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Study sets matching "ap biology"

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Study sets matching "ap biology"

14 terms
AP Biology: Functional Groups
hydroxyl
amino
methyl
carbonyl
hydroxyl
amino
17 terms
AP Biology: Macromolecules
Amino Acid
glucose
starch
cellulose
Amino Acid
glucose
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
41 terms
AP Biology Organic Chemistry
monomer
polymer
carbohydrate
lipid
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:…
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen & relatively few ox…
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
26 terms
Biochemistry - AP Biology
Polar Molecule
Hydrophilic
Nonpolar Molecule
Hydrophobic
An asymmetrical molecule with a slight charge (dipole); that…
Water loving
A symmetrical or balanced molecule with no charge; hydrophobi…
Water fearing
Polar Molecule
An asymmetrical molecule with a slight charge (dipole); that…
Hydrophilic
Water loving
40 terms
AP Biology - Basic Chemistry
Matter
Energy
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Atom
Anything that has mass and occupies space
The ability to do work; comes in many forms - kinetic, potent…
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
The most basic unit of matter; the smallest particle of an el…
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Energy
The ability to do work; comes in many forms - kinetic, potent…
34 terms
AP Biology Cell Structure
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Organelle
Cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
"little organ" - compartmentalized structures that perform sp…
Basic functional unit of all living things
Prokaryotic cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Eukaryotic cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
58 terms
AP Biology Molecules
Methyl
Hydroxyl
Carboxyl
Amine
-has one carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms... -when added to DNA…
-hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom... -alcohols (ethanol…
-oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also b…
-part of the Amino chemical group... -Ex: Glycine... -Acts as a bas…
Methyl
-has one carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms... -when added to DNA…
Hydroxyl
-hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom... -alcohols (ethanol…
25 terms
AP Biology Pre-Assessment
Hydrophobic compounds
Organic compounds
Adenosine triphosphate
Carbohydrates
substances that do not have an affinity for water and are oft…
Compounds containing carbon
molecule storing potential "free energy" for the cell
compounds that serve as fuel and building material for the cell
Hydrophobic compounds
substances that do not have an affinity for water and are oft…
Organic compounds
Compounds containing carbon
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
36 terms
AP Biology Energy for Life
energy
first law of thermodynamics
second law of thermodynamics
Gibbs free energy
the ability to cause change; ability to do work
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converte…
any time energy is converted the entropy (disorder) of the un…
energy in a system that is available to do work
energy
the ability to cause change; ability to do work
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converte…
19 terms
Enzymes for AP Biology
catalyst
enzyme
activation energy
substrate
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction with…
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the ac…
the amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur
the substance an enzyme acts on
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction with…
enzyme
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the ac…
20 terms
Cell Membrane - AP Biology
Selectively permeability
Osmosis
turgid
Amphipathic molecule
it allows some things to come through and some not
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
swollen as from a fluid; bloated
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophob…
Selectively permeability
it allows some things to come through and some not
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
30 terms
AP Biology Chapter 14
Trait
P Generation
F1 Generation
F2 Generation
every variant for a character
-parental generation... -true breeding parents
-first filial generation... -hybrid offspring of P generation
-second filial generation... -offspring of F1 hybrids w/ self po…
Trait
every variant for a character
P Generation
-parental generation... -true breeding parents
51 terms
Quantitative Skills for AP Biology
hypothesis
independent variable
dependent variable
confounding variable
A plausible and testable explanation for observed phenomena.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…
The variable that responds to manipulations of the independen…
Any extraneous variable that affects the variables being stud…
hypothesis
A plausible and testable explanation for observed phenomena.
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…
50 terms
AP Biology Evolution
Lamarck
Darwin
Wallace
adaptation
scientist that believed inheritance of acquired characteristics
known for proposing the natural selection and survival of the…
proposed natural selection at the same time as Darwin, but wa…
trait that helps an organism be more suited to the environment
Lamarck
scientist that believed inheritance of acquired characteristics
Darwin
known for proposing the natural selection and survival of the…
40 terms
Macromolecules Pre-AP Biology
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids…
Carbohydrates and Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
The four Macromolecules are...
Macromolecule(s) with the elements CHO
Macromolecule(s) with the elements CHON
Macromolecule(s) with the elements CHONP
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids…
The four Macromolecules are...
