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Study sets matching "ap chemistry chapter 2"

AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Composition of an atom based + - =
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
Millikan's oil drop
Rutherford's gold-foil
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
...
Small drops of oil w/ eletric charges fell between two electr…
Shot particles through gold-foil and noted the angles which t…
Composition of an atom based + - =
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
...
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Ray
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
Particles existing that are smaller than an atom
Radiation that is produced between electrodes when high amoun…
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
31 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Element
Compound
Mixture
Name the diatomic 7
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical chan…
can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes…
...
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Element
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical chan…
Compound
can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes…
54 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
electrode
tunneling current
Leucippus and Democritus (student)
a technique that can image, and even move, individual atoms a…
an electrical conductor
the electrical current that flows between the tip of the elec…
Greek philosophers in 5th century BC; theorized that matter c…
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
a technique that can image, and even move, individual atoms a…
electrode
an electrical conductor
59 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
Atomic Theory
Law of constant composition(helped exp…
Law of conservation of mass(helped exp…
Law of multiple proportions(helped exp…
Came from John Dalton during the period from 1803... Based on 4…
4th postulate:... In a given compound, the relative numbers and…
3rd postulate:... The total mass of materials present after a ch…
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
Atomic Theory
Came from John Dalton during the period from 1803... Based on 4…
Law of constant composition(helped exp…
4th postulate:... In a given compound, the relative numbers and…
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Ray
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
Particles existing that are smaller than an atom
Radiation that is produced between electrodes when high amoun…
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
56 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's atomic theory
atoms
law of constant composition
law of conservation of mass
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical ide…
law that states that in a given compound, the relative number…
law that states that the total mass of materials present afte…
Dalton's atomic theory
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
atoms
smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical ide…
87 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
What did Democritus think about atoms?
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
What did Isaac Newton favor?
What postulates did John Dalton make?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
the idea of atoms
1) each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
What did Democritus think about atoms?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
72 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
LaVoisier
Law of definite proportions
law of multiple proportions
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physic…
stated the law of conservation of mass
a given compound always contains the same proportion of eleme…
whenever two elements form more than one compound, the differ…
law of conservation of mass
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physic…
LaVoisier
stated the law of conservation of mass
25 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Antoine Lavoisier
Law of Conservation of Mass
Joseph Proust
Law of Definite Proportion (Proust's L…
French chemist who did experiments that verified the Law of C…
matter is neither created nor destroyed; it is only changed f…
French chemist whose weighing experiments led to the Law of D…
a compound always contains exactly the same proportion of ele…
Antoine Lavoisier
French chemist who did experiments that verified the Law of C…
Law of Conservation of Mass
matter is neither created nor destroyed; it is only changed f…
9 terms
Ap Chemistry: Chapter 2 Terms
Neutron
Atomic Number
Mass number
Isotopes
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
Definition: The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in…
Definition: Atoms of the same element that have different num…
Neutron
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Atomic Number
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
21 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass
Law of Multiple Proportion
Same charge
1. Every element is made up of atoms. ... 2. All atoms are ident…
total mass before a reaction = total mass after a reaction
if elements A and B combine to make a compound, the ratio wil…
Particles with the ______ __________ repel
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Every element is made up of atoms. ... 2. All atoms are ident…
Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass
total mass before a reaction = total mass after a reaction
41 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
The Greeks
Alchemists
First "Real" Chemists
Law of Conservation of Mass
air, water, wind, fire... atomos... no experimentation
tried to turn metals into gold... advances in lab equipment and…
Robert Boyle (quantitative experiments)... Joseph Priestly (disc…
Antoine Lavoisier... - mass is neither created nor destroyed in…
The Greeks
air, water, wind, fire... atomos... no experimentation
Alchemists
tried to turn metals into gold... advances in lab equipment and…
9 terms
Ap Chemistry: Chapter 2 Terms
Neutron
Atomic Number
Mass number
Isotopes
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
Definition: The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in…
Definition: Atoms of the same element that have different num…
Neutron
Definition: A subatomic particle that has no charge and that…
Atomic Number
Definition: Number of protons in an atom... Ex. The atomic numb…
75 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
electrostatic attractions
charge, size
first, greater charge
smaller, coulombic charge
Instead of intermolecular forces, ionic bonds are held togeth…
the two factors which influence IONIC melting points
____ you look at the charge of an IONIC substance to find whi…
secondly, if both IONIC substances have equal charge, the gre…
electrostatic attractions
Instead of intermolecular forces, ionic bonds are held togeth…
charge, size
the two factors which influence IONIC melting points
27 terms
Pre-AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Density
Derived (units)
1 cm^3 =
accurate
The quantity of mass within a specific volume.
Physical quantities that are defined in units that are a comb…
1 mil = 1cc
A measurement that closely agrees with the accepted value is…
Density
The quantity of mass within a specific volume.
Derived (units)
Physical quantities that are defined in units that are a comb…
87 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
What did Democritus think about atoms?
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
What did Isaac Newton favor?
