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26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Macroevolution
Microevolution.
Hardy-Weinberg Equations
Allele Frequency Equation
Evolutionary change above species level.
Evolutionary change within allele frequencies in species.
Used to calculate allele frequencies to determine if evolutio…
p + q = 1
Macroevolution
Evolutionary change above species level.
Microevolution.
Evolutionary change within allele frequencies in species.
26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Macroevolution
Microevolution.
Hardy-Weinberg Equations
Allele Frequency Equation
Evolutionary change above species level.
Evolutionary change within allele frequencies in species.
Used to calculate allele frequencies to determine if evolutio…
p + q = 1
Macroevolution
Evolutionary change above species level.
Microevolution.
Evolutionary change within allele frequencies in species.
50 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21 Terms
accessory pigment
alveolate
amoeboid
amoebozoan
proteins that assist in the photosynthetic process by transfe…
a group of protists that includes unicellular dinoflagellates…
cell that moves and engulfs debris with pseudopods
supergroup of eukaryotes that includes amoebas and slime mold…
accessory pigment
proteins that assist in the photosynthetic process by transfe…
alveolate
a group of protists that includes unicellular dinoflagellates…
37 terms
AP Biology- Chapter 21
Genome
Genomes of different organisms are ___…
Genomics
Bioinformatics
entire set of genetic information for an organism
compared; evolutionary
study of whole sets of genes and their information; involve e…
application of computational methods to storage and analysis…
Genome
entire set of genetic information for an organism
Genomes of different organisms are ___…
compared; evolutionary
36 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Model organism
Bioinformatics
Systems Biology
Cell differentiation
When the primary research goal is to understand broad biologi…
Use of computers, software, mathematical models to process an…
models behavior of entire biological systems.
The process by which cells become specialized in structure an…
Model organism
When the primary research goal is to understand broad biologi…
Bioinformatics
Use of computers, software, mathematical models to process an…
20 terms
Biology in Focus (AP) Chapter 21
microevolution
genetic variation
population
gene pool
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the s…
The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all lo…
microevolution
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
genetic variation
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
the study of whole sets of genes and t…
the application of computational metho…
international collaborative effort to…
genetic map that shows thousands of of…
genomics
bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
linkage map
the study of whole sets of genes and t…
genomics
the application of computational metho…
bioinformatics
19 terms
Biology Chapter 21 Review
3 mechanisms for changing allele frequ…
2 sources of genetic variation
3 sources of new gene combinations
5 parts of the Hardy-Weinberg principl…
1. Natural selection... 2. Genetic drift... 3. Gene flow
1. Mutation... 2. Gene duplication
1. Crossing over... 2. Independent assortment... 3. Fertilization
1. No mutations... 2. Randome mating... 3. No natural selection... 4.…
3 mechanisms for changing allele frequ…
1. Natural selection... 2. Genetic drift... 3. Gene flow
2 sources of genetic variation
1. Mutation... 2. Gene duplication
26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
average heterozygosity
balancing selection
bottleneck effect
cline
the percent, on average, of a population's loci that are hete…
Natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms…
Genetic drift that occurs when the size of a population is re…
A graded change in a character along a geographic axis.
average heterozygosity
the percent, on average, of a population's loci that are hete…
balancing selection
Natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms…
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21 Vocabulary
Bioinformatics
Evo-Devo
Genomics
Homeobox
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to pr…
Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that c…
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.
A 180-nucleotide sequence within homeotic genes and some othe…
Bioinformatics
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to pr…
Evo-Devo
Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that c…
25 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Model Organism
Cell differntiation
Morphogenesis
Apical Meristems
An organism used to study broad biological principles
The process by which cells become specialized in structure an…
The development of body shape and organization; "Creation of…
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips if roots and in the buds o…
Model Organism
An organism used to study broad biological principles
Cell differntiation
The process by which cells become specialized in structure an…
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
the study of whole sets of genes and t…
the application of computational metho…
international collaborative effort to…
genetic map that shows thousands of of…
genomics
bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
linkage map
the study of whole sets of genes and t…
genomics
the application of computational metho…
bioinformatics
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Genomics
Bioinformatics
Linkage Map
Recombination Frequencies
study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
application of computational methods to storage and analysis…
maps location of several thousand genetic markers on each chr…
used to determine order and relative distances between geneti…
Genomics
study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
Bioinformatics
application of computational methods to storage and analysis…
14 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
adaptive zones
bottleneck
dimorphism
directional selection
A set of different niches that become be filled by a group of…
Severe reduction in the size of a population, brought about b…
Persistence of two forms of the same trait in a population.
