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Study sets matching "ap biology 4"

15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 Vocab
organic chemistry
hydrocarbons
isomers
structural isomers
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same ele…
isomers that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
hydrocarbons
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Hydroxyl Group (-OH)
Carbonyl Group (>C=O)
Carboxyl Group (-COOH)
Amino Group (-NH2)
polar chemical group known as alcohol. The hydroxyl group for…
Ketone adds a carbon to the end of the chains.found mostly in…
Acts as an acid giving H+ because of the covalently bond to o…
Acts as a base picking up H+. Also is standard in all amino a…
Hydroxyl Group (-OH)
polar chemical group known as alcohol. The hydroxyl group for…
Carbonyl Group (>C=O)
Ketone adds a carbon to the end of the chains.found mostly in…
65 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 and 5
Significance of carbon to life
Molecules that make up life
Functional Groups
Hydroxyl
Carbon can form complex, diverse, and large bio-molecules ... I…
Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen
Directly affect molecular function
-OH or HO-... Example - Ethanol ... Polar
Significance of carbon to life
Carbon can form complex, diverse, and large bio-molecules ... I…
Molecules that make up life
Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen
66 terms
Chapter 4 AP Biology
Actin Filament
Archaean
Bacilus
Basal Body
Component of the Cytoskeleton
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archaea
A rod shaped bacterium
A cytoplasmic structure that is located at the base of cilia…
Actin Filament
Component of the Cytoskeleton
Archaean
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archaea
10 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic chemistry
Organic compounds
4 classes of macromolecules
Molecule shapes can be:
branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon c…
contain Carbon (+H)
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
chains, ring-shaped, branched
Organic chemistry
branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon c…
Organic compounds
contain Carbon (+H)
30 terms
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 4
organic chemistry
vitalism
mechanism
tetravalence
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
the view that all natural phenomena, including the processes…
A molecule branching off in four directions; carbon is an exa…
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
vitalism
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
30 terms
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 4
organic chemistry
vitalism
mechanism
tetravalence
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
the view that all natural phenomena, including the processes…
A molecule branching off in four directions; carbon is an exa…
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
vitalism
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
71 terms
Chapter 4 AP Biology in Focus
Actin
Basal body
Cell fractionation
Cell wall
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centr…
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cel…
Actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
Basal body
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
Chapter 4 AP Biology
Cell Theory
Cell
Surface-area-to-volume
Magnification
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are…
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all org…
requires that cells stay small, as cells decrease in size, th…
the act of expanding something in apparent size
Cell Theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are…
Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all org…
94 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4: Tour of the Cell
Typical size of a eukaryotic cell
Typical size of prokaryotic cell
3 principles in of cell theory
Why are cells so small
10-100 micrometer in diameter
1-10 micrometer in diameter
1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells and the lif…
Because if a cell becomes too big, it would be nearly impossi…
Typical size of a eukaryotic cell
10-100 micrometer in diameter
Typical size of prokaryotic cell
1-10 micrometer in diameter
12 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
amino group
carbonyl group
carboxyl group
enantiomer
A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two…
A chemical group present in aldehydes and ketones and consist…
A chemical group present in organic acids and consisting of a…
One of two compounds that are mirror images of each other.
amino group
A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two…
carbonyl group
A chemical group present in aldehydes and ketones and consist…
74 terms
Chp. 2-4 AP Biology
Chemistry is the foundation of _______…
When there are different kinds of atom…
How many elements are essential for li…
What are the six most common elements…
Biology
elements
25
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Chemistry is the foundation of _______…
Biology
When there are different kinds of atom…
elements
10 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
carbonyl
sulfhydryl
methyl
carboxyl
carbonyl
sulfhydryl
20 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 4
explain how carbon's electron config e…
describe how carbon skeletons may vary…
hydrocarbons
why are hydrocarbons hydrophobic
the electronic config of carbon gives it covalent compatibili…
carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. C…
are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
many organic molecules such as fats, have hydrocarbon compone…
explain how carbon's electron config e…
the electronic config of carbon gives it covalent compatibili…
describe how carbon skeletons may vary…
carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. C…
59 terms
Chapter 4: AP Biology
light microscope
cell theory
electron microscope
scanning electron microscope
visible light is passes through a specimen and then through g…
States that all living things are composed of cells and that…
focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen. Very high res…
microscope used to examine the detailed architecture of cell…
light microscope
visible light is passes through a specimen and then through g…
cell theory
States that all living things are composed of cells and that…
65 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 Terms
Archaean
Actin filament
basal body
cell
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archea.
