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Study sets matching "ap chemistry exam"

43 terms
AP Chemistry Molecular Geometries
molecular geometries
180 degrees
120 degrees
109.5 degrees
________ __________ are subsets of electron domain geometries.
Angle for: linear electron domain
Angle for: trigonal planar electron domain
Angle for: tetrahedral electron domain
molecular geometries
________ __________ are subsets of electron domain geometries.
180 degrees
Angle for: linear electron domain
29 terms
Polyatomics AP Chemistry
Ammonium
Acetate
Bromate
Perchlorate
NH4+
C2H3O2-
BrO3-
ClO4-
Ammonium
NH4+
Acetate
C2H3O2-
26 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 8
bond energy
ionic bonding
ionic compound
Coulomb's Law
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal t…
E = 2.31 x 10^-19 (Q1Q2 / r) where E is the energy of interac…
bond energy
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
ionic bonding
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
28 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 10
condensed states
intermolecular forces
dipole-dipole attraction
hydrogen bonding
liquids and solids
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
the attraction force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among m…
condensed states
liquids and solids
intermolecular forces
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
36 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 7
electromagnetic radiation
wavelength
frequency
Planck's constant
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behaviour and travels t…
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given poi…
the constant relating the change in energy for a system to th…
electromagnetic radiation
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behaviour and travels t…
wavelength
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
99 terms
AP Chemistry - Physical Chemistry
law of mass action
specific reaction, temperature of the…
K(p)
K(sp)
also called the equilibrium expression; law that says that th…
value of the equilibrium constant depends on _ _ _ _ and _ _…
equilibrium constant for the partial pressures of gases
equilibrium constant for solubility product
law of mass action
also called the equilibrium expression; law that says that th…
specific reaction, temperature of the…
value of the equilibrium constant depends on _ _ _ _ and _ _…
50 terms
AP Chemistry
What is a solution?
What is a solvent?
What is a solute?
How do you find the empirical formula…
A homogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances that…
The substance present in the largest quantity by volume, usua…
The substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
First, determine mol by dividing the percent comp or mass of…
What is a solution?
A homogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances that…
What is a solvent?
The substance present in the largest quantity by volume, usua…
16 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 10
Condensed states
Intermolecular forces
Dipole-dipole forces
Hydrogen bonding
Liquids and solids
Relatively weak interaction that occur between molecules
The attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
Unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among m…
Condensed states
Liquids and solids
Intermolecular forces
Relatively weak interaction that occur between molecules
37 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 7
Electromagnetic radiaion
Wavelength
Frequency
Plank's constant
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels th…
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given poi…
the constant relating the change in energy for a... system to th…
Electromagnetic radiaion
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels th…
Wavelength
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
17 terms
AP Chemistry acids
Hf
HCI
HBr
H2S
Hydrofluoric acid
hydrochloric acid
Hydrobromic acid
hydrosulfuric acid
Hf
Hydrofluoric acid
HCI
hydrochloric acid
15 terms
AP Chemistry- Gas Laws
1 atm = ______ kPA
1 atm = ______ mmHg
1 atm = ______ torr
Boyle's Law
101.3
760
760
P₁V₁=P₂V₂... - pressure and volume are inversely proportional
1 atm = ______ kPA
101.3
1 atm = ______ mmHg
760
88 terms
AP Chemistry Summer Work
matter
property
element
atom
Anything that has mass and occupies space
A characteristic useful for identifying a substance or object
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an ele…
matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
property
A characteristic useful for identifying a substance or object
19 terms
Bond Angles (AP Chemistry)
2 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
3 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
4 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
5 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
Linear, 180 °
Trigonal planar, 120 °
Tetrahedral, 109.5 °
Trigonal bipyramidal, 90 ° and 120 °
2 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
Linear, 180 °
3 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
Trigonal planar, 120 °
26 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 6
energy
law of conservation of energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
the capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
energy due to position or composition
energy due to the motion of an object; 1/2 mv2
energy
the capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
law of conservation of energy
energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
61 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Number of Electrons: 2
Number of Electrons: 3
Number of Electrons: 4
Number of Electrons: 5
Linear (180°)
Trigonal Planar (120°)
Tetrahedral (109.5°)
Trigonal Bipyramidal (120° and 90°)
Number of Electrons: 2
Linear (180°)
Number of Electrons: 3
Trigonal Planar (120°)
50 terms
AP Chemistry
What is a solution?
What is a solvent?
What is a solute?
How do you find the empirical formula…
A homogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances that…
The substance present in the largest quantity by volume, usua…
The substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
First, determine mol by dividing the percent comp or mass of…
What is a solution?
A homogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances that…
What is a solvent?
The substance present in the largest quantity by volume, usua…
50 terms
Chemistry Elements - AP Chemistry
Aluminum
Argon
Barium
Beryllium
Al
Ar
Ba
Be
Aluminum
Al
Argon
Ar
26 terms
AP Chemistry: IMF
Molecular Solids
Atomic Solids
Ionic Solids
Covalent Network Solids
Lattices composed of molecules are held in place by London fo…
Individual atoms are held in place by London forces. Ex: nobl…
Lattices composed of ions are held together by the attraction…
Covalent bonds join atoms together in the crystal lattice, wh…
Molecular Solids
Lattices composed of molecules are held in place by London fo…
Atomic Solids
Individual atoms are held in place by London forces. Ex: nobl…
67 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
energy released
energy absorbed
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
bonds formed; exothermic
bonds broken; endothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
40 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 11
Molarity
Mass percent
Mole fraction
Molality
Moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture
The ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mi…
The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a so…
Molarity
Moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
Mass percent
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture
10 terms
AP Chemistry Functional Groups
Methane
Ethane
Amide
Ketone
Methane
Ethane
10 terms
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
a molecule that has two poles, or regi…
the permanent charges in a covalent bo…
type of intermolecular attraction in w…
The intermolecular attractions resulti…
polar molecule
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regi…
polar molecule
the permanent charges in a covalent bo…
dipole moment
29 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodynamic Conceptuals
State function
Examples of state functions
C) q is negative, w is positive (becau…
C) delta E = 35 kJ
A function that depends only on the initial and final states…
elevation, pressure, volume, temperature, internal energy, en…
Which of the following statements correctly describes the sig…
For a particular process q=20 kJ and w=15 kJ. Which of the fo…
State function
A function that depends only on the initial and final states…
Examples of state functions
elevation, pressure, volume, temperature, internal energy, en…
30 terms
AP Chemistry #4
Rate Law
How is the the rate of a reaction desc…
How is the rate law represented?
The greater the value of a reactant's…
describes the dependence of the initial rate of reaction on t…
In terms of the rate of appearance of a product or the rate o…
using concentrations of the reactants
... the more a change in the concentration of that reactant w…
Rate Law
describes the dependence of the initial rate of reaction on t…
How is the the rate of a reaction desc…
In terms of the rate of appearance of a product or the rate o…
14 terms
AP Chemistry chapter 3
Stoichiometry
Chemical equation
Reactants
Products
The study of the quantitative relationships between chemical…
Shows the number of atoms and elements on each side of the eq…
Balance equations by placing coefficients in front of, this i…
Balance equations by placing coefficients in front of, this i…
Stoichiometry
The study of the quantitative relationships between chemical…
Chemical equation
Shows the number of atoms and elements on each side of the eq…
37 terms
AP Chemistry: Thermochemistry
energy
thermodynamics
law of conservation of energy
potential energy, PE
capacity to do work or produce heat
study of energy & its interconversions
energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
energy due to position or composition
energy
capacity to do work or produce heat
thermodynamics
study of energy & its interconversions
43 terms
AP Chemistry-Naming Cations
Ammonium
Cesium
Copper (I)
Copper (II)
NH₄⁺
Cs⁺
Cu⁺
Cu²⁺
Ammonium
NH₄⁺
Cesium
Cs⁺
45 terms
AP Chemistry #5
Temperature
Heat
Heat transfer
Energy transfer through work
measurement of the average kinetic energy of a substance
the total energy die to the molecule motions in a substance
The heat will transfer form the object with the higher temper…
if someone outside of a container is turning a shaft, work, w…
Temperature
measurement of the average kinetic energy of a substance
Heat
the total energy die to the molecule motions in a substance
9 terms
AP Chemistry Chpt 18: Nuclear Chemistry
alpha particle
beta particle
positron particle
electron capture
4... 2 He
0... -1
0... +1 e
0... -1 e (its on the other side)
alpha particle
4... 2 He
beta particle
0... -1
34 terms
AP Chemistry
Acetate
Chlorate
Chlorite
cyanide
C₂H₃O₂⁻
ClO₃⁻
ClO₂⁻
CN⁻
Acetate
C₂H₃O₂⁻
Chlorate
ClO₃⁻
20 terms
AP Chemistry: Molarity and Dilution
10 grams of NaOH in 1.5 L of soln.
40 grams of H₂SO₄ in 220 mL of soln.
60 grams of KCl in 1.1 L of soln.
4 grams of NaNO₃ in 30 mL of soln.
.167 M
1.85 M
.73 M
1.57 M
10 grams of NaOH in 1.5 L of soln.