Mode of natural selection by which forms at one end of a rang…
adaptive zones
A set of different niches that become be filled by a group of…
bottleneck
Severe reduction in the size of a population, brought about b…
25 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Population
Species
Population genetics
Gene pool
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce ferti…
Study of allele frequency distribution and change under the i…
All of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a popu…
Population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
Species
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce ferti…
17 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
genetic variation
microevolution
gene pool
Hardy Weinberg Principle
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particul…
principle that allele frequencies in a population will remain…
genetic variation
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
microevolution
Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
19 terms
AP BIO CHAPTER 21
genomics
bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
whole-genome shotgun approach
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
the application of computational methods to the storage and a…
sequencing of the human genome, began in 1990 and completed i…
starts with the cloning and sequencing of DNA fragments from…
genomics
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
bioinformatics
the application of computational methods to the storage and a…
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
genomics
bioinformatics
human genome project
linkage map
studying whole sets of genes and their interactions.
application of computational methods to the storage and analy…
sequencing of the human genome began in 1990
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination betwe…
genomics
studying whole sets of genes and their interactions.
bioinformatics
application of computational methods to the storage and analy…
20 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Microevolution
Genetic variation
Population
Gene pool
evolutionary change below te species level, change in the all…
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
group of individuals of her same species that life in the sam…
the aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all lo…
Microevolution
evolutionary change below te species level, change in the all…
Genetic variation
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
23 terms
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 21
proteomics
bioinformatics
Whole genome shotgun approach
What is the number of genes that bacte…
study of proteins (how proteins interact)
creates centralized resources for analyzing genome sequences:…
Sequences random DNA fragments and assembles the DNA sequence…
btw 1500 and 7500; from 5000 to over 40000; humans have 20488
proteomics
study of proteins (how proteins interact)
bioinformatics
creates centralized resources for analyzing genome sequences:…
20 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Microevolution
Genetic variation
Population
Gene pool
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the s…
The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all lo…
Microevolution
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
Genetic variation
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
14 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
Linkage map
Physical map
the accumulation, organization and evaluation of genomics data
Project completed in 2003 to map the human genome of all the…
a map based on crossing over frequencies to figure out the se…
map taken from overlapping sequences when parts repeat; dista…
Bioinformatics
the accumulation, organization and evaluation of genomics data
Human Genome Project
Project completed in 2003 to map the human genome of all the…
18 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
genomics
bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
linkage map
The study of whole sets of genes and their interaction within…
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to pr…
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the…
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination betwe…
genomics
The study of whole sets of genes and their interaction within…
bioinformatics
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to pr…
18 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 21
adaptive radiation
allopatric speciation
assortative mating
bottleneck effect
Process by which a single species or a small group of species…
The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral po…
The selection of a mate based on similarity of characteristics.
Genetic drift that occurs after an event greatly reduces the…
adaptive radiation
Process by which a single species or a small group of species…
allopatric speciation
The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral po…
25 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
genetic variation
mutation
population
gene pool
differences among genes of individual organisms in a population
change in nucleotide sequence of DNA
a group of individuals of the same species in the same area
a population's genetic makeup
genetic variation
differences among genes of individual organisms in a population
mutation
change in nucleotide sequence of DNA
18 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
genomics
bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
linkage map
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
the application of computational methods to the storage and a…
the sequencing of the human genome (began in 1990)
a genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination betwe…
genomics
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
bioinformatics
the application of computational methods to the storage and a…
26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Pattern Formation
Fruit Fly
Positional information
Embryonic lethals
the development of spatial organization of tissue and organs…
What organism has pattern formation been studied in?