What postulates did John Dalton make?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
the idea of atoms
1) each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
What did Democritus think about atoms?
thought that material would be made up of tiny indivisible pa…
What did Plato and Aristotle make note…
that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Democritus
Plato; Aristotle
Isaac Newton
John Dalton
philosopher who thought the material world must be made up of…
two philosophers who argued against Democritus' view that the…
philosopher who favored idea of atoms but thought of atoms as…
philosopher who formed the atomic theory (each element is com…
Democritus
philosopher who thought the material world must be made up of…
Plato; Aristotle
two philosophers who argued against Democritus' view that the…
23 terms
Chapter 2 Summary AP Chemistry
Democritus's contribution
Who proposed the modern periodic law?
1st postulate of the modern periodic law
2nd postulate of the modern periodic law
Introduced the concept of a tiny, indivisible particle called…
John Dalton. Stated that he believed differences in atoms acc…
A. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
B. All atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of d…
Democritus's contribution
Introduced the concept of a tiny, indivisible particle called…
Who proposed the modern periodic law?
John Dalton. Stated that he believed differences in atoms acc…
8 terms
AP IBiology: Chapter 2 Chemistry
Atom
Molecules
Electronegativity
Ionic Bonds
Consists of a molecule of positively charged protons and nega…
Groups of two or more atoms held together by bonds ... Chemical…
The ability of an atom to attract electrons, plays a large pa…
Form between atoms when one or more electrons are transferred…
Atom
Consists of a molecule of positively charged protons and nega…
Molecules
Groups of two or more atoms held together by bonds ... Chemical…
87 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2 Review
What prefix and suffix do you use when…
What prefix and suffix do you use when…
What prefix and suffix do you use when…
What prefix and suffix do you use when…
prefix: none... suffix: -*ate*... Example: ClO₃⁻ = chlorate (3 oxyg…
prefix: -*per*... suffix: -*ate*... Example: ClO₄⁻ = perchlorate (h…
prefix: none... suffix: - *ite*... Example: ClO₂⁻ = chlorite (has o…
prefix: -*hypo* ... suffix: - *ite*... Example: ClO⁻ = hypochlorite…
What prefix and suffix do you use when…
prefix: none... suffix: -*ate*... Example: ClO₃⁻ = chlorate (3 oxyg…
What prefix and suffix do you use when…
prefix: -*per*... suffix: -*ate*... Example: ClO₄⁻ = perchlorate (h…
81 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
group 1A
group 2A
group 7A
group 8A
alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
halogens
noble gases
group 1A
alkali metals
group 2A
alkaline earth metals
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
34 terms
Chapter 2 AP Chemistry
John Dalton (1766-1844)
Atomic theory
subatomic particles
cathode rays
He was an English schoolteacher who created the atomic theory.
it consisted of the following four postulates: 1. Each elemen…
particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons that are s…
streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is…
John Dalton (1766-1844)
He was an English schoolteacher who created the atomic theory.
Atomic theory
it consisted of the following four postulates: 1. Each elemen…
47 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
What is a cathode ray?
What are the particles in a cathode ray?
Define radioactivity.
Define beta particle.
A beam of electricity found in a cathode ray tube (CRT).
Negatively charged electrons.
The spontaneous emission of high-energy radiation and particl…
A radioactive emission that is a high-energy electron.
What is a cathode ray?
A beam of electricity found in a cathode ray tube (CRT).
What are the particles in a cathode ray?
Negatively charged electrons.
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
35 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Atomic Masses
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratio of th…
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurri…
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of Definite Proportions
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
55 terms
AP CHEMISTRY: Chapter 2
Element
Pure substance
Molecule
Compound
The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemi…
A type of matter either an element or a compound that has a f…
A structure consisting of two or more atoms that are chemical…
A substance composed of two or more elements that are chemica…
Element
The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemi…
Pure substance
A type of matter either an element or a compound that has a f…
56 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Demokritos and Leucippos
Alchemy
Georg Bauer
Paracelsus
described the term atoms
discovered several elements and learned to prepare the minera…
development of systematic metallurgy
medicinal application of minerals
Demokritos and Leucippos
described the term atoms
Alchemy
discovered several elements and learned to prepare the minera…
15 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of conservation of mass
Law of definite proportion
Law of multiple proportions
Cathode rays
mass is neither created nor destroyed
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
A law stating that when two elements form a series of compoun…
The "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in…
Law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of definite proportion
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Antoine Lavoisier
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Avogadro's Number
father of modern chemistry, Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed,... Combustion involves ox…
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
6.02 x 10^23
Antoine Lavoisier
father of modern chemistry, Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed,... Combustion involves ox…
31 terms
Chapter 2: Ap chemistry
democritus
atomos
Plato and Aristotle
17th century
Greek philosopher that said all matter is made of tiny partic…
indivisible or uncuttable
there can be no ultimately indivisible particles.
