Study sets matching "ap chemistry exam"

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Study sets matching "ap chemistry exam"

31 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 1
Chemisty
Two Fundamental Concepts of Chemisty
Scientific Method
Observations
the scientific study of matter and the changes that it underg…
- mater is composed of various types of atoms... - one substanc…
a method of investigation involving experimentation and obser…
gathered and organized data on the problem
Chemisty
the scientific study of matter and the changes that it underg…
Two Fundamental Concepts of Chemisty
- mater is composed of various types of atoms... - one substanc…
63 terms
AP Biology: Chemistry of Life
Element(s)
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
Trace (Elements)
Compound(s)
___ are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler su…
although there are 92 natural elements, 96% of the mass of al…
the other elements that compose 4% of the mass of all organis…
when two or more DIFFERENT types of atoms are combined in a f…
Element(s)
___ are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler su…
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
although there are 92 natural elements, 96% of the mass of al…
30 terms
AP Chemistry Common Polyatomic Anions
Acetate Ion
Carbonate Ion
Chlorate Ion
Chlorite Ion
C2H3O2 -1
CO3 -2
ClO3 -1
ClO2 -1
Acetate Ion
C2H3O2 -1
Carbonate Ion
CO3 -2
51 terms
AP Biology Chemistry
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
AP Chemistry - Chapter 10
Condensed states
Intermolecular forces
Dipole-dipole forces
Hydrogen bonding
Liquids and solids
Relatively weak interaction that occur between molecules
The attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
Unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among m…
Condensed states
Liquids and solids
Intermolecular forces
Relatively weak interaction that occur between molecules
100 terms
AP Chemistry Midterm Review
sublimation
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
solid to gas
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
sublimation
solid to gas
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
25 terms
Pre-AP Chemistry Lab Equipment
beaker
beaker tongs
bunsen burner
buret clamp
general purpose glass container for mixing and heating; the w…
used when moving hot glass containers with straight sides
heating source fueled by flammable gas
used during titrations to hold the buret
beaker
general purpose glass container for mixing and heating; the w…
beaker tongs
used when moving hot glass containers with straight sides
19 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Bonding
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
metallic bond
when two atoms or ions are strongly attracted to each other
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
the sharing of electrons between two atoms
occur in metals; each atom in a metal is bonded to several ne…
chemical bond
when two atoms or ions are strongly attracted to each other
ionic bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
AP Chemistry- Gas Laws
1 atm = ______ kPA
1 atm = ______ mmHg
1 atm = ______ torr
Boyle's Law
101.3
760
760
P₁V₁=P₂V₂... - pressure and volume are inversely proportional
1 atm = ______ kPA
101.3
1 atm = ______ mmHg
760
28 terms
AP Chemistry - Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportions
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Law that states that in an experiment/reaction, there will be…
Compounds have a constant composition - Atoms react in specif…
When 2 elements form 1 or more compound, ratios of the masses…
1. Elements are made up of atoms.... 2. Atoms of each element ar…
Conservation of Mass
Law that states that in an experiment/reaction, there will be…
Law of Definite Proportion
Compounds have a constant composition - Atoms react in specif…
AP Chemistry Polyatomic ions
Ammonium
Acetate
Bromate
Perchlorate
NH4 +
C2H3O2 -
BrO3 -
ClO4 -
Ammonium
NH4 +
Acetate
C2H3O2 -
23 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 3
stoichiometry
chemical equations
reactants
products
is the area of study that examines the quantities of substanc…
what we use to represent chemical reactions
the chemical formula to the left of the arrow represent the s…
the chemical formulas to the right arrow represent substances…
stoichiometry
is the area of study that examines the quantities of substanc…
chemical equations
what we use to represent chemical reactions
22 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 1
Matter
Atoms
Molecules
Gas
physical material of the universe, anything that has mass or…
small building blocks of matter
two or more atoms joined in a SPECIFIC shape
-no fixed volume... -no fixed shape... -molecules move fast... -molecu…
Matter
physical material of the universe, anything that has mass or…
Atoms
small building blocks of matter
19 terms
Bond Angles (AP Chemistry)
2 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
3 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
4 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
5 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
Linear, 180 °
Trigonal planar, 120 °
Tetrahedral, 109.5 °
Trigonal bipyramidal, 90 ° and 120 °
2 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
Linear, 180 °
3 bond pairs, 0 lone pairs
Trigonal planar, 120 °
AP Chemistry Big Idea #4
reaction rate
increase
increase
increase
change in concentration over time.