Carbohydrates and Lipids
Macromolecule(s) with the elements CHO
57 terms
AP Biology Cell Division
Cell Cycle
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Cell Division
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter c…
The reproduction of cells
Cell Cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
17 terms
Ecology AP Biology
Exponential population growth
Logistic population growth
K-selection
R-selection
Growth of a population in an ideal, unlimited environment, re…
Population growth that levels off as population size approach…
Also called density-dependent selection. Characterized by few…
Also called density-independent selection. Characterized by m…
Exponential population growth
Growth of a population in an ideal, unlimited environment, re…
Logistic population growth
Population growth that levels off as population size approach…
20 terms
AP Biology: Macromolecules
Amino Acid
collagen
alpha glucose
beta glucose
Amino Acid
collagen
53 terms
AP Biology - Chemistry Review
matter
element
atom
saturated
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
The smallest component of an element having the chemical prop…
Fat with the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of it…
matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
25 terms
AP Biology Chapter 7 Terms
Absorption spectrum
ATP synthase
Autotroph
C3 plant
The various portions of visible light that pigments are capab…
Enzyme that is part of an ATP synthase complex and functions…
any organism capable of self-nourishment by using inorganic m…
Plant that fixes carbon dioxide via the Calvin cycle; the fir…
Absorption spectrum
The various portions of visible light that pigments are capab…
ATP synthase
Enzyme that is part of an ATP synthase complex and functions…
52 terms
AP Biology Unit 2: Biochemistry
macromolecule
polymer
monomer
condensation reaction (dehydration rea…
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to…
macromolecule
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
39 terms
AP Biology: Microorganisms
prokaryote
endospore
flagella
archaebacteria
A cell without a nucleus
forms when conditions are bad for a bacterium
long whip-like structure that helps bacteria move
does not contain peptidogylcan; live in harsh environments; h…
prokaryote
A cell without a nucleus
endospore
forms when conditions are bad for a bacterium
107 terms
AP Biology - Chapter 10 (photosynthesis), AP Biology Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
photosynthesis (definition)
photosynthesis (equation)
autotroph
heterotroph
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
organism that CAN capture energy from sunlight or chemicals a…
organism that CANNOT produce its own food and therefore obtai…
photosynthesis (definition)
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
photosynthesis (equation)
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
20 terms
AP Biology Cell Communication
Signal transduction pathway
enzyme linked receptors
Cell surface receptors
second messenger cascades
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received…
participate in cell signaling through extracellular ligand bi…
proteins that bind specific molocules call ligands
A multistep process that couples activation of a neurotransmi…
Signal transduction pathway
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received…
enzyme linked receptors
participate in cell signaling through extracellular ligand bi…
28 terms
AP Biology: Functional Groups
Hydroxyl: Structure
Hydroxyl: Name of Compound
Hydroxyl: Example
Hydroxyl:Functional Properties
Alcohols (their specific names usually end in -ol)
Ethanol
-Is Polar as a result of the electrons spending more time nea…
Hydroxyl: Structure
Hydroxyl: Name of Compound
Alcohols (their specific names usually end in -ol)
76 terms
AP Biology-Biochemistry Review
Word Roots: -lysis
proton charge
proton mass in amu.
electron charge
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
+1,
1
-1
Word Roots: -lysis
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
proton charge
+1,
39 terms
AP Biology - Meiosis #9
chromatin
cytokinesis
cell plate
cleavage furrow
during interphase, the DNA is found in this form
the act of splitting newly formed cells
a type of cytokinesis found in plant cells
a type of cytokinesis found in animal cells
chromatin
during interphase, the DNA is found in this form
cytokinesis
the act of splitting newly formed cells
29 terms
Cell Communication - AP Biology
ligand
kinase
phosphorylation cascade
reception
binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane
a protein involved in signal transduction that activates othe…
A phosphorylation cascade is a sequence of events where one e…
first of the three stages of cell signaling
ligand
binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane
kinase
a protein involved in signal transduction that activates othe…
23 terms
Chycota AP Biology: Cells
prokaryotic cell
eukaryotic cell
plasma membrane
cell wall
a simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelle…
a complex cell containing a nucleus and membrane-bound organe…
a selective barrier around a cell composed of a double layer…
a wall or barrier that functions to shape and protect cells.…
prokaryotic cell
a simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelle…
eukaryotic cell
a complex cell containing a nucleus and membrane-bound organe…
47 terms
AP Biology
What are characteristics of organic co…
What are characteristics of inorganic…
What is the difference between cohesio…
Neutralization
they must contain Carbon and Hydrogen, they have covalent bon…
They do not contain both carbon and hydrogen, they are usuall…
Cohesion refers to the attraction water molecules have for ot…
When an acid is added to a base. Salt and water are produced…
What are characteristics of organic co…
they must contain Carbon and Hydrogen, they have covalent bon…
What are characteristics of inorganic…
They do not contain both carbon and hydrogen, they are usuall…
44 terms
AP Biology Digestive System
oral cavity
amylase
lysozyme
bolus
made up of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus
digests starch
antibacterial action
chewed food with saliva
oral cavity
made up of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus
amylase
digests starch
23 terms
AP Biology - basic chemistry Review
hydrogen bond
matter
compound
element
slight attraction between Hydrogen of one atom and N, F, or O…
anything that has mass and takes up space
substance consisting of two or more elements
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by c…
hydrogen bond
slight attraction between Hydrogen of one atom and N, F, or O…
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4- Carbon
Carbon's Versatility
Structural Isomers
Cis-Trans Isomers
Enantiomer Isomer
Forms 4 covalent bonds that lead to a tetrahedral shape. Also…
Different in covalent arrangements of their atoms.
