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Study sets matching "ap bio final"

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Study sets matching "ap bio final"

66 terms
AP Biology Chapter 1
Evolution
DNA
Biology
Emergent properties
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life…
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nuc…
The scientific study of life
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierar…
Evolution
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life…
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nuc…
44 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
macromolecule
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
polymer
monomer
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
59 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 42
Closed circulatory system
Capillary beds
Cardiac cycle
Sytole
Blood is confined to vessels and separate from interstitial f…
Networks of capilaries where chemical exchange between the bl…
Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart
contraction of the heart
Closed circulatory system
Blood is confined to vessels and separate from interstitial f…
Capillary beds
Networks of capilaries where chemical exchange between the bl…
771 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
24 terms
AP Biology Chapter 9
Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Cellular Repsiration
-catabolic process that partially degrades sugars w/o oxygen…
-oxygen consumed as reactant along w/ organic fuel... -prokaryo…
-process of using substances other than oxygen as reactants t…
-process for animal to breathe oxygen; aerobic + anaerobic... -C…
Fermentation
-catabolic process that partially degrades sugars w/o oxygen…
Aerobic Respiration
-oxygen consumed as reactant along w/ organic fuel... -prokaryo…
31 terms
(AP Biology) Chapter 26
Phylogeny
Systematics
Taxonomy
Binomial
Evolutionary history of a species or a group of species.
Focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolut…
How organisms are named and classified.
Genus + specific epithet(unique for each species in a genus).
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of a species or a group of species.
Systematics
Focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolut…
1,013 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
56 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 23
microevolution
genetic variation
neutral variation
formation of genetic variation
evolution on its smallest scale
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
differences in DNA sequences that do not confer s selective a…
formation of new alleles, altering gene number of position, r…
microevolution
evolution on its smallest scale
genetic variation
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
56 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
56 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
macromolecule
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
polymer
monomer
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
31 terms
AP Biology - Energy & Enzymes
metabolism
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
bioenergenetics
The sum of the building & breaking reactions occurring in cells
Series of reactions that release energy by breaking down comp…
Series of reactions that consume energy to build complicated…
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
metabolism
The sum of the building & breaking reactions occurring in cells
catabolic pathways
Series of reactions that release energy by breaking down comp…
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
83 terms
AP Biology Chapter 3
isomers
structural isomers
geometric isomers
enantiomers
compounds- same molecular formula, different structural formu…
differ in arrangement of atoms and often in location of doubl…
same covalent bonds, differ in arrangement around double bond
left and right handed (mirror images) of each other
isomers
compounds- same molecular formula, different structural formu…
structural isomers
differ in arrangement of atoms and often in location of doubl…
49 terms
AP Biology Evolution
homologous structures
vestigial structures
convergent evolution
Hardy-Weinberg
structures in different species that are similar because of c…
remnants of features that served important functions in the t…
the independent evolution of similar features in different li…
the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will…
homologous structures
structures in different species that are similar because of c…
vestigial structures
remnants of features that served important functions in the t…
61 terms
AP Biology: Evolution
Microevolution
Macroevolution
Hardy-Weinberg Equation(s)
Gene flow
Refers to the changes in one gene pool of a population
The development of an entirely new species
p² + 2pq + q² =1
Migration of individual's alleles into or out of the populati…
Microevolution
Refers to the changes in one gene pool of a population
Macroevolution
The development of an entirely new species
27 terms
Ap Biology Cell Organelles
Chloroplast
Peroxisomes
Amyloplast
Chromoplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
Stores starch amylose and turns in into glucosec... some plant c…
Responsible for the colors in plant... 4 to 5 um... plant cells only
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
Peroxisomes
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
60 terms
AP Biology Ecology
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biotic
a localized group of individuals of the same species that can…
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; as assembla…
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic fact…