.167 M
40 grams of H₂SO₄ in 220 mL of soln.
1.85 M
29 terms
AP Chemistry Rxns and Solns
solution
solvent
solute
electrolyte
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
substance that does the dissolving
substance that is dissolved
substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions
solution
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
substance that does the dissolving
245 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
243 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
245 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
23 terms
AP Biology - basic chemistry Review
hydrogen bond
matter
compound
element
slight attraction between Hydrogen of one atom and N, F, or O…
anything that has mass and takes up space
substance consisting of two or more elements
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by c…
hydrogen bond
slight attraction between Hydrogen of one atom and N, F, or O…
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
155 terms
AP Chemistry
protons
nuetrons
neutrons+protons (protons+neutrons)
6.022x10^23
determines element
determines isotope
equation to find mass number
mole quantity
protons
determines element
nuetrons
determines isotope
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chpt 22: Organic Chemistry
Alkane
Alkene
Cis alkene
Trans-alkene
has a C-C single bond
has a C=C single bond
R-group on same side of double bond
R-group on opposite sides of the double bond
Alkane
has a C-C single bond
Alkene
has a C=C single bond
27 terms
AP Chemistry
Borate
Chromate
Dichromate
Permanganate
Borate
Chromate
45 terms
AP Chemistry VSEPR, Ismail.
What does the shape depend on?
What does VSEPER predict?
The shape of the molecule is used to d…
Linear (bonded pairs and lone pairs an…
The valence electrons surrounding the central atom.
Electron pairs around an atom will be as far as possible.
The repulsive interaction between electrons
Bonded Pairs: 2 ... Lone Pairs: 0 or 3... Angle: 180
What does the shape depend on?
The valence electrons surrounding the central atom.
What does VSEPER predict?
Electron pairs around an atom will be as far as possible.
27 terms
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 6
Energy
Law of conservation of energy
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
The capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
Energy due to position or composition
Energy due to the motion of an object; dependent on the mass…
Energy
The capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
26 terms
AP Chemistry: Molecular Geometry
linear
trigonal planar
bent (1 lone pair)
tetrahedral
bond angles: 180º... hybridization: sp
bond angles: 120º... hybridization: sp²
bond angles: <120º... hybridization: sp²
bond angles: 109.5º... hybridization: sp³
linear
bond angles: 180º... hybridization: sp
trigonal planar
bond angles: 120º... hybridization: sp²
29 terms
AP Biology - Basic Chemistry
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Atom
Structure of an Atom
Ion
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
The most basic unit of matter; the smallest particle of an el…
Consists of mostly empty space; Protons (+) and neutrons (0)…
An atom with a positive or negative electric charge
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
Atom
The most basic unit of matter; the smallest particle of an el…
24 terms
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 4
Molarity
Standard Solutions
Dilution
Precipitation Reaction
Moles of solute per volume of solutions in liters
A solution whose concentration is accurately known
The process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of s…
A reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separate…
Molarity
Moles of solute per volume of solutions in liters
Standard Solutions
A solution whose concentration is accurately known
167 terms
AP Chemistry
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
molecular formula
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
actual formula for a substance
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
percent composition
mass of element / mass of compound
50 terms
AP Chemistry
ammonium
acetate
hydroxide
copper (II)
ammonium
acetate
20 terms
AP Chemistry
Solubility Rules
Common Ions
***Common Ions Continued...
cations
All nitrates are soluble... All ammonium compounds are soluble... A…
Group 1 forms +1 ions... Group 2 forms +2 ions... Group 16 forms -2…
NH4^+1 = ammonium ion
positively charged ions
Solubility Rules
All nitrates are soluble... All ammonium compounds are soluble... A…
Common Ions
Group 1 forms +1 ions... Group 2 forms +2 ions... Group 16 forms -2…
11 terms
AP Chemistry
Wave
Wavelength (λ)
Frequency (ν)
Wave Speed
a vibrating disturbance by which energy is transmitted
the distance between identical points on successive waves. Ex…
the number of waves that pass through a particular point in o…
depends on the type of wave and the nature of the media throu…
Wave
a vibrating disturbance by which energy is transmitted
Wavelength (λ)
the distance between identical points on successive waves. Ex…
167 terms
AP Chemistry
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
molecular formula
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
actual formula for a substance
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
percent composition
mass of element / mass of compound
9 terms
AP Chemistry
isotope
salt
pH scale
amine
Atoms with the same numbers of protons and different numbers…
An ionic compound.
A log scale based on 10 and equal to -log[H+]; a convenient w…
An organic base derived from ammonia in which one of more of…
isotope
Atoms with the same numbers of protons and different numbers…
salt
An ionic compound.
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