when did the notion of the atom reemerge
democritus
Greek philosopher that said all matter is made of tiny partic…
atomos
indivisible or uncuttable
33 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of conservation of mass
Law of multiple proportions
Cathode rays
Millikan's oil drop experiment
The total mass of materials present before a chemical reactio…
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
Streams of electrons, originating at the negative electrode a…
First, small drops of oil are released. Then, they are subjec…
Law of conservation of mass
The total mass of materials present before a chemical reactio…
Law of multiple proportions
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
35 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
atomic weight
cathode rays
electron
nucleus
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurri…
The "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in…
A negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus o…
The small, dense center of positive charge in an atom
atomic weight
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurri…
cathode rays
The "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
History of The Atomic Theory
5 main Atomic theory ideas
Experiment that led to discovery of el…
Millikans oil drop
Formulated by John Dalton in 1808
1. Elements are composed of atoms... 2. All atoms in an element…
Cathode ray tube that directed a ray through magnetic panes a…
Succeeded in measuring the charge of the electron by examinin…
History of The Atomic Theory
Formulated by John Dalton in 1808
5 main Atomic theory ideas
1. Elements are composed of atoms... 2. All atoms in an element…
145 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
atomos
#1 of Dalton's atomic theory
#3 of Dalton's atomic theory
#2 of Dalton's atomic theory
indivisible or uncuttable
each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
the atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a di…
all atoms of a given element are identical to one another in…
atomos
indivisible or uncuttable
#1 of Dalton's atomic theory
each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
27 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
Element
Pure substance
molecule
compound
consists of only one kind of atom
matter whose composition is fixed
an independent structural unit consisting of two or more atom…
type of matter composed of two or more different elements tha…
Element
consists of only one kind of atom
Pure substance
matter whose composition is fixed
76 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
John Dalton
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Joseph Gay-Lussac
Avogadro's Hypothesis
Model of the atom called the indivisible sphere because at th…
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms; the a…
Found that 2 volumes of hydrogen react with one volume oxygen…
At the same temperature and pressure; equal volumes of differ…
John Dalton
Model of the atom called the indivisible sphere because at th…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms; the a…
37 terms
Chapter 2 AP chemistry
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Cathode rays
"In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destro…
"All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source…
"When two elements form two different compounds, the masses o…
A stream of elections produced when a high electrical voltage…
Law of Conservation of Mass
"In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destro…
Law of Definite Proportions
"All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source…
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's Atomic Theory 1
Dalton's Atomic Theory 2
Dalton's Atomic Theory 3
Dalton's Atomic Theory 4
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms
The atoms of a given element are identical, atoms of differen…
Chemical compounds are formed when atoms combine with each ot…
Chemical reactions involve reorganizations of the atoms. The…
Dalton's Atomic Theory 1
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms
Dalton's Atomic Theory 2
The atoms of a given element are identical, atoms of differen…
48 terms
AP Chemistry Chang Chapter 2
Democritus
John Dalton
Atomic theory
Joseph Proust
expressed the belief that matter consists of very small, indi…
made the atomic theory
1) Elements are composed of extremely small particles called…
came up with the law of definite proportions
Democritus
expressed the belief that matter consists of very small, indi…
John Dalton
made the atomic theory
105 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Who came up with the Atomic Theory?
Postulate 1 of Atomic Theory
Postulate 2 of Atomic Theory
Postulate 3 of Atomic Theory
John Dalton
Each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
All atoms of a given element are identical, but the atoms of…
Atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a differ…
Who came up with the Atomic Theory?
John Dalton
Postulate 1 of Atomic Theory
Each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
41 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportions
atomic masses
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
a law stating that when two elemts form a series of compounds…
the weighted averages of isotopes
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
66 terms
AP Biology Chapter 2 Chemistry
Ionic Attraction
Covalent Bond
Hydrogen Bond
Hydrophobic Interaction
Attraction of opposite charges. Bond energy 3-7.
Sharing of electron pairs. Bond energy 50-110.
Sharing of H atom. Bond energy 3-7
Interaction of nonpolar substances in the presence of polar s…
Ionic Attraction
Attraction of opposite charges. Bond energy 3-7.
Covalent Bond
Sharing of electron pairs. Bond energy 50-110.
33 terms
AP Chemistry Test Chapter 2
Diatomic Molecules
Diatomic mnemonic
Acetate
Carbonate
H2, N2, F2,O2,I2,Cl2, Br2
Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer
Ch3COO-
CO3-2
Diatomic Molecules
H2, N2, F2,O2,I2,Cl2, Br2
Diatomic mnemonic
Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer
88 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
empirical Formula
atomic mass unit
atom
amu
ratio of the molecular formula
unit of mass used to mea
a small dense positive nucleus surrounded by a negative elect…
individual atom
empirical Formula
ratio of the molecular formula
atomic mass unit
unit of mass used to mea
16 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
What is the law of conservation of mas…
What is radioactivity
What is the mass number of an atom
What are isotopes
The total mass of substances before and after a chemical reac…
spontaneous emission of radioactivity by an atom. there are t…
total number of neutrons and protons
atoms with the same number of protons but varying masses base…
What is the law of conservation of mas…
The total mass of substances before and after a chemical reac…
What is radioactivity
spontaneous emission of radioactivity by an atom. there are t…
29 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Which of the following is the smallest…
Which pair of substances could be used…
All laments of a given element have th…
Which type of formula provides the mos…
electron
b
b
structural
Which of the following is the smallest…
electron
Which pair of substances could be used…
b
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