Same covalent partnership but different in spatial arrangemen…
Molecules that are mirror images of each other. Usually invol…
Carbon's Versatility
Forms 4 covalent bonds that lead to a tetrahedral shape. Also…
Structural Isomers
Different in covalent arrangements of their atoms.
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
44 terms
AP Biology Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
autotroph
heterotroph
photoautotroph
chlorophyll
organism capable of synthesizing its own food from CO₂ and ot…
an organism that depends on other's complex organic substance…
plants that use energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxid…
the green pigment located within chloroplasts. It absorbs lig…
autotroph
organism capable of synthesizing its own food from CO₂ and ot…
heterotroph
an organism that depends on other's complex organic substance…
65 terms
AP Biology - Chapter 10 (photosynthesis)
photosynthesis (definition)
photosynthesis (equation)
autotroph
heterotroph
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
organism that CAN capture energy from sunlight or chemicals a…
organism that CANNOT produce its own food and therefore obtai…
photosynthesis (definition)
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
photosynthesis (equation)
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
41 terms
AP Biology (Campbell) Chapter 12
anaphase
anchorage dependence
aster
benign tumor
fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chro…
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to th…
a radial array of short microtubules that extends from each c…
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
anaphase
fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chro…
anchorage dependence
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to th…
22 terms
AP Biology (Campbell) Chapter 13
gametes
asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
homologous chromosomes
reproductive cells that transmit genes from one generation to…
the generation of offspring from a single parent without the…
the generation of offspring from two parents that have unique…
a pair of chromosomes that have the same length, centromere p…
gametes
reproductive cells that transmit genes from one generation to…
asexual reproduction
the generation of offspring from a single parent without the…
51 terms
AP Biology- Biochemistry
ionic bond
covalent bond
nonpolar
polar
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
electrons shared equally
electrons shared unequally
ionic bond
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
covalent bond
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
24 terms
AP Biology - Basic Chemistry
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Structure of an Atom
Ion
Cation
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
Consists of mostly empty space; Protons (+) and neutrons (0)…
An atom with a positive or negative electric charge
An atom that lost electrons and therefore has a positive char…
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
Structure of an Atom
Consists of mostly empty space; Protons (+) and neutrons (0)…
37 terms
AP Biology (Campbell) Chapter 7
plasma membrane
selectively permeable
phospholipids
lipids and proteins
a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that form the e…
A membrane that allows certain molecules or ions to pass thro…
consist of a glycerol molecule, two fatty acids, and a phosph…
primary macromolecules found in membranes
plasma membrane
a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that form the e…
selectively permeable
A membrane that allows certain molecules or ions to pass thro…
25 terms
Immune System - AP Biology
First Line of Defense
Second Line of Defense
Inflammatory Response
Histamines
Nonspecific barrier to keep out pathogens... ex: skin, stomach…
Nonspecific defense and inflammatory response initiated by ch…
Vasodilation, phagocytosis, and increase in body temperature
chemical signals that trigger vasodilation, increasing blood…
First Line of Defense
Nonspecific barrier to keep out pathogens... ex: skin, stomach…
Second Line of Defense
Nonspecific defense and inflammatory response initiated by ch…
702 terms
Ultimate AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
34 terms
Cells - AP Biology
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Theory of Endosymbiosis
Nucleus
Cells with no nuclear or internal membranes
Cells with internal membranes (e.g., nucleus, organelles)
Chloroplasts and mitochondria were formerly tiny prokaryotes…
Contains chromosomes; surrounded by selectively permeable mem…
Prokaryotes
Cells with no nuclear or internal membranes
Eukaryotes
Cells with internal membranes (e.g., nucleus, organelles)
1,013 terms
Ultimate AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
43 terms
AP Biology (Campbell) Chapter 6
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
26 terms
Biochemistry - AP Biology
Polar Molecule
Hydrophilic
Nonpolar Molecule
Hydrophobic
An asymmetrical molecule with a slight charge (dipole); that…
Water loving
A symmetrical or balanced molecule with no charge; hydrophobi…
Water fearing
Polar Molecule
An asymmetrical molecule with a slight charge (dipole); that…
Hydrophilic
Water loving
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