Study sets matching "ap biology"

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Study sets matching "ap biology"

52 terms
AP Biology Mitosis and Meiosis
two
genome
chromosomes
chromatin
How many daughter cells are produced in mitosis?
-consists of all the DNA in a cell... -holds specific genetic tr…
-packages in a cell which contain DNA molecules... -humans have…
-makes up chromosomes... -complex of DNA and protein
two
How many daughter cells are produced in mitosis?
genome
-consists of all the DNA in a cell... -holds specific genetic tr…
23 terms
AP Biology Chapter 12 Terms
GENETIC MATERIAL MUST BE
DNA
STRUCTURE OF DNA
CHARGAFF'S RULES
1.)ABLE TO STORE INFORMATION THAT PERTAINS TO THE DEVELOPMENT…
IS THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND THE GENETIC MATERIAL
CONTAINS FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF NUCLEOTIDES:TWO WITH PURINE…
THE PERCENTAGE OF A ALWAYS EQUALS THE PERCENTAGE OF T,THE PER…
GENETIC MATERIAL MUST BE
1.)ABLE TO STORE INFORMATION THAT PERTAINS TO THE DEVELOPMENT…
DNA
IS THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND THE GENETIC MATERIAL
39 terms
AP Biology: Microorganisms
prokaryote
endospore
flagella
archaebacteria
A cell without a nucleus
forms when conditions are bad for a bacterium
long whip-like structure that helps bacteria move
does not contain peptidogylcan; live in harsh environments; h…
prokaryote
A cell without a nucleus
endospore
forms when conditions are bad for a bacterium
50 terms
AP Biology Evolution
Lamarck
Darwin
Wallace
adaptation
scientist that believed inheritance of acquired characteristics
known for proposing the natural selection and survival of the…
proposed natural selection at the same time as Darwin, but wa…
trait that helps an organism be more suited to the environment
Lamarck
scientist that believed inheritance of acquired characteristics
Darwin
known for proposing the natural selection and survival of the…
71 terms
Ap Biology chapter 2
Matter
Element
Compound
Essential elements
Anything that takes up space and has mass
A substance that cannot be broken down to another substance b…
A substance made of two or more DIFFERENT elements combined i…
Elements that an organism requires for survival
Matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Element
A substance that cannot be broken down to another substance b…
53 terms
AP Biology - Chemistry Review
matter
element
atom
saturated
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
The smallest component of an element having the chemical prop…
Fat with the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of it…
matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
23 terms
Chycota AP Biology: Cells
prokaryotic cell
eukaryotic cell
plasma membrane
cell wall
a simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelle…
a complex cell containing a nucleus and membrane-bound organe…
a selective barrier around a cell composed of a double layer…
a wall or barrier that functions to shape and protect cells.…
prokaryotic cell
a simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelle…
eukaryotic cell
a complex cell containing a nucleus and membrane-bound organe…
25 terms
Immune System - AP Biology
First Line of Defense
Second Line of Defense
Inflammatory Response
Histamines
Nonspecific barrier to keep out pathogens... ex: skin, stomach…
Nonspecific defense and inflammatory response initiated by ch…
Vasodilation, phagocytosis, and increase in body temperature
chemical signals that trigger vasodilation, increasing blood…
First Line of Defense
Nonspecific barrier to keep out pathogens... ex: skin, stomach…
Second Line of Defense
Nonspecific defense and inflammatory response initiated by ch…
44 terms
AP Biology Digestive System
oral cavity
amylase
lysozyme
bolus
made up of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus
digests starch
antibacterial action
chewed food with saliva
oral cavity
made up of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus
amylase
digests starch
56 terms
AP Biology Cell and Organelles
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
prokaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
Cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cell with no nucleus nor membrane bound organelles
organelles
membrane-enclosed structures within a eukaryotic cell
cytosol
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
36 terms
AP Biology Chapter 2
Acid
Atom
Atomic Mass
Atomic symbol
Solution in which a substance will dissociate in water nmakin…
Smallest particle of an element that displays the properties…
sum of protons and neutrons, or, average of atom mass units f…
One or two letters that represent the name of an element
Acid
Solution in which a substance will dissociate in water nmakin…
Atom
Smallest particle of an element that displays the properties…
107 terms
AP Biology - Chapter 10 (photosynthesis), AP Biology Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
photosynthesis (definition)
photosynthesis (equation)
autotroph
heterotroph
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
organism that CAN capture energy from sunlight or chemicals a…
organism that CANNOT produce its own food and therefore obtai…
photosynthesis (definition)
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
photosynthesis (equation)
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
76 terms
AP Biology-Biochemistry Review
Word Roots: -lysis
proton charge
proton mass in amu.
