Study sets matching "ap bio"

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Study sets matching "ap bio"

425 terms
AP Biology
Elements
Oxygen
Carbon
Hydrogen
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpl…
Oxygen is an element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is…
Carbon is an non mental element with symbol O and atomic numb…
Hydrogen is an element with symbol H and atomic number 1. Hyd…
Elements
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpl…
Oxygen
Oxygen is an element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is…
771 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
41 terms
AP Biology
Light Microscope
Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
Microscope that passes visible light through the specimen and…
Ratio of an objects image size to its real size.
Measure of clarity of the image. It is the minimum distance t…
Accentuates different parts of the sample.
Light Microscope
Microscope that passes visible light through the specimen and…
Magnification
Ratio of an objects image size to its real size.
26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 23
microevolution
genetic variation
neutral variation
formation of genetic variation
evolution on its smallest scale
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
differences in DNA sequences that do not confer s selective a…
formation of new alleles, altering gene number of position, r…
microevolution
evolution on its smallest scale
genetic variation
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
50 terms
AP Biology
Emergent Properites
Negative feedback
Prokaryotic cell
Electron Shell
Properties that a complex system has, but the individual memb…
A type of reaction in which a decrease in function occurs. Ov…
A cell without a nucleus, membranes, or cell organelles.
The area of the atom that surrounds the nucleus. Within each…
Emergent Properites
Properties that a complex system has, but the individual memb…
Negative feedback
A type of reaction in which a decrease in function occurs. Ov…
47 terms
AP Biology
Epistemology
Noble Gases
Covalent Bond
Ionic Bond
study of life through a lens
full of electrons in outer shell (perfect nuns)
both atoms are happier when bonded together (strongest bond)
one atom takes a positive charge while the other atom takes o…
Epistemology
study of life through a lens
Noble Gases
full of electrons in outer shell (perfect nuns)
AP Biology Chapter 8
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathway
bioenergetic
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down com…
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a comp…
The study of energy flow or energy transformations into and w…
metabolic pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
catabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down com…
24 terms
AP Biology Chapter 9
Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Cellular Repsiration
-catabolic process that partially degrades sugars w/o oxygen…
-oxygen consumed as reactant along w/ organic fuel... -prokaryo…
-process of using substances other than oxygen as reactants t…
-process for animal to breathe oxygen; aerobic + anaerobic... -C…
Fermentation
-catabolic process that partially degrades sugars w/o oxygen…
Aerobic Respiration
-oxygen consumed as reactant along w/ organic fuel... -prokaryo…
1,013 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
AP Biology
What are the Organic Molecules?
What do all organic molecules contain
What is special about carbon?
Functional Groups
-Carbohydrates... -Lipids... -Nucleic Acids... -Proteins
carbon and hydrogen
-Four valence electrons=four possible bonds... -Can bond with it…
specific combinations of atoms that determine reactivity and…
What are the Organic Molecules?
-Carbohydrates... -Lipids... -Nucleic Acids... -Proteins
What do all organic molecules contain
carbon and hydrogen
56 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
macromolecule
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
polymer
monomer
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
83 terms
AP Biology Chapter 3
isomers
structural isomers
geometric isomers
enantiomers
compounds- same molecular formula, different structural formu…
differ in arrangement of atoms and often in location of doubl…
same covalent bonds, differ in arrangement around double bond
left and right handed (mirror images) of each other
isomers
compounds- same molecular formula, different structural formu…
structural isomers
differ in arrangement of atoms and often in location of doubl…
31 terms
(AP Biology) Chapter 26
Phylogeny
Systematics
Taxonomy
Binomial
Evolutionary history of a species or a group of species.
Focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolut…
How organisms are named and classified.
Genus + specific epithet(unique for each species in a genus).
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of a species or a group of species.
