Study sets matching "ap chemistry chapter 2"

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Study sets matching "ap chemistry chapter 2"

AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Composition of an atom based + - =
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
Millikan's oil drop
Rutherford's gold-foil
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
...
Small drops of oil w/ eletric charges fell between two electr…
Shot particles through gold-foil and noted the angles which t…
Composition of an atom based + - =
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
...
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
21 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass
Law of Multiple Proportion
Same charge
1. Every element is made up of atoms. ... 2. All atoms are ident…
total mass before a reaction = total mass after a reaction
if elements A and B combine to make a compound, the ratio wil…
Particles with the ______ __________ repel
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Every element is made up of atoms. ... 2. All atoms are ident…
Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass
total mass before a reaction = total mass after a reaction
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Ray
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
Particles existing that are smaller than an atom
Radiation that is produced between electrodes when high amoun…
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
electrode
tunneling current
Leucippus and Democritus (student)
a technique that can image, and even move, individual atoms a…
an electrical conductor
the electrical current that flows between the tip of the elec…
Greek philosophers in 5th century BC; theorized that matter c…
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
a technique that can image, and even move, individual atoms a…
electrode
an electrical conductor
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Ray
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
Particles existing that are smaller than an atom
Radiation that is produced between electrodes when high amoun…
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
Atomic Theory
Law of constant composition(helped exp…
Law of conservation of mass(helped exp…
Law of multiple proportions(helped exp…
Came from John Dalton during the period from 1803... Based on 4…
4th postulate:... In a given compound, the relative numbers and…
3rd postulate:... The total mass of materials present after a ch…
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
Atomic Theory
Came from John Dalton during the period from 1803... Based on 4…
Law of constant composition(helped exp…
4th postulate:... In a given compound, the relative numbers and…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
What did Democritus think about atoms?
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
What did Isaac Newton favor?
What postulates did John Dalton make?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
the idea of atoms
1) each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
What did Democritus think about atoms?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
72 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
LaVoisier
Law of definite proportions
law of multiple proportions
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physic…
stated the law of conservation of mass
a given compound always contains the same proportion of eleme…
whenever two elements form more than one compound, the differ…
law of conservation of mass
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physic…
LaVoisier
stated the law of conservation of mass
56 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's atomic theory
atoms
law of constant composition
law of conservation of mass
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical ide…
law that states that in a given compound, the relative number…
law that states that the total mass of materials present afte…
Dalton's atomic theory
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
atoms
smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical ide…
41 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
The Greeks
Alchemists
First "Real" Chemists
Law of Conservation of Mass
air, water, wind, fire... atomos... no experimentation
tried to turn metals into gold... advances in lab equipment and…
Robert Boyle (quantitative experiments)... Joseph Priestly (disc…
Antoine Lavoisier... - mass is neither created nor destroyed in…
The Greeks
air, water, wind, fire... atomos... no experimentation
Alchemists
tried to turn metals into gold... advances in lab equipment and…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Element
Compound
Mixture
Name the diatomic 7
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical chan…
can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes…
...
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Element
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical chan…
Compound
can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes…
75 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
electrostatic attractions
charge, size
first, greater charge
smaller, coulombic charge
Instead of intermolecular forces, ionic bonds are held togeth…
the two factors which influence IONIC melting points
____ you look at the charge of an IONIC substance to find whi…
secondly, if both IONIC substances have equal charge, the gre…
electrostatic attractions
Instead of intermolecular forces, ionic bonds are held togeth…
charge, size
the two factors which influence IONIC melting points
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Democritus
Plato; Aristotle
Isaac Newton
John Dalton
philosopher who thought the material world must be made up of…
two philosophers who argued against Democritus' view that the…
philosopher who favored idea of atoms but thought of atoms as…
philosopher who formed the atomic theory (each element is com…
Democritus
philosopher who thought the material world must be made up of…
Plato; Aristotle
two philosophers who argued against Democritus' view that the…
Chapter 2 Summary AP Chemistry
Democritus's contribution
Who proposed the modern periodic law?
1st postulate of the modern periodic law
2nd postulate of the modern periodic law
Introduced the concept of a tiny, indivisible particle called…
John Dalton. Stated that he believed differences in atoms acc…
A. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
B. All atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of d…
Democritus's contribution
Introduced the concept of a tiny, indivisible particle called…
Who proposed the modern periodic law?
John Dalton. Stated that he believed differences in atoms acc…
41 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
Chapter 2 AP Chemistry
John Dalton (1766-1844)
Atomic theory
subatomic particles
cathode rays
He was an English schoolteacher who created the atomic theory.
it consisted of the following four postulates: 1. Each elemen…
particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons that are s…
streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is…
John Dalton (1766-1844)
He was an English schoolteacher who created the atomic theory.
