Melanin
assigning humans to discrete categories (purportedly) based o…
gradual shift in gene (allele) frequencies between neighborin…
lineage of branch of genetic tree marked by one or more speci…
"natural sunscreen" produced by skin cells responsible for pi…
Racial classification
assigning humans to discrete categories (purportedly) based o…
Cline
gradual shift in gene (allele) frequencies between neighborin…
16 terms
Anthropology Final (Modern Human Variation & Adaption
Clinal Variation
Adaption
Acclimatization
Bargeman's Rule
Gradual change in a feature across geographic space
Long-term genetic changes in response to environment stressors
Physiological responses to changes in the environment that oc…
Cold climate = greater body mass ... Warm climate = greater body…
Clinal Variation
Gradual change in a feature across geographic space
Adaption
Long-term genetic changes in response to environment stressors
Anthropology Exam 1 (Race and Human Variation)
Askenazi Jews (Eastern European)
PKU
Cystic Fibrosis
Afrikaners and porphyria variegata (ne…
-Greater likelyhood of Tay-Sachs (infantile developmental pro…
- Genetic disease more common in europeans (leads to mental r…
-More common outside of Africa and Asia (clogs lungs and stop…
-30,000 suffer, descended from one couple who arrived in the…
Askenazi Jews (Eastern European)
-Greater likelyhood of Tay-Sachs (infantile developmental pro…
PKU
- Genetic disease more common in europeans (leads to mental r…
Human Variation - Sociocultural Anthropology Exam 2
Variation
Salient Features
Categorizations
Racism
inherent in the natural world and social world
the most frequently used criteria for ordering variation
are cultural constructs, yet people believe they're observing…
a result of the tendency to classify and value
Variation
inherent in the natural world and social world
Salient Features
the most frequently used criteria for ordering variation
Anthropology Test 2 Study Guide- Human Variation and Race
Human populations have not been isolat…
How does hominin hybridization help ex…
1. The amount of melanin ("Natural sun…
supposed to reflect shared genetic mat…
why there is biological variation within and between human po…
when different "races" would interbreed different traits woul…
examples of specific modern human population adaptations
race
Human populations have not been isolat…
why there is biological variation within and between human po…
How does hominin hybridization help ex…
when different "races" would interbreed different traits woul…
Anthropology 201- Chapter 3 The Biological Basis of Human Variation
Somatic/Body cells
Sex cells
Stem cells
Prokayotes
-differentiated into different tissues, organs... -diploid
-sperm and eggs/ova... -½ genetic material... -Gamete vs zygote
Not yet differentiated into any type of specialized cell
-single celled organisms... -appeared 3.7 BYA... -no nucleus
Somatic/Body cells
-differentiated into different tissues, organs... -diploid
Sex cells
-sperm and eggs/ova... -½ genetic material... -Gamete vs zygote
46 terms
bio archaeology and forensic anthropology and human biological variation 1
bio archaeology
forensic anthropology
steps in bioarcheology/forensic invest…
what consists of a biological profile…
the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites (10ky…
the study of skeletal remains and other evidence in order to…
-data from field site or crime scene ... -laboratory processing…
-age... -sex... -ancestry ... -injury/disease
bio archaeology
the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites (10ky…
forensic anthropology
the study of skeletal remains and other evidence in order to…
Anthropology Final Topic: Revisiting Modern Human Phenotypic Variation
What are the biological criteria for a…
What are Clines?
What percent of human genetic variatio…
What percent of human genetic variatio…
Physical characteristics, such as skin color, facial form, ey…
A geographical gradation of allele frequencies or phenotypic…
6-10%
90-94%
What are the biological criteria for a…
Physical characteristics, such as skin color, facial form, ey…
What are Clines?