electron charge
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
+1,
1
-1
Word Roots: -lysis
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
proton charge
+1,
39 terms
AP Biology - Meiosis #9
chromatin
cytokinesis
cell plate
cleavage furrow
during interphase, the DNA is found in this form
the act of splitting newly formed cells
a type of cytokinesis found in plant cells
a type of cytokinesis found in animal cells
chromatin
during interphase, the DNA is found in this form
cytokinesis
the act of splitting newly formed cells
AP Biology Chapter 1
Evolution
DNA
Biology
Emergent properties
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life…
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nuc…
The scientific study of life
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierar…
Evolution
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life…
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nuc…
29 terms
Biology in Focus (AP) Chapter 4
Central vacuole
Centrosome
Chloroplast
Chromatin
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in…
Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important…
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that…
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic ch…
Central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in…
Centrosome
Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important…
67 terms
AP Biology Chapter 1
Adaptation
Animal (characteristics)
Binomial nomenclature
Biodiversity
A species modification in structure, function, or behavior th…
Multicellular, eukaryote undergoes dvlpmnt to achieve final f…
Scientific name of an organism, the first part designates the…
Total number of species, variability of their genes, & commun…
Adaptation
A species modification in structure, function, or behavior th…
Animal (characteristics)
Multicellular, eukaryote undergoes dvlpmnt to achieve final f…
46 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 43
Innate immunity
Acquired immunity
Humoral resoponse
Cell mediated
Present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective fro…
Develops after expose to agents such as microbes, toxins, or…
Pathogens in lymph (B lymphocytes or B cells are used)
Pathogens in cells (uses Cytotoxic lymphocytes)
Innate immunity
Present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective fro…
Acquired immunity
Develops after expose to agents such as microbes, toxins, or…
64 terms
AP Biology: Chapter 6
cell diagram
organelles
cytosol
eukaryotic cell
membrane-enclosed compartments
a jellylike substance where organelles and other components a…
cell in which most DNA is found in the nucleus
cell diagram
organelles
membrane-enclosed compartments
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
52 terms
AP Biology Mitosis and Meiosis
two
genome
chromosomes
chromatin
How many daughter cells are produced in mitosis?
-consists of all the DNA in a cell... -holds specific genetic tr…
-packages in a cell which contain DNA molecules... -humans have…
-makes up chromosomes... -complex of DNA and protein
two
How many daughter cells are produced in mitosis?
genome
-consists of all the DNA in a cell... -holds specific genetic tr…
34 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 51
Ethology
Behavior
Proximate causation
Ultimate causation
The scientific study of animal behavior
The nervous system's response to a stimulus
How explanations (environmental stimuli that triggers behavio…
Why explanations (evolutionary significance of a behavior)
Ethology
The scientific study of animal behavior
Behavior
The nervous system's response to a stimulus
65 terms
AP Biology - Chapter 10 (photosynthesis)
photosynthesis (definition)
photosynthesis (equation)
autotroph
heterotroph
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
organism that CAN capture energy from sunlight or chemicals a…
organism that CANNOT produce its own food and therefore obtai…
photosynthesis (definition)
process of harnessing light energy to build carbohydrates in…
photosynthesis (equation)
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
19 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 9
6O₂+C₆H₁₂O₆====>^CO₂+6H₂O+Energy
Oxidation is the loss Reduction is the…
Glycolysis
Kreb's cycle
The equation of cellular respiration
O.I.L.R.I.G.
Degrades glucose into pyruvate (occurs in cytosol)
Pyruvate into CO₂ (occurs in the Mitochondrial matrix)
6O₂+C₆H₁₂O₆====>^CO₂+6H₂O+Energy
The equation of cellular respiration
Oxidation is the loss Reduction is the…
O.I.L.R.I.G.
