Study sets matching "ap biology 4"

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Study sets matching "ap biology 4"

57 terms
AP biology concept 4
Diffusion
Diffuse
DNA
Cytoskeleton
How material, oxygen, moves inside a cell and how carbon diox…
By increasing the surface area and the volume of a cell the a…
Material or information such as ____ has to be able to fit in…
What is made up of millions of macro-molecules, is within the…
Diffusion
How material, oxygen, moves inside a cell and how carbon diox…
Diffuse
By increasing the surface area and the volume of a cell the a…
17 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Tetra valence
What is the source of all carbon use i…
Functional Groups
Hydroxyl Group
carbon can form up to 4 bonds with other molecules. allowing…
CO2
chemical groups that affect molecular function by being direc…
-is polar due to electronegative oxygen.... -forms hydrogen bond…
Tetra valence
carbon can form up to 4 bonds with other molecules. allowing…
What is the source of all carbon use i…
CO2
42 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 4
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Law of Thermodynamics
The capacity to do work.
The usage of energy in a moment.
Energy that is being stored in that moment.
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one…
Energy
The capacity to do work.
Kinetic Energy
The usage of energy in a moment.
63 terms
AP Biology Campbell Ch 4 Cells
light microscopy
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
cell fractionation
magnification of cellular structures up to 1000 X;... use of any…
image of 3D surface coated with heavy metal like gold (100,00…
image of ultra thin slice to view intracellular components (5…
technique that breaks cells and separates their components
light microscopy
magnification of cellular structures up to 1000 X;... use of any…
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
image of 3D surface coated with heavy metal like gold (100,00…
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Compound
vitalism --> mechanism
Macromolecules
Bonds with carbon
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
- Huge molecules. ... - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucl…
- Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.... - Eac…
Organic Compound
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
vitalism --> mechanism
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
40 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
The Cell Theory
Surface Area to Volume Ratio
Light Microscope
Electron Microscope
All organisms are made of cells; the cell is the smallest uni…
Surface area increases while total volume remains constant.
Uses light focused by lenses to view a cell.
Uses electron beam focused by magnets to view cell.
The Cell Theory
All organisms are made of cells; the cell is the smallest uni…
Surface Area to Volume Ratio
Surface area increases while total volume remains constant.
16 terms
AP Biology Ch. 4
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbon
Isomers
Structural Isomers
The study of carbon compounds.
An organic molecule consisting of only a carbon and hydrogen.
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but…
One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula…
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon compounds.
Hydrocarbon
An organic molecule consisting of only a carbon and hydrogen.
19 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Four macromolecules in life
Macromolecules are only found in
Organic Compounds
Elements Commonly found in Organic Com…
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
Living things
Molecules containing the element carbon and at least one hydr…
Hydrogen... Oxygen... Nitrogen... Sulfur... Phosphorus... Carbon
Four macromolecules in life
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules are only found in
Living things
30 terms
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 4
organic chemistry
vitalism
mechanism
tetravalence
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
the view that all natural phenomena, including the processes…
A molecule branching off in four directions; carbon is an exa…
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
vitalism
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
65 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 and 5
Significance of carbon to life
Molecules that make up life
Functional Groups
Hydroxyl
Carbon can form complex, diverse, and large bio-molecules ... I…
Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen
Directly affect molecular function
-OH or HO-... Example - Ethanol ... Polar
Significance of carbon to life
Carbon can form complex, diverse, and large bio-molecules ... I…
Molecules that make up life
Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen
AP Biology Chapter 4
Hydroxyl Group (-OH)
Carbonyl Group (>C=O)
Carboxyl Group (-COOH)
Amino Group (-NH2)
polar chemical group known as alcohol. The hydroxyl group for…
Ketone adds a carbon to the end of the chains.found mostly in…
Acts as an acid giving H+ because of the covalently bond to o…
Acts as a base picking up H+. Also is standard in all amino a…
Hydroxyl Group (-OH)
polar chemical group known as alcohol. The hydroxyl group for…
Carbonyl Group (>C=O)
Ketone adds a carbon to the end of the chains.found mostly in…
76 terms
Biology in Focus (AP) Chapter 4
light microscope
magnification
resolution
contrast
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
The ratio of an object's image size to its real size.
A measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum dist…
The difference in brightness between the light and dark areas…
light microscope
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
magnification
The ratio of an object's image size to its real size.
66 terms
Chapter 4 AP Biology
Actin Filament
Archaean
Bacilus
Basal Body
Component of the Cytoskeleton
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archaea
A rod shaped bacterium
A cytoplasmic structure that is located at the base of cilia…
Actin Filament
Component of the Cytoskeleton
Archaean
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archaea
30 terms
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 4
organic chemistry
vitalism
mechanism
tetravalence
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
the view that all natural phenomena, including the processes…
A molecule branching off in four directions; carbon is an exa…
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
vitalism
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical a…
15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 Vocab
organic chemistry
hydrocarbons
isomers
structural isomers
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same ele…
isomers that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carb…
hydrocarbons
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
Chapter 4 AP Biology
Cell Theory
Cell
Surface-area-to-volume
Magnification
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are…
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all org…
requires that cells stay small, as cells decrease in size, th…
the act of expanding something in apparent size
Cell Theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are…
Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all org…
AP Biology: Chapter 4
organelles
prokaryotes
eukaryotes
nucleoid
any structure that makes up a cell
have no membrane-enclosed compartments [Ex. Bacteria]; they a…
have membrane-enclosed compartments called organelles, such a…
region where DNA is located
organelles
any structure that makes up a cell
prokaryotes
have no membrane-enclosed compartments [Ex. Bacteria]; they a…
10 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
carbonyl
sulfhydryl
methyl
carboxyl
carbonyl
sulfhydryl
71 terms
Chapter 4 AP Biology in Focus
Actin
Basal body
Cell fractionation
Cell wall
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centr…
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cel…
Actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
Basal body
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
12 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
amino group
carbonyl group
carboxyl group
enantiomer
A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two…
A chemical group present in aldehydes and ketones and consist…
A chemical group present in organic acids and consisting of a…
One of two compounds that are mirror images of each other.
amino group
A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two…
carbonyl group
A chemical group present in aldehydes and ketones and consist…
74 terms
Chp. 2-4 AP Biology
Chemistry is the foundation of _______…
When there are different kinds of atom…
How many elements are essential for li…
What are the six most common elements…
Biology
elements
25
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Chemistry is the foundation of _______…
Biology
When there are different kinds of atom…
elements
53 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Explain why cells are the basic units…
List the tenets of cell theory.
Compare surface area to volume ratios…
Explain why a large surface area to vo…
Cells bring together all the biomolecules necessary to suppor…
The cell theory states that:... All organisms are composed of ce…
A smaller (1 cm for a cube) cell has a surface-area-to-volume…
A large surface-area-to-volume ratio is more advantageous bec…
Explain why cells are the basic units…
Cells bring together all the biomolecules necessary to suppor…
List the tenets of cell theory.
The cell theory states that:... All organisms are composed of ce…
65 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 Terms
Archaean
Actin filament
basal body
cell
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archea.
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement o…
Organelle that develops from a centriole.
smallest unit that displays the properties of life; composed…
Archaean
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archea.