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement o…
Organelle that develops from a centriole.
smallest unit that displays the properties of life; composed…
Archaean
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archea.
Actin filament
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement o…
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbon
Isomer
Structural Isomer
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but…
One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula…
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
Hydrocarbon
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
145 terms
unit 4 of ap biology
genetic exchange in prokaryotes
how do bacteria evolve?
what are linked genes?
mapping genes on chromosomes
prokaryotes reproduce asexually by binary fission which produ…
-random mutation... -lateral gene transfer
on the same chromosome
the closer the genes are on the chromosome, the less likely t…
genetic exchange in prokaryotes
prokaryotes reproduce asexually by binary fission which produ…
how do bacteria evolve?
-random mutation... -lateral gene transfer
24 terms
Biology Pre-AP Root Words List 4
mensis
mesos
meta
micro
month
middle
between, change
small
mensis
month
mesos
middle
53 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Explain why cells are the basic units…
List the tenets of cell theory.
Compare surface area to volume ratios…
Explain why a large surface area to vo…
Cells bring together all the biomolecules necessary to suppor…
The cell theory states that:... All organisms are composed of ce…
A smaller (1 cm for a cube) cell has a surface-area-to-volume…
A large surface-area-to-volume ratio is more advantageous bec…
Explain why cells are the basic units…
Cells bring together all the biomolecules necessary to suppor…
List the tenets of cell theory.
The cell theory states that:... All organisms are composed of ce…
35 terms
Ap Biology Roots 4
-nomy, -nome
non-
not-
nuc-
distribute, arrange, law
not
back
center
-nomy, -nome
distribute, arrange, law
non-
not
24 terms
AP Biology Unit 4 Respiration
Enzyme
Substrate
Exothermic
Spontaneous Reaction
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst. ... Speeds up the…
the target molecule of an enzyme ... Enzyme + Substrate → Product
Chemical Reaction in which energy is primarily given off in t…
A reaction that proceeds downhill. This reaction releases mor…
Enzyme
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst. ... Speeds up the…
Substrate
the target molecule of an enzyme ... Enzyme + Substrate → Product
40 terms
AP Biology Ch. 4: Cells
Cell theory
Surface area-to-volume ratio
Plasma membrane
Prokaryotes
1) Cells are fundamental units of life... 2) All living organis…
The ratio of the surface area to volume (for a cell)... This is…
Bounds the cell and encloses the nucleus and cytoplasm... Selec…
Unicellular organisms that do not have nuclei
Cell theory
1) Cells are fundamental units of life... 2) All living organis…
Surface area-to-volume ratio
The ratio of the surface area to volume (for a cell)... This is…
Chapter 4 AP Biology in Focus
Actin
Basal body
Cell fractionation
Cell wall
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centr…
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cel…
Actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
Basal body
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
36 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
History of Cells (Review)
Cell Theory (Review)
Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells
1665- Robert Hooke, observed cells in cork... 1833 - Robert Brow…
1. all living matter is composed of one or more cells... 2. the…
lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures... domains:…
have a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures;... protist…
History of Cells (Review)
1665- Robert Hooke, observed cells in cork... 1833 - Robert Brow…
Cell Theory (Review)
1. all living matter is composed of one or more cells... 2. the…