Generic term... -inductive signals ... - triggers formation of each…
abnormal development in animals ... often have mutations... die bef…
Pattern Formation
the development of spatial organization of tissue and organs…
Fruit Fly
What organism has pattern formation been studied in?
14 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
genomics
bioinformatics
Human Genome Project
whole-genome shotgun approach
the study of whole set of genes and their interactions
the application of computational methods to biological data
sequencing of the human genome that begin in 1990
a strategy to sequening the entire human genome that starts w…
genomics
the study of whole set of genes and their interactions
bioinformatics
the application of computational methods to biological data
22 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
model organism
cell differentiation
morphogenesis
apical meristems
organism chosen to study broad biological principles
structural and functional divergence of cells as they become…
development of body shape and development
embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and shoots that s…
model organism
organism chosen to study broad biological principles
cell differentiation
structural and functional divergence of cells as they become…
13 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
cell differentiation
morphgenesis
apical meristems
Totipotent
process where cells become specialized in structure and funct…
physical process that gives shape to an organism, giving it f…
structure responsible for plants growth and formation of orga…
cell has ability to become any ... cell type including placenta
cell differentiation
process where cells become specialized in structure and funct…
morphgenesis
physical process that gives shape to an organism, giving it f…
35 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Embryology
Model Organism
morphogenesis
Animal Production
The study of the stages of development leading from a fertili…
A model organism is a species that has been widely studied, u…
The physical processes that give an organism its shape consti…
Movements of cells and tissues are necessary to transform the…
Embryology
The study of the stages of development leading from a fertili…
Model Organism
A model organism is a species that has been widely studied, u…
18 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
population
gene pool
Hardy-Weinberg equillibrium
Hardy-Weinberg equation
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particul…
The condition describing a nonevolving population (one that i…
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and li…
gene pool
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particul…
12 terms
Chapter 21 Ap Biology
Precambrian
Cambrian
Ordovician
Silurian
Microscopic prokaryotes, ... eukaryotes evolved two thirds throu…
O2 concentration was approaching current level, continents ha…
Lacked multicellular plants, evolutionary radiation of marine…
Marine life rebounded from mass extinction, animals able to s…
Precambrian
Microscopic prokaryotes, ... eukaryotes evolved two thirds throu…
Cambrian
O2 concentration was approaching current level, continents ha…
20 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21 Vocabulary
microevolution
genetic variation
population
gene pool
evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
a group of individuals of the same species that live int he s…
the aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all lo…
microevolution
evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
genetic variation
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
14 terms
Chapter 21 AP Biology Vocabulary
Bioinformatics
Cytogenetic map
Genome
Genomics
The application of computational methods to the storage and a…
A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to ch…
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete co…
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
Bioinformatics
The application of computational methods to the storage and a…
Cytogenetic map
A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to ch…
19 terms
AP Biology Vocab - Chapter 21
Microevolution
Genetic Variation
Population
Gene Pool
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the s…
The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all lo…
Microevolution
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
Genetic Variation
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
28 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Microevolution
Genetic variation
Locus
Phenotype
evolutionary change below te species level, change in the all…
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
a specific place along the length of a chromosome where a giv…
an organism's physical appearance or visible traits. Only gen…
Microevolution
evolutionary change below te species level, change in the all…
Genetic variation
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
33 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Microevolution
Genetic variation
Gene variability
Nucleotide variability
- A change in allele frequencies in a population over generat…
- Differences among individuals in the composition of their g…
- Genetic variation at the whole-gene level is the average pe…
- Genetic variation measured at the molecular level of DNA.…
Microevolution
- A change in allele frequencies in a population over generat…
Genetic variation
- Differences among individuals in the composition of their g…
31 terms
AP biology- chapter 21
What does a virus consist of
Why is a virus non living
How r viruses placed into groups
Parasitic nature of virus
An outer capsid made of protein subunits and an inner core of…
Mainly lacks the ability to reproduce without the aid of a ho…
1. Type of nucleus acid(single or double stranded)... 2. Size an…
Obligatory intracellular parasites- grow in their specific ho…
What does a virus consist of