Actin filament
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement o…
Ap Biology Roots 4
-nomy, -nome
non-
not-
nuc-
distribute, arrange, law
not
back
center
-nomy, -nome
distribute, arrange, law
non-
not
59 terms
Chapter 4: AP Biology
light microscope
cell theory
electron microscope
scanning electron microscope
visible light is passes through a specimen and then through g…
States that all living things are composed of cells and that…
focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen. Very high res…
microscope used to examine the detailed architecture of cell…
light microscope
visible light is passes through a specimen and then through g…
cell theory
States that all living things are composed of cells and that…
20 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 4
explain how carbon's electron config e…
describe how carbon skeletons may vary…
hydrocarbons
why are hydrocarbons hydrophobic
the electronic config of carbon gives it covalent compatibili…
carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. C…
are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
many organic molecules such as fats, have hydrocarbon compone…
explain how carbon's electron config e…
the electronic config of carbon gives it covalent compatibili…
describe how carbon skeletons may vary…
carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. C…
10 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic chemistry
Organic compounds
4 classes of macromolecules
Molecule shapes can be:
branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon c…
contain Carbon (+H)
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
chains, ring-shaped, branched
Organic chemistry
branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon c…
Organic compounds
contain Carbon (+H)
24 terms
AP Biology Unit 4 Respiration
Enzyme
Substrate
Exothermic
Spontaneous Reaction
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst. ... Speeds up the…
the target molecule of an enzyme ... Enzyme + Substrate → Product
Chemical Reaction in which energy is primarily given off in t…
A reaction that proceeds downhill. This reaction releases mor…
Enzyme
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst. ... Speeds up the…
Substrate
the target molecule of an enzyme ... Enzyme + Substrate → Product
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbon
Isomer
Structural Isomer
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but…
One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula…
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
Hydrocarbon
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
Chapter 4 AP Biology in Focus
Actin
Basal body
Cell fractionation
Cell wall
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centr…
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cel…
Actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
Basal body
A eukaryotic cell structure made of a "9 + 0" arrangement of…
110 terms
AP Biology 4
reproduction
tissue growth
centrioles
centrosomes
The binary fission in bacteria dividing cells or for the crea…
The growth in multicellular organisms equaling more cells not…
Found in animal cells only where spindle fibers organize insi…
Found in both plant and animal cells, aka MTOC (microtubule o…
reproduction
The binary fission in bacteria dividing cells or for the crea…
tissue growth
The growth in multicellular organisms equaling more cells not…
76 terms
Biology in Focus (AP) Chapter 4
light microscope
magnification
resolution
contrast
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
The ratio of an object's image size to its real size.
A measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum dist…
The difference in brightness between the light and dark areas…
light microscope
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
magnification
The ratio of an object's image size to its real size.
145 terms
unit 4 of ap biology
genetic exchange in prokaryotes
how do bacteria evolve?
what are linked genes?
mapping genes on chromosomes
prokaryotes reproduce asexually by binary fission which produ…
-random mutation... -lateral gene transfer
on the same chromosome
the closer the genes are on the chromosome, the less likely t…
genetic exchange in prokaryotes
prokaryotes reproduce asexually by binary fission which produ…
how do bacteria evolve?
-random mutation... -lateral gene transfer
AP Biology Chapter 4
History of Cells (Review)
Cell Theory (Review)
Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells
1665- Robert Hooke, observed cells in cork... 1833 - Robert Brow…
1. all living matter is composed of one or more cells... 2. the…
lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures... domains:…
have a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures;... protist…
History of Cells (Review)
1665- Robert Hooke, observed cells in cork... 1833 - Robert Brow…
Cell Theory (Review)
1. all living matter is composed of one or more cells... 2. the…
60 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Compound
vitalism --> mechanism
Macromolecules
Bonds with carbon
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
- Huge molecules. ... - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucl…
- Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.... - Eac…
Organic Compound
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
vitalism --> mechanism