Systematics
Focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolut…
55 terms
AP Biology Chapter 17
Gene Expression
Transcription
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Translation
process by which DNA directs synthesis of proteins
-synthesis of RNA under direction of DNA... -DNA serves as templ…
RNA molecule that carries genetic message from DNA to protein…
-synthesis of polypeptide... -occurs under direction of mRNA... -ch…
Gene Expression
process by which DNA directs synthesis of proteins
Transcription
-synthesis of RNA under direction of DNA... -DNA serves as templ…
21 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 45
Endocrine system
Paracrine
Local regulators
Autocrine
Secretes hormones into blood from ductless glands that coordi…
Signals act on cells near the secreting cell
Chemical signals that travel over short distances due to diff…
Signals act on the secreting cell itself (usually for apoptos…
Endocrine system
Secretes hormones into blood from ductless glands that coordi…
Paracrine
Signals act on cells near the secreting cell
66 terms
AP Biology Chapter 1
Evolution
DNA
Biology
Emergent properties
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life…
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nuc…
The scientific study of life
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierar…
Evolution
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life…
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nuc…
44 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
macromolecule
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
polymer
monomer
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
56 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
56 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
148 terms
AP Biology Review
Dehydration
Hydrolysis
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
connecting monomers together by the removal of water
disassembling polymers by the addition of water
glucose + glucose = maltose / glucose + fructose = sucrose /…
Plants: starch (energy) and cellulose (structure)... Animals: gl…
Dehydration
connecting monomers together by the removal of water
Hydrolysis
disassembling polymers by the addition of water
AP Biology Chapter 16
DNA Replication
Transformation
Bacteriophages
Virus
the process by which a DNA molecule is copied; also called DN…
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of…
Viruses that infect bacteria... Bacteria eaters
infects a cell and takes over the cell's metabolic machinery
DNA Replication
the process by which a DNA molecule is copied; also called DN…
Transformation
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of…
51 terms
AP Biology Energetics
Energy
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Gibbs free energy
the ability to cause change; ability to do work
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converte…
any time energy is converted the entropy (disorder) of the un…
energy in a system that is available to do work
Energy
the ability to cause change; ability to do work
First law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converte…
15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 11
signal transduction pathway
hormones
ligand
protein kinase
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converte…
Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized c…
A molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, often…
The enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to protein.
signal transduction pathway
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converte…
hormones
Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized c…
35 terms
AP Biology Chapter 8
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
a set of life'sustaining chemical transformations that allow…
a series of chemical reactions where metabolite is modified b…
the set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into…
usually requires energy, build new molecules and/or store ene…
metabolism
a set of life'sustaining chemical transformations that allow…
metabolic pathway
a series of chemical reactions where metabolite is modified b…
49 terms
Biochemistry - AP Biology
Amino Acid
Amino Group
Carbonyl Group
Carboxyl Group (Carboxylic Acid Group)
Amino Acid
Amino Group
61 terms
AP Biology: Evolution
Microevolution
Macroevolution
Hardy-Weinberg Equation(s)
Gene flow
Refers to the changes in one gene pool of a population
The development of an entirely new species
p² + 2pq + q² =1
Migration of individual's alleles into or out of the populati…
Microevolution
Refers to the changes in one gene pool of a population
Macroevolution
The development of an entirely new species
1,013 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
49 terms
AP Biology Evolution
homologous structures
vestigial structures
convergent evolution
Hardy-Weinberg
structures in different species that are similar because of c…
remnants of features that served important functions in the t…
the independent evolution of similar features in different li…
the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will…
homologous structures
structures in different species that are similar because of c…
vestigial structures
remnants of features that served important functions in the t…
119 terms
AP Biology | Plant Biology
Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Dermal Tissue
"Typical" plant cells
Flexible support cells
Strong support cells
Outer protection tissue
Parenchyma
"Typical" plant cells
Collenchyma
Flexible support cells
39 terms
AP Biology Protein Synthesis
Transcription
RNA Structure
Types of RNA
Template Strand
Process that converts DNA Nucleic Acid language into RNA Nucl…
• Ribose sugar.... • Nitrogen bases: Uracil, Adenine, Cytosine,…
• mRNA... • tRNA ... • rRNA... • siRNA
Transcribed DNA strand; the strand of DNA that is temporarily…
Transcription
Process that converts DNA Nucleic Acid language into RNA Nucl…
RNA Structure
• Ribose sugar.... • Nitrogen bases: Uracil, Adenine, Cytosine,…
AP Biology: Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
60 terms
AP Biology Ecology
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biotic
a localized group of individuals of the same species that can…
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; as assembla…
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic fact…
pertaining to the living organisms in the environment
Population
a localized group of individuals of the same species that can…
Community
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; as assembla…
23 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells break down organic molecules and u…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
The first stage in cellular respiration or fermentation that…
Partial degradation (break down) of sugars in the absence of…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down organic molecules and u…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
