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Study sets matching "antibacterial agents"

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Study sets matching "antibacterial agents"

66 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
Types of Penicillins
Types of Cephalosporins
Types of Monobactams
they Inhibit Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis. they include Peni…
Natural Penicillins, Aminopenicillins, Extended-spectrum peni…
They range from first to fifth generations
Aztreonam
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
they Inhibit Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis. they include Peni…
Types of Penicillins
Natural Penicillins, Aminopenicillins, Extended-spectrum peni…
103 terms
Antibacterial Agents
What is a bacteriostatic antibiotic?
What is a bactericidal ABX?
blocks glycopepetidde polymerization t…
Vancomycin MOA
An antibiotic that causes reversible inhibition of growth. Ba…
causes IRREVERSIBLE inhibition of growth, and therefore DIREC…
Vancomycin
blocks glycopepetidde polymerization through binding tightly…
What is a bacteriostatic antibiotic?
An antibiotic that causes reversible inhibition of growth. Ba…
What is a bactericidal ABX?
causes IRREVERSIBLE inhibition of growth, and therefore DIREC…
85 terms
Antibacterial agents
Bacteriostatic
Bactericidal
Resistance to antimicrobial agents
Clinical uses of natural penicillins
arresting the division & multiplication of bacteria
kill the bacteria such as penicillins,cephalosporins
1. Streptococcal infection ... 2. Meningococcal ... 3. Clostridium…
Bacteriostatic
arresting the division & multiplication of bacteria
Bactericidal
kill the bacteria such as penicillins,cephalosporins
32 terms
Antibacterial Agents
selective toxicity
Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Streptomycin
Penicillin, Vancomycin, and Isoniazid
bactericidal (e.g. penicillin)
most important concept of antimicrobial therapy
Examples of broad spectrum antibiotics
Examples of narrow spectrum antibiotics
Drugs that kill bacteria
selective toxicity
most important concept of antimicrobial therapy
Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Streptomycin
Examples of broad spectrum antibiotics
202 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Fluoroquinolones
Antibiotics derived from fermentation…
Derived from Fungi... End in -cillin
Also derived from fungi... Begin with cef- or ceph
Synthetic drugs... Usually end in -floxacin
Tend to be named with the suffix -mycin
Penicillins
Derived from Fungi... End in -cillin
Cephalosporins
Also derived from fungi... Begin with cef- or ceph
69 terms
Antibacterial Agents
minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
In general, the peak serum concentrati…
postantibiotic effect (PAE)
bacterial conjugation
the lowest concentration of a drug that inhibits bacterial gr…
4 to 10 times greater
the effect of persistent effect on inhibiting bacterial growt…
transfer of plasmids (extrachromosomal DNA) that confer dru…
minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
the lowest concentration of a drug that inhibits bacterial gr…
In general, the peak serum concentrati…
4 to 10 times greater
68 terms
Antibacterial Agents
1st antibiotic
Inhibition of folate biosynthesis
Sulfonamides
Sulfonamides
Arsphenamine ... Tx Syphilis
Sulfonamides
azo dye
- competitive inhibitor of PABA... - Blocks dihydropteroate synt…
1st antibiotic
Arsphenamine ... Tx Syphilis
Inhibition of folate biosynthesis
Sulfonamides
38 terms
antibacterial agents
Solodyn
Tigecycline
MacroBID
Bactrim
minocycline... Tetracycline class
derivatives of minocycline ... should not be given to pregnant a…
Nitrofurantoin ... temp. urine color change (yellow to dark brow…
sulfa allergy, skin sun burn ... best when taken in empty stomach
Solodyn
minocycline... Tetracycline class
Tigecycline
derivatives of minocycline ... should not be given to pregnant a…
50 terms
Antibacterial agents
Narrow spectrum penicillin
Penicillin G and V
Very narrow spectrum penicillin
Nafcillin, methicillin, oxacillin
Cell wall inhibitors... Beta-lactamase sensitive, Penicillin G a…
Strep, penumococci, meningococci, treponema pallidum(syphilis)
Cell wall inhibitors... Beta-lactamse resistant, nafciliin, meth…
known or suspected staphylococci (not MRSA)
Narrow spectrum penicillin
Cell wall inhibitors... Beta-lactamase sensitive, Penicillin G a…
Penicillin G and V
Strep, penumococci, meningococci, treponema pallidum(syphilis)
92 terms
Antibacterial agents
what types of protein synthesis inhibi…
T/F - prokaryotic ribosomes are differ…
what is the MOA of aminoglycosides?