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
70 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Actin
Basal body
Cell fractionation
Cell wall
a globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
a eukaryotic cell structure consisting of a "9+0" arrangement…
the disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centr…
a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cel…
Actin
a globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist…
Basal body
a eukaryotic cell structure consisting of a "9+0" arrangement…
AP Biology vocab #4
hipp-
hist-
holo-
homo-
horse
tissue
entire; whole
man
hipp-
horse
hist-
tissue
24 terms
Biology Pre-AP Root Words List 4
mensis
mesos
meta
micro
month
middle
between, change
small
mensis
month
mesos
middle
96 terms
AP Biology Ch 4
cell theory
zygote
surface area to volume ratio
light microscope
-cells are the fundemental units of life... -all living organism…
Fertilized egg cell
-the volume of the cell determines the amount of metabolic ac…
uses glass sense visible light smallest .2 micrometers (1.000…
cell theory
-cells are the fundemental units of life... -all living organism…
zygote
Fertilized egg cell
56 terms
AP Biology Vocab 4
homos, homeo
hort-
hybrid
hydr-
alike, same... ex: homeostasis, homogeneous, homologous, homozyg…
garden
mongrel
water
homos, homeo
alike, same... ex: homeostasis, homogeneous, homologous, homozyg…
hort-
garden
17 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 4
Organic chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Structural isomers
The study or carbon/organic compounds
An organic molecule only consisting of carbon and hydrogen
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but…
One of several compounds that have the same molecular formula…
Organic chemistry
The study or carbon/organic compounds
Hydrocarbons
An organic molecule only consisting of carbon and hydrogen
40 terms
AP Biology Ch. 4: Cells
Cell theory
Surface area-to-volume ratio
Plasma membrane
Prokaryotes
1) Cells are fundamental units of life... 2) All living organis…
The ratio of the surface area to volume (for a cell)... This is…
Bounds the cell and encloses the nucleus and cytoplasm... Selec…
Unicellular organisms that do not have nuclei
Cell theory
1) Cells are fundamental units of life... 2) All living organis…
Surface area-to-volume ratio
The ratio of the surface area to volume (for a cell)... This is…
67 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Structural Isomers
study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
an organic molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but differe…
compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in…
Organic Chemistry
study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
Hydrocarbons
an organic molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
6 terms
AP Biology Chaper 4
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Structural Isomers
Cis-Trans Isomers (Geometric)
organic molecules with only hydrogen and carbon
molecules with same molecular formula but w/ different struct…
same formula, different covalent arrangement of atoms
same formula, same covalent arrangements, different positioni…
Hydrocarbons
organic molecules with only hydrogen and carbon
Isomers
molecules with same molecular formula but w/ different struct…
AP Biology: Cell Parts 4 & 5
Nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
Chromosomes
Chromatin
the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic…
in a eukaryotic cell, the double membrane surrounds the nucle…
a cellular structure consisting of one DNA molecule and assoc…
the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chro…
Nucleus
the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic…
Nuclear Envelope
in a eukaryotic cell, the double membrane surrounds the nucle…
AP Biology quiz 4
bacter- bactr-
barb-
baro-
bath-
bacterium,stick,club
beard
weight
depth, height
bacter- bactr-
bacterium,stick,club
barb-
beard
23 terms
1.4 AP Biology
Observations
Formation of a Hypothesis
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Made by scientists using their senses
Made based on observations and previous knowledge, and is a p…
Uses specific observations to detect patterns to formulate hy…
General to specific; starts with conclusion and is to see if…
Observations
Made by scientists using their senses
Formation of a Hypothesis
Made based on observations and previous knowledge, and is a p…
7 terms
AP Biology - 27.4
Extremophiles
Extreme Halophiles
Extreme thermophiles
Methanogens
Archaea that live in extreme environments
Archaea living in highly saline environments
Archaea that thrive in hot environments
Archaea that live in swamps and marshes, producing methane as…
Extremophiles
Archaea that live in extreme environments
Extreme Halophiles
Archaea living in highly saline environments
AP Biology Vocal 4
hipp
hist
holo
homo
horse
tissue
entire; whole
man
hipp
horse
hist
tissue
21 terms
AP Biology 6.4
Endomembrane system
Vessicles
ER
ER membrane is continuous with
includes nuclear env, ER, golgi, lyso, ves, vac, and plasma…
sacs of membrane
network of membranes and tubules and sacs called cisterne tha…
nuclear envelope
Endomembrane system
includes nuclear env, ER, golgi, lyso, ves, vac, and plasma…
Vessicles
sacs of membrane
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