44 terms
AP Biology Chapter Biochemistry
macromolecule
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
polymer
monomer
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
41 terms
AP Biology Organic Chemistry
monomer
polymer
carbohydrate
lipid
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:…
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen & relatively few ox…
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
27 terms
Ap Biology Cell Organelles
Chloroplast
Peroxisomes
Amyloplast
Chromoplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
Stores starch amylose and turns in into glucosec... some plant c…
Responsible for the colors in plant... 4 to 5 um... plant cells only
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
Peroxisomes
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
137 terms
Basic Biochemistry AP Biology
Catabolic pathways
Word Roots: an-
Word Roots: glyco-
Word Roots: -lysis
metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller un…
not (anaerobic: chemical reaction not using oxygen)
sweet;
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
Catabolic pathways
metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller un…
Word Roots: an-
not (anaerobic: chemical reaction not using oxygen)
AP Biology- Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Tropic hormones
Pheromones
Nitric Oxide
Releases hormones, chemicals released by ductless glands in…
Hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to release the…
Hormones released by one animal that affect other animals
Hormone found in vertebrates ... Gas released by one cell and re…
Endocrine System
Releases hormones, chemicals released by ductless glands in…
Tropic hormones
Hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to release the…
AP Biology - Chapter 9
fermentation
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
oxidation
anaerobic process that produces little ATP, includes glycolys…
catabolic pathway which requires oxygen and occurs in cytopla…
catabolic pathway which does not require oxygen and occurs on…
loss of electrons from atoms of a substance
fermentation
anaerobic process that produces little ATP, includes glycolys…
aerobic respiration
catabolic pathway which requires oxygen and occurs in cytopla…
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
AP Biology: Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
46 terms
AP Biology: Meiosis
Oogenesis
Nondisjunction
Nondisjunction in meiosis I
Nondisjunction in meiosis 2
Eggs in ovaries halted before anaphase I meiosis I completed…
problems with meitotic spindle fibers cause Incorrect # of ch…
Homologous chromosomes do not separate properly (all cells ab…
Half cells abnormal, sister chromatids fail to separate in me…
Oogenesis
Eggs in ovaries halted before anaphase I meiosis I completed…
Nondisjunction
problems with meitotic spindle fibers cause Incorrect # of ch…
30 terms
Immune System - AP Biology
Inflammatory Response
Histamines
Phagocytes
Chemokines
Vasodilation, phagocytosis, and increase in body temperature
chemical signals that trigger vasodilation, increasing blood…
White blood cells that engulf invading pathogens ... e.g., neut…
chemical signals secreted by blood vessel cells that attract…
Inflammatory Response
Vasodilation, phagocytosis, and increase in body temperature
Histamines
chemical signals that trigger vasodilation, increasing blood…
20 terms
Cell Membrane - AP Biology
Selectively permeability
Osmosis
turgid
Amphipathic molecule
it allows some things to come through and some not
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
swollen as from a fluid; bloated
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophob…
Selectively permeability
it allows some things to come through and some not
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
AP Biology: Community Ecology
community
commensalism
habitat
symbiosis
A group of various species that live in the same habitat and…
A relationship between two organisms of different species whe…
type of environment in which a species typically lives
A relationship in which two different organisms live in close…
community
A group of various species that live in the same habitat and…
commensalism
A relationship between two organisms of different species whe…
24 terms
AP Biology Cellular respiration
Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Cellular Repsiration
-catabolic process that partially degrades sugars w/o oxygen…
-oxygen consumed as reactant along w/ organic fuel... -prokaryo…
-process of using substances other than oxygen as reactants t…
-process for animal to breathe oxygen; aerobic + anaerobic... -C…
Fermentation
-catabolic process that partially degrades sugars w/o oxygen…
Aerobic Respiration
-oxygen consumed as reactant along w/ organic fuel... -prokaryo…
27 terms
AP Biology Cell Membrane
Selective Permeability
phospholipid bilayer
Integral Proteins
Peripheral Proteins
Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma membranes
Proteins that extend through the phospholipid bilayer.
A protein loosely attached to the surface of a membrane
Selective Permeability
Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
phospholipid bilayer
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma membranes
Mitosis - AP Biology
G1 Phase
G0 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
First stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs it…
Cell is performing its normal functions, but has left the cel…
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interph…
Last stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its…
G1 Phase
First stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs it…
G0 Phase
Cell is performing its normal functions, but has left the cel…
30 terms
Membranes & Transport - AP Biology
aquaporin
bulk transport
carrier protein
channel protein
Channel protein through which water can diffuse across a memb…
Movement of substances too large for protein transport into o…
Protein that combines with an transports a molecule or ion ac…
Protein that forms a channel that allows a particular molecul…
aquaporin
Channel protein through which water can diffuse across a memb…
bulk transport
Movement of substances too large for protein transport into o…
AP Biology
What are characteristics of organic co…
What are characteristics of inorganic…
What is the difference between cohesio…
Neutralization
they must contain Carbon and Hydrogen, they have covalent bon…
They do not contain both carbon and hydrogen, they are usuall…
Cohesion refers to the attraction water molecules have for ot…
When an acid is added to a base. Salt and water are produced…
What are characteristics of organic co…
they must contain Carbon and Hydrogen, they have covalent bon…
What are characteristics of inorganic…
They do not contain both carbon and hydrogen, they are usuall…
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