T/F - aminoglycosides can kill anaerob…
drugs that affect the 30S ribosomal subunit, the 50S ribosoma…
T
they inhibit the function of the 30S ribosomal subunit of bac…
F
what types of protein synthesis inhibi…
drugs that affect the 30S ribosomal subunit, the 50S ribosoma…
T/F - prokaryotic ribosomes are differ…
T
55 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Focal Infection Theory
Empirical
Definitive
Superinfection
a localized or general infection caused by the dissemination…
Antibiotic use when microorganism has not been identified pri…
Antibiotic use when microorganism has been identified
New infection arising during chemotherapy of primary infectio…
Focal Infection Theory
a localized or general infection caused by the dissemination…
Empirical
Antibiotic use when microorganism has not been identified pri…
20 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Antibiotic
Antimicrobial
Bactericidal
Bacteriostatic
Chemical substance that has the capacity to inhibit the growt…
Agents that act against all types of microrganisms
Kills bacteria
Inhibits the growth of bacteria
Antibiotic
Chemical substance that has the capacity to inhibit the growt…
Antimicrobial
Agents that act against all types of microrganisms
19 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillins (Cephalosporins, Cephamyci…
b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitor
Daptomycin
Bacitracin
Bind PBPs and enzymes responsible for peptidoglycan synthesis
Bind b-lactamases and prevent enzymatic inactivation of b-lac…
Causes depolarization of cytoplasmic membrane, resulting in d…
Inhibits bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and movement of pepti…
Penicillins (Cephalosporins, Cephamyci…
Bind PBPs and enzymes responsible for peptidoglycan synthesis
b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitor
Bind b-lactamases and prevent enzymatic inactivation of b-lac…
57 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Types of bacteria
Staph Aureus
Strep Pneumoniae
Group B strep
Gram +... Gram -
Gram +
Gram +
Gram +
Types of bacteria
Gram +... Gram -
Staph Aureus
Gram +
Antibacterial Agents
asymbiotic
bacteriocidal
bacteriostatic
superinfection
2 organisms create substances harmful to each other
kills bacteria by rupturing cell wall
inhibits cellular activity
destroys normal flora too
asymbiotic
2 organisms create substances harmful to each other
bacteriocidal
kills bacteria by rupturing cell wall
55 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Focal Infection Theory
Empirical
Definitive
Superinfection
a localized or general infection caused by the dissemination…
Antibiotic use when microorganism has not been identified pri…
Antibiotic use when microorganism has been identified
New infection arising during chemotherapy of primary infectio…
Focal Infection Theory
a localized or general infection caused by the dissemination…
Empirical
Antibiotic use when microorganism has not been identified pri…
16 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Mechanism of β-lactams
Mechanism of glycopeptides
Mechanism of fosfomycin
Mechanism of tetracyclines
Inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding cross-linking enzymes
Inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding dialanine in cell wall…
Inhibits cell wall synthesis by blocking production of cell w…
Inhibit protein synthesis by binding 30S ribosomal subunit an…
Mechanism of β-lactams
Inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding cross-linking enzymes
Mechanism of glycopeptides
Inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding dialanine in cell wall…
28 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
Penicillin (N)
Penicillin (S)
Cephalosporins (N) (S)
Penicillin (N), Penicillin (S), Cephalosporin (N &S), Bacitra…
Penicillin V, Penicillin G: Treats a variety of Gram + infect…
Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Methicillin, Carbencillin Ticarcilli…
Keflex, Keflin: They are wide spectrum antibiotics; account f…
Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
Penicillin (N), Penicillin (S), Cephalosporin (N &S), Bacitra…
Penicillin (N)
Penicillin V, Penicillin G: Treats a variety of Gram + infect…
24 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Fluroquinolone Antibiotics
4 generations of Floroquinolones
Fluoroquinolone treats
Antimetabolites
Safer ... end in "floxacin ... G+ bad; G- great ... Distrupt DNA synth…
1- Nalidixic acid ... 2- noro, cipro, exo, lome, oflo, levoflaxc…
UTI... Enterics ... G- intracellular ... osteomyelitis ... pneumonia ... pel…
Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole: Bactrim... All tract infections…
Fluroquinolone Antibiotics
Safer ... end in "floxacin ... G+ bad; G- great ... Distrupt DNA synth…
4 generations of Floroquinolones
1- Nalidixic acid ... 2- noro, cipro, exo, lome, oflo, levoflaxc…
38 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Criteria for Antibacterial Targets
A chemical produced by one microbe for the purpose of killing…
Gives the antibiotic-producing organism a selective advantage…
Produced by:... Actinobacteria (>50%)... Molds (penicillin and Cep…
- Unique to prokaryotic cells... - Essential for growth or metab…
Antibiotics
A chemical produced by one microbe for the purpose of killing…
Antibiotics
Gives the antibiotic-producing organism a selective advantage…
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillins G & V... Ampicillin... Amoxcil…
Polymyxin B & E... Daptomycin
Macrolides: Erythromycin, Azithromycin…
Rifampin... Fluoroquinolones: Nalidixic…
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Disruption of cell membrane function
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
Penicillins G & V... Ampicillin... Amoxcil…
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Polymyxin B & E... Daptomycin
Disruption of cell membrane function
26 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Antimicrobial Agents
Bactericidal Agents
Sporicidal Agents
Bacteriostatic Agents
Conditions/chemicals that inhibit microbial growth in a stati…
irreversible inhibition of bacterial growth... loss of viability
loss of endospore viability
reversibly inhibit bacterial growth... no loss of viability
Antimicrobial Agents
Conditions/chemicals that inhibit microbial growth in a stati…
Bactericidal Agents
irreversible inhibition of bacterial growth... loss of viability
79 terms
Antibacterial agents
Book: don't worry about dosages. but r…
staining characteristics
shape
penicillin
...
...
...
...
Book: don't worry about dosages. but r…
...
staining characteristics
...
17 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Cell Wall-Penicillin (natural)
Cell Wall-Penicillin (semisynthetic)
Cell Wall-Cephalosporins
Cell Wall-Carbapenems
Gram-positive bacteria
Allergic to natural penicillin
Broad spectrum when allergy and toxicity makes other agents u…
Nosocomial, antibiotic-resistant infections
Cell Wall-Penicillin (natural)
Gram-positive bacteria
Cell Wall-Penicillin (semisynthetic)
Allergic to natural penicillin
49 terms
Antibacterial agents
cycloserine
vancomycin
bacitracin
penicillins (amoxicillin)
cell wall synthesis
cell wall synthesis
cell wall synthesis
cell wall synthesis
cycloserine
cell wall synthesis
vancomycin
cell wall synthesis
Antibacterial agents
Disruption of the cell wall
Pencillins ... Cephalosporins... Cephanmycin…
Resistance to pencillins
Beta lactam / Beta lactamase inhibiotrs
...
Bind PBPs in bacterial cell wall and inhibit assembly of pept…
-Prevent interaction bt beta lactam and PBP ... -modification of…
bind beta lactamases and prevent enezy,atic inactivation of b…
Disruption of the cell wall
...