A geographical gradation of allele frequencies or phenotypic…
Neolithic Revolution, Modern Human Variation and Adaptation, Forensic Anthropology
major ways in which hunter-gatherers d…
food production manifested in differen…
place with the largest history of agri…
Holocene
hunter gatherers live in small groups, highly mobile, kin-bas…
similar consequences
Fertile Crescent
about 11,000 years ago climate stabilized and was warmer- all…
major ways in which hunter-gatherers d…
hunter gatherers live in small groups, highly mobile, kin-bas…
food production manifested in differen…
similar consequences
35 terms
Biological Anthropology Ch. 3: The Biological Basis of Human Variation
genes
locus
base
nucleotide
sequences of DNA that code for proteins
the location of a gene on a chromosome
a chemical making up part of DNA and RNA molecules. There are…
the basic structural unit of any DNA or RNA molecule, consist…
genes
sequences of DNA that code for proteins
locus
the location of a gene on a chromosome
What can anthropology say about human variation and adaptation?
What can anthropology say about human…
Mutations
Environmental stress and example
Adaptation
It's been increasing and with the time it has adapted to the…
error in our genes
Pressure on environment caused by human activity... Ex: Pollution
Form modified to fit a changed environment
What can anthropology say about human…
It's been increasing and with the time it has adapted to the…
Mutations
error in our genes
36 terms
Anthropology 1000 Chapter 4: Evolution, Genetics, and Human Variation
James Ussher
Charles Lyell
Thomas Malthus
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
a. Age of the earth: 6000 years old because date of biblical…
a. Father of geology; author of Principles of Geology... b. Popu…
a. Wrote Essay on the Principles of Population - stating that…
a. Hypothesized that acquired traits are inherited by offspri…
James Ussher
a. Age of the earth: 6000 years old because date of biblical…
Charles Lyell
a. Father of geology; author of Principles of Geology... b. Popu…
Ch. 4 Anthropology Terms (Evolution, Genetics, & Human Variation)
Creationism
Evolution
Uniformitarianism
Theory
According to this, biological similarities and differences or…
The alternative to creationism and catastrophism, also called…
states that the present is the key to the past
A set of ideas formulated (by reasoning based on known facts)…
Creationism
According to this, biological similarities and differences or…
Evolution
The alternative to creationism and catastrophism, also called…
8 terms
Human Variation
Species
variation
Genetic
Inherited Variation
Used in the classification of living organisms, referring to…
Variation is the differences between individuals within a spe…
To do with inheritance because of genes.
Differences between individuals of a species due to their gen…
Species
Used in the classification of living organisms, referring to…
variation
Variation is the differences between individuals within a spe…
19 terms
Human Variation
Allele Frequencies
Population
Hardy Weinberg Model
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Model
the relative abundances of alleles of a given gene among all…
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
the model stating that, if certain conditions are met, the fr…
theory of a stable, nonevolving population in which frequency…
Allele Frequencies
the relative abundances of alleles of a given gene among all…
Population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
33 terms
Human Variation
polytypic species
Theory of Great Chain of Being (Plato…
Biological Determinism (18/19th centur…
Eugenic movement:
Species that consist of a number of separate breeding populat…
- Everything in the universe has its place... - If it becomes di…
phenomena that things such as intelligence, values and morals…
forced sterilization of some groups, and increased reproducti…
polytypic species
Species that consist of a number of separate breeding populat…
Theory of Great Chain of Being (Plato…
- Everything in the universe has its place... - If it becomes di…
Human Variation
Acclimatization
Adaptations
Skin Color
Disease Adaptations ... Blood Polymorp…
physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental con…
genetic changes that effect fitness in a given environment
-variation exist among human populations ... -related to melanin…
Sickle Cell Anemia: when red cells don't form properly ... peopl…
Acclimatization
physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental con…
Adaptations
genetic changes that effect fitness in a given environment
human variation
Adaptations
Acclimatization