pertaining to the living organisms in the environment
Population
a localized group of individuals of the same species that can…
Community
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; as assembla…
425 terms
AP Biology
Elements
Oxygen
Carbon
Hydrogen
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpl…
Oxygen is an element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is…
Carbon is an non mental element with symbol O and atomic numb…
Hydrogen is an element with symbol H and atomic number 1. Hyd…
Elements
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpl…
Oxygen
Oxygen is an element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is…
23 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells break down organic molecules and u…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
The first stage in cellular respiration or fermentation that…
Partial degradation (break down) of sugars in the absence of…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down organic molecules and u…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
137 terms
Basic Biochemistry AP Biology
Catabolic pathways
Word Roots: an-
Word Roots: glyco-
Word Roots: -lysis
metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller un…
not (anaerobic: chemical reaction not using oxygen)
sweet;
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
Catabolic pathways
metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller un…
Word Roots: an-
not (anaerobic: chemical reaction not using oxygen)
148 terms
AP Biology Review
Dehydration
Hydrolysis
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
connecting monomers together by the removal of water
disassembling polymers by the addition of water
glucose + glucose = maltose / glucose + fructose = sucrose /…
Plants: starch (energy) and cellulose (structure)... Animals: gl…
Dehydration
connecting monomers together by the removal of water
Hydrolysis
disassembling polymers by the addition of water
20 terms
AP Biology: Community Ecology
community
commensalism
habitat
symbiosis
A group of various species that live in the same habitat and…
A relationship between two organisms of different species whe…
type of environment in which a species typically lives
A relationship in which two different organisms live in close…
community
A group of various species that live in the same habitat and…
commensalism
A relationship between two organisms of different species whe…
49 terms
Biochemistry - AP Biology
Amino Acid
Amino Group
Carbonyl Group
Carboxyl Group (Carboxylic Acid Group)
Amino Acid
Amino Group
41 terms
AP Biology
Light Microscope
Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
Microscope that passes visible light through the specimen and…
Ratio of an objects image size to its real size.
Measure of clarity of the image. It is the minimum distance t…
Accentuates different parts of the sample.
Light Microscope
Microscope that passes visible light through the specimen and…
Magnification
Ratio of an objects image size to its real size.
30 terms
Membranes & Transport - AP Biology
aquaporin
bulk transport
carrier protein
channel protein
Channel protein through which water can diffuse across a memb…
Movement of substances too large for protein transport into o…
Protein that combines with an transports a molecule or ion ac…
Protein that forms a channel that allows a particular molecul…
aquaporin
Channel protein through which water can diffuse across a memb…
bulk transport
Movement of substances too large for protein transport into o…
15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 11
signal transduction pathway
hormones
ligand
protein kinase
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converte…
Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized c…
A molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, often…
The enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to protein.
signal transduction pathway
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converte…
hormones
Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized c…
47 terms
AP Biology
Epistemology
Noble Gases
Covalent Bond
Ionic Bond
study of life through a lens
full of electrons in outer shell (perfect nuns)
both atoms are happier when bonded together (strongest bond)
one atom takes a positive charge while the other atom takes o…
Epistemology
study of life through a lens
Noble Gases
full of electrons in outer shell (perfect nuns)
24 terms
AP Biology: Mitosis
G1 Phase
G0 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
First stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs it…
Cell is performing its normal functions, but has left the cel…
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interph…
Last stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its…
G1 Phase
First stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs it…
G0 Phase
Cell is performing its normal functions, but has left the cel…
39 terms
AP Biology Chapter 16
DNA Replication
Transformation
Bacteriophages
Virus
the process by which a DNA molecule is copied; also called DN…
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of…
Viruses that infect bacteria... Bacteria eaters
infects a cell and takes over the cell's metabolic machinery
DNA Replication
the process by which a DNA molecule is copied; also called DN…
Transformation
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of…
50 terms
AP Biology
Emergent Properites
Negative feedback
Prokaryotic cell
Electron Shell
Properties that a complex system has, but the individual memb…
A type of reaction in which a decrease in function occurs. Ov…
A cell without a nucleus, membranes, or cell organelles.