Pencillins ... Cephalosporins... Cephanmycin…
Bind PBPs in bacterial cell wall and inhibit assembly of pept…
47 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
B-Lactums
Penicillins MOA
Penicillins ADE
B-Lactums... Glycopeptides... Peptides
Penicillins... Cephalosporins... Carbopenams... Monobactams
Block pentapeptide crossbridge formation
Common Resistance... Common allergic reaction
Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
B-Lactums... Glycopeptides... Peptides
B-Lactums
Penicillins... Cephalosporins... Carbopenams... Monobactams
13 terms
Antibacterial Agents
B-lactam antimicrobials
Glycopeptide
Polypeptides
Isoniazin and Ethionamide *****
cell wall synthesis- target PBP inhibiting the building of po…
cell wall synthesis... Vancomycin... Gram + bacteria- peptidoglycan…
cell wall synthesis... Bacitracin... Gram + bacterial skin infections
cell wall synthesis... Mycobacterial infections... block mycolic ac…
B-lactam antimicrobials
cell wall synthesis- target PBP inhibiting the building of po…
Glycopeptide
cell wall synthesis... Vancomycin... Gram + bacteria- peptidoglycan…
16 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Topical dermatologic drugs
Categories of dermatologic drugs
Topical antimicrobial drugs
Antibacterial drugs
Drugs that are applied directly to a skin site
Antimicrobial drugs... Antibacterial drugs... Antifungal drugs... Anti…
antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral drugs that are appli…
Most common bacteria are Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphyloc…
Topical dermatologic drugs
Drugs that are applied directly to a skin site
Categories of dermatologic drugs
Antimicrobial drugs... Antibacterial drugs... Antifungal drugs... Anti…
37 terms
Antibacterial Agents
acts to inhibit protein synthesis init…
acts to inhibit peptide elongation dur…
acts to inhibt aa-tRNA synthetase
acts to disrupt cell membrane
linezolid, tedizolid
chloramphicol, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, te…
mupirocin
polymyxin B, colistin
acts to inhibit protein synthesis init…
linezolid, tedizolid
acts to inhibit peptide elongation dur…
chloramphicol, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, te…
35 terms
antibacterial agents
antibacterial spectrum
bacteriostatic activity
bactericidal activity
antibiotic combinations
range of activity of antimicrobial agent against bacteria... bro…
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)... level of activity that…
minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)... level of activity th…
broaden spectrum... prevent resistance
antibacterial spectrum
range of activity of antimicrobial agent against bacteria... bro…
bacteriostatic activity
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)... level of activity that…
3 terms
Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Synthesis/Unclassified
Inhibitors of Folic Acid Synthesis
Quinolones (Direct inhibitors of nucle…
Unclassified: Metronidazole
Drugs: sulfonamides, trimethoprim, & pyraimethamine... Activity…
Drugs: ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin... MOA:... - -cidal, interfere w…
Antiprotozoal: Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba... Antibacterial:…
Inhibitors of Folic Acid Synthesis
Drugs: sulfonamides, trimethoprim, & pyraimethamine... Activity…
Quinolones (Direct inhibitors of nucle…
Drugs: ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin... MOA:... - -cidal, interfere w…
23 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Classes of antibiotics that disrupt th…
Classes of antibiotics that inhibit pr…
Classes of antibiotics that inhibit nu…
Classes of antibiotics that are antime…
Penicillins ... Cephalosporins... Cephamycins... Carbapenems ... Monobact…
Aminoglycosides... Tetracyclines... Glycylcyclines... Oxazolidinone... Ma…
Quinolones... Rifampin ... Rifabutin ... Metronidazole
Sulfonamides ... Dapsone ... Trimethoprim
Classes of antibiotics that disrupt th…