Skin Color
Disease adaptations
genetic changes that effect fitness in a given environment
physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental con…
variation exists among human populations... related to melanin p…
sickle cell anemia... blood polymorphism
Adaptations
genetic changes that effect fitness in a given environment
Acclimatization
physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental con…
Human Variation
Altitude
Skin Color
Rickets
Beaky nose (tall, thin)
developmental, larger lung, chest, heart, greater oxygen diff…
light at poles, darker at equator, light more threatened my c…
caused by low UVB
low humidity, european northern, desert people
Altitude
developmental, larger lung, chest, heart, greater oxygen diff…
Skin Color
light at poles, darker at equator, light more threatened my c…
55 terms
ANTHROPOLOGY 101: Introduction to Anthropology Unit 2: Genetics & Human Variation, University of Montana
Chromosome
DNA
Gene
Allele
Book- paired rod-shaped structure within a cell nucleus conta…
Book- Deoxyribonucleic acid; a two stranded molecule in the g…
Notes- A DNA sequence (on a chromosome) which codes for a par…
Notes- One of several versions of the same gene.... Book- One m…
Chromosome
Book- paired rod-shaped structure within a cell nucleus conta…
DNA
Book- Deoxyribonucleic acid; a two stranded molecule in the g…
16 terms
human variation
phenotype
genotype
allele
genetic adaptation
an organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology" - anatom…
an organisms hereditary makeup
biologically different forms of a given gene... Because of the r…
occurs across generation
phenotype
an organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology" - anatom…
genotype
an organisms hereditary makeup
17 terms
Human Variation
BioAnthro
How was diversity explained by Europea…
Social Darwinism
Eugenics
study on genetics and biological variations, examining the bi…
Races, stocks, and breeds of humans.
A social theory which states that the level a person rises to…
Control of mating to ensure that "defective" genes of trouble…
BioAnthro
study on genetics and biological variations, examining the bi…
How was diversity explained by Europea…
Races, stocks, and breeds of humans.
99 terms
human variation
What is a population adapted biologica…
Humans today all look ______ but ______
Differences in humans today are becaus…
What is physical characteristics also…
Neanderthal
alike, different
survival rate
Phenotypes
What is a population adapted biologica…
Neanderthal
Humans today all look ______ but ______
alike, different
Human Variation
Life History Theory
How is growth an example of human biol…
Unique aspects of human life cycle
Primate (and human*) life cycle
-An organism has a limited amount of energy for investment in…
-Growth is influenced by both genes and the environment,... -Dec…
-Longer period of offspring dependency,... -Helpless newborns,... -…
1. Prenatal,... 2. Infancy,... 3. Juvenile,... 4. Adolescent*,... 5. Adul…
Life History Theory
-An organism has a limited amount of energy for investment in…
How is growth an example of human biol…
-Growth is influenced by both genes and the environment,... -Dec…
Human Variation
Microevolution
Macroevolution
Phenotypic Variation
Population Level Variation
Short term... One species... Few generation
Long term... Emerging species... Geological time... Mutation, Gene Flo…
Observable characteristics
Evolutionary Processes, Environmental Conditions, Beliefs and…
Microevolution
Short term... One species... Few generation
Macroevolution
Long term... Emerging species... Geological time... Mutation, Gene Flo…
human variation
nutritional influences on G&D
essential nutrients
Socioeconomic influences on G&D
Sexual dimorphism
quality and quantity of food ... -everyone has genetic potential…
Fats... - excess energy stored as fat in adipose tissue... -10-12 %…
nutrition, disease, health status all affected by socioecon... -…
males taller than females... primates have varying levels of sex…
nutritional influences on G&D
quality and quantity of food ... -everyone has genetic potential…
essential nutrients
Fats... - excess energy stored as fat in adipose tissue... -10-12 %…
51 terms
Human Variation
Classification
adaptation
type
holotype
concerned with identifying and designating individual taxonom…
concerned with why we see the variation that we see- looks at…
identifying ideal form- what it is that makes a group
ideal form
Classification
concerned with identifying and designating individual taxonom…
adaptation
concerned with why we see the variation that we see- looks at…
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