AP Biology- Biochemistry
ionic bond
covalent bond
nonpolar
polar
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
electrons shared equally
electrons shared unequally
ionic bond
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
covalent bond
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
1,013 terms
Ultimate AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
39 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
selective permeability
amphipathetic molecule
fluid mosaic
cholesterol
the ability of a membrane to allow some substances to cross a…
a molecule that has both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region
the idea that a membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules flo…
an organic molecule that is an important constituent of cell…
selective permeability
the ability of a membrane to allow some substances to cross a…
amphipathetic molecule
a molecule that has both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region
37 terms
AP Biology- Chapter 24
Speciation
Microevolution
Macroevolution
A SPECIES is defined by:
1) origin of new species... 2) focal point of evolutionary theor…
1) consists of adaptations that evolve within population, con…
1) evolutionary change ABOVE the species level... 2) not directl…
morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and DNA sequences when…
Speciation
1) origin of new species... 2) focal point of evolutionary theor…
Microevolution
1) consists of adaptations that evolve within population, con…
23 terms
AP Biology Chapter 11
Monohybrid Cross
Locus
Alleles
Dominant Allele
Cross between parents that differ in only one trait.
The physical condition of a trait or gene on a chromosome.
Alternative form of a gene; occur at the same locus on homolo…
Allele that exerts it's phenotypic effect in the heterozygote…
Monohybrid Cross
Cross between parents that differ in only one trait.
Locus
The physical condition of a trait or gene on a chromosome.
16 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4- Carbon
Carbon's Versatility
Structural Isomers
Cis-Trans Isomers
Enantiomer Isomer
Forms 4 covalent bonds that lead to a tetrahedral shape. Also…
Different in covalent arrangements of their atoms.
Same covalent partnership but different in spatial arrangemen…
Molecules that are mirror images of each other. Usually invol…
Carbon's Versatility
Forms 4 covalent bonds that lead to a tetrahedral shape. Also…
Structural Isomers
Different in covalent arrangements of their atoms.
34 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 8
Metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Catabolic pathways
Anabolic pathways
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simple…
Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones (…
Metabolism
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Metabolic pathways
Begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
AP Biology - Chapter 15
Radiometric dating
Continental drift
Pangaea
Plate tectonics
A method that uses the decay of radioactive isotopes to deter…
The idea that all land on Earth was once one great mass but t…
The name of the original supercontinent
Describes the forces involved in the movement of Earth's plat…
Radiometric dating
A method that uses the decay of radioactive isotopes to deter…
Continental drift
The idea that all land on Earth was once one great mass but t…
46 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 7
Cell membrane
Amphipathic
Fluid mosaic model
Phospholipids
Consists of lipids and proteins and it is selectively permiable
Phospholipids-both hydrophobic and hydrophilic
Membrane is a fluid structure
Constantly move laterally
Cell membrane
Consists of lipids and proteins and it is selectively permiable
Amphipathic
Phospholipids-both hydrophobic and hydrophilic
42 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 2
Biology
Element
Compound
C.O.H.N
A multidisciplinary science
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by…
a substance consisting of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up 96% of living…
Biology
A multidisciplinary science
Element
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by…
AP Biology: Unit 1
Why are water molecules polar?
What are the 4 properties of water?
Cohesive behavior
Adhesion
uneven distribution of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen
cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion…
the linking of like molecules; water molecules stick together…
water molecules stick to other molecules
Why are water molecules polar?
uneven distribution of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen
What are the 4 properties of water?
cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion…
22 terms
AP Biology Chapter 6
metabolic pathway
enzyme
anabolism
catabolism (catabolic pathway)
a specific molecule is altered in a series of defined steps w…
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions
synthetic pathways: using energy to build complicated molecules
breakdown pathways: breaking down molecules to release energy…
metabolic pathway
a specific molecule is altered in a series of defined steps w…
enzyme
a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) reactions
23 terms
AP Biology - basic chemistry Review
hydrogen bond
matter
compound
element
slight attraction between Hydrogen of one atom and N, F, or O…
anything that has mass and takes up space
substance consisting of two or more elements
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by c…
hydrogen bond
slight attraction between Hydrogen of one atom and N, F, or O…
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
19 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 52
Ecology
Population
Population ecology
Community
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms an…