An outer capsid made of protein subunits and an inner core of…
Why is a virus non living
Mainly lacks the ability to reproduce without the aid of a ho…
19 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Microevolution
Genetic variation
Rapid Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Evolution on the smallest scale, dealing with changes in the…
Are the difference among individuals in the composition of th…
This affects mutations and drives evolution. Plants and anima…
This rearranges alleles through mechanisms like crossing over…
Microevolution
Evolution on the smallest scale, dealing with changes in the…
Genetic variation
Are the difference among individuals in the composition of th…
41 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Goal of completing genomes
genomics
proteomics
bioinformatics
to compare and contrast genomes between species and observe e…
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
study of sets of proteins encoded by genomes
the applications of computational methods to the storage and…
Goal of completing genomes
to compare and contrast genomes between species and observe e…
genomics
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
20 terms
AP Biology -- Chapter 21 -- Evolution of Populations
microevolution
genetic variation
population
gene pool
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the s…
The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all lo…
microevolution
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the al…
genetic variation
Differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
29 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Chapter 21
Protist
Alternation of generations
Contractile vacuole
Euglenoid
General term for member of one of the eukaryotic lineages tha…
Of land plants and some algae, a life cycle in which both hap…
In freshwater Protists, an organelle that collects and expels…
Flagellated protozoan with multiple mitochondria; may be hete…
Protist
General term for member of one of the eukaryotic lineages tha…
Alternation of generations
Of land plants and some algae, a life cycle in which both hap…
24 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21 Vocabulary
adaptive evolution
balancing selection
bottleneck effect
directional selection
evolutionary process directed by natural selection, which mak…
natural selection that maintains stable frequencies of two or…
genetic drift that occurs when the size of a population is re…
natural selection in which individuals at one end of the phen…
adaptive evolution
evolutionary process directed by natural selection, which mak…
balancing selection
natural selection that maintains stable frequencies of two or…
23 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 21:
natural selection acts on _____ and on…
microevolution
what three mechanisms cause change in…
genetic variation
individuals, populations
change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
natural selection acts on _____ and on…
individuals, populations
microevolution
change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
23 terms
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 21
Whole genome shotgun approach
bioinformatics
proteomics
How many base pairs do bacteria and Ar…
sequences random DNA fragments and assembles the DNA sequence…
creates centralized resources for analyzing genome sequences:…
study of proteins (how proteins interact)
btw 1 and 6 million; most over 100mb (humans have 3200 mb)
Whole genome shotgun approach
sequences random DNA fragments and assembles the DNA sequence…
bioinformatics
creates centralized resources for analyzing genome sequences:…
17 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 21:
natural selection acts on _____ and on…
microevolution
what three mechanisms cause change in…
genetic variation
individuals, populations
change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow
differences among individuals in the composition of their gen…
natural selection acts on _____ and on…
individuals, populations
microevolution
change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
8 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21 and 22
What makes evolution possible?
Genetic variation
Describe how genetic variation at the…
Explain why the majority of point muta…
Genetic variation makes evolution possible.
Diversity in gene frequencies between individuals or populati…
Genetic variation can be quantified using percentage of gene…
Point mutations are changes in a single nucleotide pair. Thes…
What makes evolution possible?
Genetic variation makes evolution possible.
Genetic variation
Diversity in gene frequencies between individuals or populati…
64 terms
Ap Bio Chapter 21
The first clades to branch off after p…
Red algae
"green algae"
A key synapomorphy of the land plants
are all aquatic (common name: algae).
multicellular; have phycoerythrin and other accessory pigment…
Have chlorophyll a and b; store energy as starch... Three clade…
A key synapomorphy of the land plants is an embryo that is pr…
The first clades to branch off after p…
are all aquatic (common name: algae).
Red algae
multicellular; have phycoerythrin and other accessory pigment…
12 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21
Based on morphological characteristics…
Which of the following phylogenetic tr…
Researchers are investigating the evol…
7.... The lionfish is a venomous fish fou…
Is species I the common ancestor of II and III? ... This is beca…
The X that later develops more species that are genetically c…
Does water temperature at different ocean depths affect the r…
With no natural predators, the lionfish population will becom…
Based on morphological characteristics…
Is species I the common ancestor of II and III? ... This is beca…
Which of the following phylogenetic tr…
The X that later develops more species that are genetically c…
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