increase concentration, ________ reaction rate
increase temperature, _____ reaction rate
increase surface area, _____ reactionary
reaction rate
change in concentration over time.
increase
increase concentration, ________ reaction rate
18 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Equilibrium
concentration
heterogeneous
constant
diverse in content.
Equilibrium
concentration
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Ray
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
Particles existing that are smaller than an atom
Radiation that is produced between electrodes when high amoun…
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
35 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 13
component
solvent
solutes
aqueous solutions
each of the substances in a solution
normally the component present in the greatest amount
components within solution that are in lesser amounts than ot…
solutions that contain water as a solvent and a gas, liquid,…
component
each of the substances in a solution
solvent
normally the component present in the greatest amount
30 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry AP
Bond Energy
Ionic Bond (Definition)
Covalent Bond (Definition)
Metallic Bond (Definition)
Energy required to break a bond
electrostatic attraction between ions
sharing of electrons
Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms
Bond Energy
Energy required to break a bond
Ionic Bond (Definition)
electrostatic attraction between ions
AP Chemistry - Chapter 11
Molarity
Mass percent
Mole fraction
Molality
Moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture
The ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mi…
The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a so…
Molarity
Moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
Mass percent
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture
AP Chemistry - Chapter 9
Hybridization
sp³ hybridization
Hybrid orbitals
sp² hybridization
A mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
Four orbitals of equal energy and strength formed from one 's…
A set of atomic orbitals on a given atom to form special atom…
Three orbitals of equal energy and strength formed from one '…
Hybridization
A mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form speci…
sp³ hybridization
Four orbitals of equal energy and strength formed from one 's…
AP Chemistry : Chapter 1
Chemistry
Matter
Property
Elements
study of matter (such as the changes it undergoes, properties…
• physical material of universe... • has mass and occupies space
any characteristic that allows recognition to a particular ty…
substances that compose matter
Chemistry
study of matter (such as the changes it undergoes, properties…
Matter
• physical material of universe... • has mass and occupies space
AP Chemistry Big Idea #6
When solving for equilibrium, omit ___…
Kp
Ksp
When external pressure is increased, t…
Solids and liquids
Partial Pressure constant
Solubility product
Shift to the side with fewer gas molecules
When solving for equilibrium, omit ___…
Solids and liquids
Kp
Partial Pressure constant
AP Biology - Chemistry Review
matter
element
atom
saturated
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
The smallest component of an element having the chemical prop…
Fat with the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of it…
matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
AP Chemistry: Chapter 1
4 rules for determining sig figs
Adding/subtracting sig figs
Multiplying/dividing sig figs
Law of Conservation of Mass
1. All non zeros are significant ... 2. Captive zeros are signif…
Answer should have the same number of decimal places as the c…
Answer must have the same number of sig figs as the component…
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
4 rules for determining sig figs
1. All non zeros are significant ... 2. Captive zeros are signif…
Adding/subtracting sig figs
Answer should have the same number of decimal places as the c…
39 terms
Chapter 9 AP Chemistry
bond angles
AB(n)
Importance of the n in AB(n)
AB2 molecule shapes
determine the shape of the molecules based off of the angles…
the general formula of of molecules where A is the central at…
n determines the number of shapes possible for that molecule
-either a linear (bond angle =180) or bent (bond angle not 180)
bond angles
determine the shape of the molecules based off of the angles…
AB(n)
the general formula of of molecules where A is the central at…
447 terms
AP Chemistry - Memorization
proton
electron
neutron
nucleus
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative…
an elementary particle with negative charge
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to…
the positively charged dense center of an atom
proton
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative…
electron
an elementary particle with negative charge
AP Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
H₂PO₄⁻
HSO₃⁻
HSO₄⁻
HCO₃⁻
Dihydrogen Phosphate
Hydrogen Sulfite
Hydrogen Sulfate
Hydrogen Carbonate
H₂PO₄⁻
Dihydrogen Phosphate
HSO₃⁻
Hydrogen Sulfite
88 terms
AP Chemistry - Unit 1
CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Significant Figures
Accuracy vs. Precision
...