Penicillins ... Cephalosporins... Cephamycins... Carbapenems ... Monobact…
Classes of antibiotics that inhibit pr…
Aminoglycosides... Tetracyclines... Glycylcyclines... Oxazolidinone... Ma…
20 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Selective Toxicity
Spectrum of activity
Mechanism of antimicrobial action: pen…
Mechanism of antimicrobial action: cep…
The chemotherapeutic agent should inhibit microbial growth or…
-Narrow spectrum: Drug is only effective for a small number o…
-Inhibition of cell wall synthesis, causing bacterial lysis... -…
-Inhibition of cell wall synthesis, causing bacterial lysis... -…
Selective Toxicity
The chemotherapeutic agent should inhibit microbial growth or…
Spectrum of activity
-Narrow spectrum: Drug is only effective for a small number o…
23 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillin
Ampicillin
Methicillin
Piperacillin
MOA: formation of bacterial peptidoglycan wall mediated via P…
MOA: drug binds PBPs thereby blocking peptidoglycan crosslink…
MOA: bind PBPs thereby blocking peptidoglycan cross linking -…
MOA: binds PBPs thereby blocking peptidoglycan cross linkage…
Penicillin
MOA: formation of bacterial peptidoglycan wall mediated via P…
Ampicillin
MOA: drug binds PBPs thereby blocking peptidoglycan crosslink…
42 terms
Antibacterial agents
1. Proper food handling... 2. Vaccination…
1. Neutralization of toxins... 2. Killing…
Bacteriostatic
Bactericidal
Prevention of bacteria infection
Treatment of bacterial infection
antibacterial agent that stops bacterial growth
antibacterial agent that kills bacteria
1. Proper food handling... 2. Vaccination…
Prevention of bacteria infection
1. Neutralization of toxins... 2. Killing…
Treatment of bacterial infection
36 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Neomycin
Kanamycin
Aminoglycoside
Aminoglycoside
Aminoglycoside
Aminoglycoside
Tobramycin
Aminoglycoside
Streptomycin
Aminoglycoside
14 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillin
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems
Polymyxins
Inhibit cell wall synthesis... Treats wide range of infections
Inhibit cell wall synthesis... Mixed infections
Interfere with cell wall synthesis... Used when other antibiotic…
Disrupt cell membranes... Used for skin infections
Penicillin
Inhibit cell wall synthesis... Treats wide range of infections
Cephalosporins
Inhibit cell wall synthesis... Mixed infections
21 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Efficacy of Antimicrobial Agents
Bactericidal agents
Sporicidal agents
Bacteriostatic agents
1. Concentration... 2. Time of exposure... 3. Agent specificity
tx that irreversibly inhibit the growth of bacteria causing l…
bactericides that cause the loss of bacterial endospores viab…
Inhibit the growth of bacteria in a reversible manner, do not…
Efficacy of Antimicrobial Agents
1. Concentration... 2. Time of exposure... 3. Agent specificity
Bactericidal agents
tx that irreversibly inhibit the growth of bacteria causing l…
45 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Antibacterial agents
These drugs, containing amino sugars,…
MOA of aminoglycoside
Streptomycin uses
aminoglycosides , carbapenems , cephalosporins, erythromycins…
Aminoglycosides - amikacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin,…
Bactericidal; Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis ... by binding…
active against gram + and gram - bacteria;... active against Myc…
Antibacterial agents
aminoglycosides , carbapenems , cephalosporins, erythromycins…
These drugs, containing amino sugars,…
Aminoglycosides - amikacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin,…
51 terms
Antibacterial Agents
β-Lactams
Vancomycin
Isoniazid
Ethambutol
Disrupt cell wall (Bactericidal)... Binds PBPs and transpeptidas…
Disrupt cell wall (Bactericidal)... Inhibit transpeptidase cross…
Disrupt cell wall... Inhibit mycolic acid synthesis
Disrupt cell wall... Inhibit arabinogalactan synthesis
β-Lactams
Disrupt cell wall (Bactericidal)... Binds PBPs and transpeptidas…