Atomic theory
it consisted of the following four postulates: 1. Each elemen…
25 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Antoine Lavoisier
Law of Conservation of Mass
Joseph Proust
Law of Definite Proportion (Proust's L…
French chemist who did experiments that verified the Law of C…
matter is neither created nor destroyed; it is only changed f…
French chemist whose weighing experiments led to the Law of D…
a compound always contains exactly the same proportion of ele…
Antoine Lavoisier
French chemist who did experiments that verified the Law of C…
Law of Conservation of Mass
matter is neither created nor destroyed; it is only changed f…
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
group 1A
group 2A
group 7A
group 8A
alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
halogens
noble gases
group 1A
alkali metals
group 2A
alkaline earth metals
Chapter 2: Ap chemistry
democritus
atomos
Plato and Aristotle
17th century
Greek philosopher that said all matter is made of tiny partic…
indivisible or uncuttable
there can be no ultimately indivisible particles.
when did the notion of the atom reemerge
democritus
Greek philosopher that said all matter is made of tiny partic…
atomos
indivisible or uncuttable
55 terms
AP CHEMISTRY: Chapter 2
Element
Pure substance
Molecule
Compound
The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemi…
A type of matter either an element or a compound that has a f…
A structure consisting of two or more atoms that are chemical…
A substance composed of two or more elements that are chemica…
Element
The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemi…
Pure substance
A type of matter either an element or a compound that has a f…
15 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of conservation of mass
Law of definite proportion
Law of multiple proportions
Cathode rays
mass is neither created nor destroyed
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
A law stating that when two elements form a series of compoun…
The "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in…
Law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of definite proportion
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
56 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Demokritos and Leucippos
Alchemy
Georg Bauer
Paracelsus
described the term atoms
discovered several elements and learned to prepare the minera…
development of systematic metallurgy
medicinal application of minerals
Demokritos and Leucippos
described the term atoms
Alchemy
discovered several elements and learned to prepare the minera…
108 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
History of The Atomic Theory
5 main Atomic theory ideas
Experiment that led to discovery of el…
Millikans oil drop
Formulated by John Dalton in 1808
1. Elements are composed of atoms... 2. All atoms in an element…
Cathode ray tube that directed a ray through magnetic panes a…
Succeeded in measuring the charge of the electron by examinin…
History of The Atomic Theory
Formulated by John Dalton in 1808
5 main Atomic theory ideas
1. Elements are composed of atoms... 2. All atoms in an element…
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Antoine Lavoisier
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Avogadro's Number
father of modern chemistry, Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed,... Combustion involves ox…
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
6.02 x 10^23
Antoine Lavoisier
father of modern chemistry, Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed,... Combustion involves ox…
33 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of conservation of mass
Law of multiple proportions
Cathode rays
Millikan's oil drop experiment
The total mass of materials present before a chemical reactio…
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
Streams of electrons, originating at the negative electrode a…
First, small drops of oil are released. Then, they are subjec…
Law of conservation of mass
The total mass of materials present before a chemical reactio…
Law of multiple proportions
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
35 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
atomic weight
cathode rays
electron
nucleus
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurri…
The "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in…
A negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus o…
The small, dense center of positive charge in an atom
atomic weight
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurri…
cathode rays
The "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in…
145 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
atomos
#1 of Dalton's atomic theory
#3 of Dalton's atomic theory
#2 of Dalton's atomic theory
indivisible or uncuttable
each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
the atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a di…
all atoms of a given element are identical to one another in…
atomos
indivisible or uncuttable
#1 of Dalton's atomic theory
each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
27 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
Element
Pure substance
molecule
compound
consists of only one kind of atom
matter whose composition is fixed
an independent structural unit consisting of two or more atom…
type of matter composed of two or more different elements tha…
Element
consists of only one kind of atom
Pure substance
matter whose composition is fixed
37 terms
Chapter 2 AP chemistry
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Cathode rays
"In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destro…
"All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source…
"When two elements form two different compounds, the masses o…
A stream of elections produced when a high electrical voltage…
Law of Conservation of Mass
"In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destro…
Law of Definite Proportions
"All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source…
48 terms
AP Chemistry Chang Chapter 2
Democritus
John Dalton
Atomic theory
Joseph Proust
expressed the belief that matter consists of very small, indi…
made the atomic theory
1) Elements are composed of extremely small particles called…
came up with the law of definite proportions
Democritus
expressed the belief that matter consists of very small, indi…
John Dalton
made the atomic theory
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportions
atomic masses
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
a law stating that when two elemts form a series of compounds…
the weighted averages of isotopes
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's Atomic Theory 1
Dalton's Atomic Theory 2
Dalton's Atomic Theory 3
Dalton's Atomic Theory 4
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms
The atoms of a given element are identical, atoms of differen…
Chemical compounds are formed when atoms combine with each ot…