The area of the atom that surrounds the nucleus. Within each…
Emergent Properites
Properties that a complex system has, but the individual memb…
Negative feedback
A type of reaction in which a decrease in function occurs. Ov…
20 terms
Cell Membrane - AP Biology
Selectively permeability
Osmosis
turgid
Amphipathic molecule
it allows some things to come through and some not
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
swollen as from a fluid; bloated
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophob…
Selectively permeability
it allows some things to come through and some not
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
49 terms
AP Biology Energy
anabolism
catabolism
cristae
thylakoids
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that hous…
Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the…
anabolism
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
catabolism
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
90 terms
AP Biology Ecology
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biotic
a localized group of individuals of the same species that can…
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; as assembla…
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic fact…
pertaining to the living organisms in the environment
Population
a localized group of individuals of the same species that can…
Community
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; as assembla…
53 terms
AP Biology- Biochemistry 2016
ionic bond
covalent bond
nonpolar
polar
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
electrons shared equally
electrons shared unequally
ionic bond
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
covalent bond
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
29 terms
Mitosis - AP Biology
G1 Phase
G0 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
First stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs it…
Cell is performing its normal functions, but has left the cel…
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interph…
Last stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its…
G1 Phase
First stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs it…
G0 Phase
Cell is performing its normal functions, but has left the cel…
68 terms
AP Biology: 04: Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
6CO₂ + 6H₂O → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
Cuticle
Epidermis
___ is the process by which light energy is converted to chem…
write the overall chemical equation for photosynthesis... CO₂ =…
the outer, waxy covering of a leaf is called the ___
the cuticle is produced by the ___ to protect the leaf from w…
Photosynthesis
___ is the process by which light energy is converted to chem…
6CO₂ + 6H₂O → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
write the overall chemical equation for photosynthesis... CO₂ =…
34 terms
AP Biology Cell Structure
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Organelle
Cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
"little organ" - compartmentalized structures that perform sp…
Basic functional unit of all living things
Prokaryotic cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Eukaryotic cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
15 terms
AP Biology: Population Ecology
population
age structure
population density
biotic potential
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
Percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex…
Number of individuals per unit area
The maximum rate at which a population could increase under i…
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
age structure
Percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex…
38 terms
Biochemistry - AP Biology
Amino Acid
Amino Group
Carbonyl Group
Carboxyl Group (Carboxylic Acid Group)
Amino Acid
Amino Group
35 terms
AP Biology - Enzymes
enzyme
red
blue
progress of reaction
a protein catalyst that speeds up a chemical reaction
Which line (red or blue) represents an enzyme catalyzed react…
Which line (red or blue) represents an uncatalyzed reaction?
What is the x-axis of this graph?
enzyme
a protein catalyst that speeds up a chemical reaction
red
Which line (red or blue) represents an enzyme catalyzed react…
51 terms
AP Biology Energetics
Energy
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Gibbs free energy
the ability to cause change; ability to do work
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converte…
any time energy is converted the entropy (disorder) of the un…
energy in a system that is available to do work
Energy
the ability to cause change; ability to do work
First law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converte…
41 terms
AP Biology Cell Structure
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Organelle
Bacterial genome
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
"little organ" - compartmentalized structures that perform sp…
Very short, single circular chromosome that floats in the nuc…
Prokaryotic cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Eukaryotic cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
762 terms
AP Biology Study Set
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
bioenergenetics
Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
Metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down compl…
Metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complicated m…
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
metabolic pathway
Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
catabolic pathways
Metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down compl…
35 terms
Cell Energy: AP Biology
Catabolism
Anabolism
Enthalpy
Entropy
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
total energy
total disorder
Catabolism
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy
Anabolism
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
19 terms
AP Biology - Cell Cycle
G1 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
Interphase
Primary growth phase of the cell
Phase where genome is replicated
Preparation made for separation of genomes; organelles replic…
Collective name for G1, S, and G2 Phases
G1 Phase
Primary growth phase of the cell
S Phase
Phase where genome is replicated
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
16 terms
Photosynthesis - AP Biology
Photosynthesis
Light dependent reactions
Photolysis
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
6CO2 + 12H20 (light) - > C6H12O6 + 6O2... Process by which plan…
Use light directly to produce ATP in the grana... (1) Light is a…
Splitting of water to provide electrons (to replace those los…
Primary form of light-dependent reaction - ATP and NADPH are…
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H20 (light) - > C6H12O6 + 6O2... Process by which plan…
Light dependent reactions
Use light directly to produce ATP in the grana... (1) Light is a…
61 terms
AP Biology- Biochemistry
ionic bond
covalent bond
nonpolar
polar
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
electrons shared equally
electrons shared unequally
ionic bond
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
covalent bond
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
49 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 5
Cellular membrane contain four compone…
Describe the fluid-mosaic model of mem…
What types of microscopes support the…
What is the function of the proteins i…
1. phospholipid bilayer... 2. transmembrane proteins... 3. Internal…
A mosaic of proteins float in or on a fluid lipid bilayer
Transmission Electron Microscope and Scanning Electron micros…
1. Support... 2. Transport through the membranes... 3. Communicatio…
Cellular membrane contain four compone…
1. phospholipid bilayer... 2. transmembrane proteins... 3. Internal…
Describe the fluid-mosaic model of mem…
A mosaic of proteins float in or on a fluid lipid bilayer
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