A group of individuals of the same species living in an area
Focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a specie…
A group of populations of different species
Ecology
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms an…
Population
A group of individuals of the same species living in an area
52 terms
AP Biology- Chapter 25
Fossil Record shows macroevolutionary…
Possible order of Formation on Earth:
Synthesis of Organic Compounds:
Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules:
1) emergence of terrestrial vertebrates... 2) origins of photosy…
1) Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules... 2) Joining of…
1) Early earth formed~ 4.6 bya... 2) Early atmosphere~ water vap…
1) small organic form polymers (polymerize) when they are con…
Fossil Record shows macroevolutionary…
1) emergence of terrestrial vertebrates... 2) origins of photosy…
Possible order of Formation on Earth:
1) Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules... 2) Joining of…
37 terms
AP Biology (Campbell) Chapter 7
plasma membrane
selectively permeable
phospholipids
lipids and proteins
a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that form the e…
A membrane that allows certain molecules or ions to pass thro…
consist of a glycerol molecule, two fatty acids, and a phosph…
primary macromolecules found in membranes
plasma membrane
a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that form the e…
selectively permeable
A membrane that allows certain molecules or ions to pass thro…
20 terms
Nervous System - AP Biology
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Brain and spinal cord
All the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the…
system that controls the excitatory response
system that controls calming response
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
All the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the…
34 terms
Cells - AP Biology
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Theory of Endosymbiosis
Nucleus
Cells with no nuclear or internal membranes
Cells with internal membranes (e.g., nucleus, organelles)
Chloroplasts and mitochondria were formerly tiny prokaryotes…
Contains chromosomes; surrounded by selectively permeable mem…
Prokaryotes
Cells with no nuclear or internal membranes
Eukaryotes
Cells with internal membranes (e.g., nucleus, organelles)
AP Biology Chapter 37
neuron
axon
dendrite
synapse
nerve cells that transfer information within the body
the extension of a nerve cell that transmits signals
the extension of a nerve cell that receives signals
the junction between an axon and a dendrite across which chem…
neuron
nerve cells that transfer information within the body
axon
the extension of a nerve cell that transmits signals
AP Biology - Immune System
Inflammatory Response
Histamines
Phagocytes
Complement
Vasodilation, phagocytosis, and increase in body temperature
chemical signals that trigger vasodilation, increasing blood…
White blood cells that engulf invading pathogens ... e.g., neut…
chemical signals secreted by blood vessel cells that attract…
Inflammatory Response
Vasodilation, phagocytosis, and increase in body temperature
Histamines
chemical signals that trigger vasodilation, increasing blood…
42 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
Fluid Mosaic Model
phospholipid bilayer
saturated lipids
unsaturated lipids
proteins embedded in it, some have carbs attached; can all mo…
more fluid at warm, tend to freeze at cold (solid)
more fluid at cold due to the kinks (double bonds), prevents…
Fluid Mosaic Model
phospholipid bilayer
proteins embedded in it, some have carbs attached; can all mo…
AP Biology Chapter 22
Species
Reproductive Isolation
Temporal Isolation
Behavioral Isolation
The ability to interbreed in nature and produce viable, ferti…
Pre-zygotic: before zygote... Post-zygotic: after zygote
Pre-zygotic. Differences in timing of breeding cycles prevent…
Pre-zygotic. Differences in courtship behaviors prevent matin…
Species
The ability to interbreed in nature and produce viable, ferti…
Reproductive Isolation
Pre-zygotic: before zygote... Post-zygotic: after zygote
32 terms
Heredity - AP Biology
Purebred
Hybrid
Tt x Tt
Law of segregation
Homozygous (BB or bb)
Heterozygous (Bb)
25% TT; 50% Tt; 25% tt... 75% Dominant Phenotype; 25% Recessive…
During the formation of gametes (meiosis), the two opposing t…
Purebred
Homozygous (BB or bb)
Hybrid
Heterozygous (Bb)
52 terms
Ap Biology Chapter 39
Etiolation
De-Etiolation
Phosphorylation
Hormones
The morphological adaptation for growing in darkness
When a potato is exposed to light it grows roots and lives no…
Turns on/off proteins
Chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism
Etiolation
The morphological adaptation for growing in darkness
De-Etiolation
When a potato is exposed to light it grows roots and lives no…
24 terms
AP Biology-Chapter 6-Cell
cell
Electron Microscope
cytosol
prokaryotic cell
-the simplest collection of matter that can live... -bound by pl…
-focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or into it'…
semi fluid within the membrane
-no nucleus... -organisms of the domains bacteria and archaea... -h…
cell
-the simplest collection of matter that can live... -bound by pl…
Electron Microscope
-focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or into it'…
AP Biology Chapter 4
Organic Compound
vitalism --> mechanism
Macromolecules
Bonds with carbon
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
- Huge molecules. ... - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucl…
- Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.... - Eac…
Organic Compound
- Compound containing carbon.... - Different species and individ…
vitalism --> mechanism
- vitalism is belief in a life force outside jurisdiction of…
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