Chemical reactions involve reorganizations of the atoms. The…
Dalton's Atomic Theory 1
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms
Dalton's Atomic Theory 2
The atoms of a given element are identical, atoms of differen…
Ap Chemistry: Chapter 2 Terms
Neutron
Atomic Number
Mass number
Isotopes
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
Definition: The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in…
Definition: Atoms of the same element that have different num…
Neutron
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Atomic Number
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
AP IBiology: Chapter 2 Chemistry
Atom
Molecules
Electronegativity
Ionic Bonds
Consists of a molecule of positively charged protons and nega…
Groups of two or more atoms held together by bonds ... Chemical…
The ability of an atom to attract electrons, plays a large pa…
Form between atoms when one or more electrons are transferred…
Atom
Consists of a molecule of positively charged protons and nega…
Molecules
Groups of two or more atoms held together by bonds ... Chemical…
Ap Chemistry: Chapter 2 Terms
Neutron
Atomic Number
Mass number
Isotopes
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
Definition: The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in…
Definition: Atoms of the same element that have different num…
Neutron
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Atomic Number
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's number
founded by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier the law that states that…
discovered by Proust a given compound always contains exactly…
discovered by Dalton when two elements form a series of compo…
6.022x10^23
law of conservation of mass
founded by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier the law that states that…
law of definite proportion
discovered by Proust a given compound always contains exactly…
30 terms
AP Chemistry : Chapter 2
electrons
protons
neutrons
nucleus
found outside the nucleus; negatively charged... e-, 5.4 x 10^-4…
found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to t…
found in the nucleus; no charge; virtually same mass as a pro…
small compared with the overall size of the atom... extremely de…
electrons
found outside the nucleus; negatively charged... e-, 5.4 x 10^-4…
protons
found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to t…
15 terms
Chapter 2-AP Chemistry
Democritus
Dalton
Thomson
Millikan
1st to name the atom
Created the atomic theory
Discovered electron, cathode ray, opposites attract
Electron charge and mass, oil drop measured voltage
Democritus
1st to name the atom
Dalton
Created the atomic theory
27 terms
Pre-AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Density
Derived (units)
1 cm^3 =
accurate
The quantity of mass within a specific volume.
Physical quantities that are defined in units that are a comb…
1 mil = 1cc
A measurement that closely agrees with the accepted value is…
Density
The quantity of mass within a specific volume.
Derived (units)
Physical quantities that are defined in units that are a comb…
80 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Greeks
Earth air water fire
Democritus
Atomos
First to try to explain why chemical changes occur. (400 BC)…
Four fundamental elements proposed by the Greeks
(470 BC) thought that all forms of matter were divisible into…
(Atoms) tiny indivisible particles
Greeks
First to try to explain why chemical changes occur. (400 BC)…
Earth air water fire
Four fundamental elements proposed by the Greeks
75 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2 Vocabulary
atoms
Law of constant composition
Law of Conservation of Mass (or Matter)
Law of Multiple Proportions
basic building block of matter
In any compound the relative numbers and atom types are consi…
Mass/Matter can't be created nor destroyed. What goes in come…
If two elements combine then the given mass of A and B can be…
atoms
basic building block of matter
Law of constant composition
In any compound the relative numbers and atom types are consi…
40 terms
AP Chemistry - chapter 2
atomic number
atomic symbol
mass number
isotopes
number of protons in an atom
represents the element
number of protons and neutrons (always a whole number)
atoms with same atomic number, but different mass numbers (di…
atomic number
number of protons in an atom
atomic symbol
represents the element
AP chemistry chapter 2
Who created the law of conservation of…
What is the law of conservation of mass?
Who created the law of definite propor…
What is the law of definite proportions?
Lavoisier
That mass is neither created nor destroyed
Proust
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
Who created the law of conservation of…
Lavoisier
What is the law of conservation of mass?
That mass is neither created nor destroyed
31 terms
AP Chapter 2: Chemistry
law of conservation of energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
exergonic reaction
energy can neither be created nor destroyed
amount of energy from a stationary place
amount of energy while moving
releases energy to the outside
law of conservation of energy
energy can neither be created nor destroyed
potential energy
amount of energy from a stationary place
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportions
atomic masses
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
a law stating that when two elemts form a series of compounds…
the weighted averages of isotopes
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
What did Democritus think about atoms?
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
What did Isaac Newton favor?
What postulates did John Dalton make?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
the idea of atoms
1) each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
What did Democritus think about atoms?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
Chapter 2 AP chemistry
Chemical compounds
Law of mass conservation
Law of definite proportions
Law of multiple proportions
Atoms of different elements joined together to yiles substances
Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
Different samples of a pure chemical compound always contain…
Elements can combine in different ways to form different chem…
Chemical compounds
Atoms of different elements joined together to yiles substances
Law of mass conservation
Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
22 terms
Ap Chemistry: Chapter 2
element
Mixture
Isotope
Ionic bond
The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemi…
A group of two or more compound that are physically interming…
atoms of a given atomic number that is of a specific and mome…
The idealized type of bonding based on the interaction of opp…
element
The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemi…
Mixture
A group of two or more compound that are physically interming…
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