Vancomycin
Disrupt cell wall (Bactericidal)... Inhibit transpeptidase cross…
33 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Ehrlich
Domagk
Fleming, Chain, and Florey
Waksman
discovered Slavarsan; 606 different derivatives
discovered sulfa drugs in 1935
create penicillin; the first real antibiotic
discovered streptomycin
Ehrlich
discovered Slavarsan; 606 different derivatives
Domagk
discovered sulfa drugs in 1935
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillin
Bacteriocidal
Bacteriostatic
Antibiotic Mechanism of Action
first antibiotic
Kill the bacteria
Stops the growth or metabolism of the organism
-Cell wall synthesis inhibitors,... -Ribosomal RNA inhibitors,... -…
Penicillin
first antibiotic
Bacteriocidal
Kill the bacteria
43 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Most important concept underlying anti…
Broad-spectrum antibiotics
Narrow spectrum antibiotics
Examples of broad spectrum
Selective toxicity
Active against several types of microorganisms... e.g. tetracycl…
Active against one or very few types of microorganisms... e.g. v…
Ampicillin... Chloramphenicol/tetracycline... Streptomycin
Most important concept underlying anti…
Selective toxicity
Broad-spectrum antibiotics
Active against several types of microorganisms... e.g. tetracycl…
92 terms
Antibacterial agents
Antimicrobial agents
Antimicrobial agents
Peptidoglycan
Beta lactams
Provides some of tge most dramatic examples of the advances o…
Target unique structures
Protects and stabilizes the inner cell membrane, preventing o…
Prevent bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding and inhibiti…
Antimicrobial agents
Provides some of tge most dramatic examples of the advances o…
Antimicrobial agents
Target unique structures
12 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Inhibition of Protein synthesis
Disruption of cytoplasmic membrane
Inhibition of metabolic pathway
inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis
aminoglycosides, tetracyclines
polymyxins, polyenes, azoles, allyamines
sulfonamides, trimelhoprin
nucleotide analogs, Quinolones, actinomycin
Inhibition of Protein synthesis
aminoglycosides, tetracyclines
Disruption of cytoplasmic membrane
polymyxins, polyenes, azoles, allyamines
46 terms
Antibacterial Agents
Penicillin
Amoxicillin
Augmentin
Ceftrioxone (Rocephin)
take without food; UTI, URI, OM, sinusitis, short 1/2 time, 5…
another name for Pencillin
penicillin with clavulanic acid --> intensifies (additive) &…
Indications: respiratory, urinary, bone, joint, skin & surgic…
Penicillin
take without food; UTI, URI, OM, sinusitis, short 1/2 time, 5…
Amoxicillin
another name for Pencillin
124 terms
Antibacterial agents
Drugs used to treat bacterial infections
Substance produced by a microorganism,…
Arrest the growth and replication of b…
Causes the actual death of bacteria an…
Antibacterials
Antibacterials
Bacteristatic drugs
Bactericidal drugs
Drugs used to treat bacterial infections
Antibacterials
Substance produced by a microorganism,…
Antibacterials
23 terms
antibacterial agents
bacterialcidal drugs
bacteriostatic durgs
synergy
indifference
kill bacteria
inhibit bacterial growth... immune response is necessar ht o kil…
two drugs together do well killing bacteria... ex. gacomycin op…
one drug does as well as both drugs combined
bacterialcidal drugs
kill bacteria
bacteriostatic durgs
inhibit bacterial growth... immune response is necessar ht o kil…
27 terms
antibacterial agents
bacteriostatic
bacteriocidal
body defenses
treatment and prophylaxis
stops ability of bacteria to either function or replicate; tr…
actually kills bacteria; more powerful so more side effects;…
skin... nutrition... hydration... WBC... age... immunocompetence... organ funct…
patients immunosuppressed, chemo, COPD, HF--put on antibiotics
bacteriostatic
stops ability of bacteria to either function or replicate; tr…
bacteriocidal
actually kills bacteria; more powerful so more side effects;…
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