17 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 4
Organic chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Structural isomers
The study or carbon/organic compounds
An organic molecule only consisting of carbon and hydrogen
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but…
One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula…
Organic chemistry
The study or carbon/organic compounds
Hydrocarbons
An organic molecule only consisting of carbon and hydrogen
67 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Structural Isomers
study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
an organic molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but differe…
compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in…
Organic Chemistry
study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
Hydrocarbons
an organic molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
47 terms
AP Biology: Cell Parts 4 & 5
Nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
Chromosomes
Chromatin
the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic…
in a eukaryotic cell, the double membrane surrounds the nucle…
a cellular structure consisting of one DNA molecule and assoc…
the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chro…
Nucleus
the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic…
Nuclear Envelope
in a eukaryotic cell, the double membrane surrounds the nucle…
60 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Compound
vitalism --> mechanism
Macromolecules
Bonds with carbon
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
- Huge molecules. ... - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucl…
- Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.... - Eac…
Organic Compound
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
vitalism --> mechanism
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
70 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Actin
Basal body
Cell fractionation
Cell wall
a globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
a eukaryotic cell structure consisting of a "9+0" arrangement…
the disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centr…
a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cel…
Actin
a globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
Basal body
a eukaryotic cell structure consisting of a "9+0" arrangement…
96 terms
AP Biology Ch 4
cell theory
zygote
surface area to volume ratio
light microscope
-cells are the fundemental units of life... -all living organism…
Fertilized egg cell
-the volume of the cell determines the amount of metabolic ac…
uses glass sense visible light smallest .2 micrometers (1.000…
cell theory
-cells are the fundemental units of life... -all living organism…
zygote
Fertilized egg cell
56 terms
AP Biology vocab #4
hipp-
hist-
holo-
homo-
horse
tissue
entire; whole
man
hipp-
horse
hist-
tissue
AP Biology quiz 4
bacter- bactr-
barb-
baro-
bath-
bacterium,stick,club
beard
weight
depth, height
bacter- bactr-
bacterium,stick,club
barb-
beard
55 terms
AP Biology Vocal 4
hipp
hist
holo
homo
horse
tissue
entire; whole
man
hipp
horse
hist
tissue
59 terms
AP Biology Ch. 4
Cell Theory
Tiny
Size
Surface Area: Volume ratio
developed in the 19th century, first unifying theory of biolo…
Cells are __________ in order to maintain a good surface area…
Cell __________ is limited by the surface area-to-volume ratio
this decreases as an object increases in size
Cell Theory
developed in the 19th century, first unifying theory of biolo…
Tiny
Cells are __________ in order to maintain a good surface area…
30 terms
Chapter 4 AP Biology
Light Microscope
What was bad about the light microscope?
electron microscope
How do we study cells if they are so s…
light passes thorough specimen then through glass lenses
couldn't see organelles
can see organelles; focuses a beam of electrons through a spe…
Cell Fractionation; separates cellular components by size
Light Microscope
light passes thorough specimen then through glass lenses
What was bad about the light microscope?
couldn't see organelles
72 terms
AP Biology Unit 4
metabolism
enzymes
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
a series of chemical reactions that alters molecules
accelerate each reaction
break down molecules
build up molecules
metabolism
a series of chemical reactions that alters molecules
enzymes
accelerate each reaction
56 terms
AP Biology Vocab 4
homos, homeo
hort-
hybrid
hydr-
alike, same... ex: homeostasis, homogeneous, homologous, homozyg…
garden
mongrel
water
homos, homeo
alike, same... ex: homeostasis, homogeneous, homologous, homozyg…
hort-
garden
60 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Compound
vitalism --> mechanism
Macromolecules
Bonds with carbon
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
- Huge molecules. ... - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucl…
- Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.... - Eac…
Organic Compound
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
vitalism --> mechanism
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
72 terms
ap biology chapter 4
light microscope
electron microscope
scanning electron microscope
transmitting electron microscope
- have limit due to visible light measurement... - look at livin…
focuses beam of electron on or through specimen, used to see…
uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample, coated…
passes an electron beam through thin sects stained with metal…
light microscope
- have limit due to visible light measurement... - look at livin…
electron microscope
focuses beam of electron on or through specimen, used to see…
15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Hydroxyl Group
Carbonyl Group
Carboxyl Group
Amino Group
-is polar due to electronegative oxygen.... -forms hydrogen bond…
-sugars with ketone groups are called ketoses; those with ald…
-acts as an acid (can donate H+) because the covalent bond be…
-acts as a base; can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solut…
Hydroxyl Group
-is polar due to electronegative oxygen.... -forms hydrogen bond…
Carbonyl Group
-sugars with ketone groups are called ketoses; those with ald…
45 terms
AP Biology #4 Vocabulary
Anaphase
Angiogenesis
Apoptosis
Asexual Reproduction
When daughter chromosome moves toward spindle
Formation of mew blood vessels; cancer spreads
Programmed cell death
Reproduction with only one parent
Anaphase
When daughter chromosome moves toward spindle
Angiogenesis
Formation of mew blood vessels; cancer spreads
36 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
History of Cells (Review)
Cell Theory (Review)
Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells
1665- Robert Hooke, observed cells in cork... 1833 - Robert Brow…
1. all living matter is composed of one or more cells... 2. the…
lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures... domains:…
have a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures;... protist…
History of Cells (Review)
1665- Robert Hooke, observed cells in cork... 1833 - Robert Brow…
Cell Theory (Review)
1. all living matter is composed of one or more cells... 2. the…
99 terms
AP Biology Chapters 1-4
Order
Molecule
Organelle
Cells
Organisms are highly ordered, other characteristics of life e…
Consists of two or more elemental atoms. For example salt (Na…
Are subcellular components to a cell. Each one has a specific…
The basic unit of structure and function in a living thing. T…
Order
Organisms are highly ordered, other characteristics of life e…
Molecule
Consists of two or more elemental atoms. For example salt (Na…
20 terms
AP Biology 4
Marker proteins
Meiosis
Messenger RNA
Mitochondria
Proteins embedded in the cell membrane which allow organisms…
The type of nuclear division that leads to four nuclei with a…
RNA made from DNA that carries the nucleotide template to the…
In eukaryotic cells it is the site of the Krebs cycle and ele…
Marker proteins
Proteins embedded in the cell membrane which allow organisms…
Meiosis
The type of nuclear division that leads to four nuclei with a…
59 terms
AP Biology - Chapter 4
light microscope
organelles
electron microscope
cell fractionation
an instrument with lenses that refract light to magnify image…
membrane-enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
focuses an electron beam on (scanning) or through (transmissi…
the separation of a cell's parts by centrifugation
light microscope
an instrument with lenses that refract light to magnify image…
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
23 terms
1.4 AP Biology
Observations
Formation of a Hypothesis
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Made by scientists using their senses
Made based on observations and previous knowledge, and is a p…
Uses specific observations to detect patterns to formulate hy…
General to specific; starts with conclusion and is to see if…
Observations
Made by scientists using their senses
Formation of a Hypothesis
Made based on observations and previous knowledge, and is a p…
75 terms
AP Biology 2-4
Matter
Element
Compound
Trace elements
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Substance that can't be broken down to other substances by ch…
Substance consisting of two or more different elements combin…
Required by an organism in only minute quantities
Matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Element
Substance that can't be broken down to other substances by ch…
46 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
solvent
solute
solution
electrolyte
one that dissolves
one that is dissolved
the mixture of solvent and solute
breaks down into ions that conduct an electrical current
solvent
one that dissolves
solute
one that is dissolved
21 terms
AP Biology 6.4
Endomembrane system
Vessicles
ER
ER membrane is continuous with
includes nuclear env, ER, golgi, lyso, ves, vac, and plasma…
sacs of membrane
network of membranes and tubules and sacs called cisterne tha…
nuclear envelope
Endomembrane system
includes nuclear env, ER, golgi, lyso, ves, vac, and plasma…
Vessicles
sacs of membrane
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