-Quantitative is numbers, Qualitative are words;... -Data using…
All of the digits in a measurement except proceeding zeros
-The degree of closeness between the measured value and the t…
CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS
...
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
-Quantitative is numbers, Qualitative are words;... -Data using…
31 terms
Unit 4 AP Chemistry
normal electron configuration
lose valence shell s electrons, then d…
mu= (Charge in terms of e (Q) x Distan…
Valence - 0.5 bonding - non-bonding
electron configuration of transition metal ions
Dipole moment calculation
Formal Charge calculation
normal electron configuration
lose valence shell s electrons, then d…
electron configuration of transition metal ions
47 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 5
energy
work
heat
kinetic energy
the capacity to do work or transfer heat
the energy used to cause an object with mass to move against…
the energy used to cause a temperature of an object to increa…
energy of motion
energy
the capacity to do work or transfer heat
work
the energy used to cause an object with mass to move against…
AP Chemistry: Chapter 13
chemical kinetics
reaction rate
fast rate
slow rate
the study of how things that happen on a molecular level over…
a measure of how fast a reaction occurs
large fraction of molecules react to form products in a given…
small amount of molecules react to form products in a given p…
chemical kinetics
the study of how things that happen on a molecular level over…
reaction rate
a measure of how fast a reaction occurs
13 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 15
chemical equilibrium
equilibrium state
equilibrium mixture
reversible
type of dynamic equilibrium that occurs when the opposing rea…
state in which a mixture of reactants and products reaches a…
A mixture of reactants and products in the equilibrium state
describes chemical reactions in which the products can form r…
chemical equilibrium
type of dynamic equilibrium that occurs when the opposing rea…
equilibrium state
state in which a mixture of reactants and products reaches a…
28 terms
Unit 3 AP Chemistry
10^-9 m
10^-10 m
10^-6 m
speed of light
nanometer
angstrom
micrometer
c =
10^-9 m
nanometer
10^-10 m
angstrom
AP Chemistry: Chapter 4
Aqueous Solution
Solvent
Solute(s)
Electrolyte
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium
The substance present in the greatest quantity; the substance…
The other substances; the substances that are being dissolved…
A substance(such as NaCl) whose aqueous solutions contain ions
Aqueous Solution
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium
Solvent
The substance present in the greatest quantity; the substance…
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
15 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 19
chemical thermodynamics
spontaneous process
reversible process
irreversible process
the area of chemistry that deals with energy relationships
a process that proceeds on its own without any outside assist…
process in which a system is changed in such a way that the s…
process that cannot simply be reversed to restore the system…
chemical thermodynamics
the area of chemistry that deals with energy relationships
spontaneous process
a process that proceeds on its own without any outside assist…
56 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Dalton's atomic theory
atoms
law of constant composition
law of conservation of mass
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical ide…
law that states that in a given compound, the relative number…
law that states that the total mass of materials present afte…
Dalton's atomic theory
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
atoms
smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical ide…
18 terms
AP Chemistry: Kinetics
Zeroth order integrated rate law
First order integrated rate law
Second order integrated rate law
First order rate law for half life
Zeroth order integrated rate law
First order integrated rate law
27 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 10
Dipole-Dipole Attraction
Hydrogen Bonding
London Dispersion Forces
Surface Tension
- Occurs within polar molecules (molecules that have uneven c…
- A type of dipole-dipole attraction... - Given its own name due…
- Experienced by all substances... - Occurs within everything, e…
The resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area
Dipole-Dipole Attraction
- Occurs within polar molecules (molecules that have uneven c…
Hydrogen Bonding
- A type of dipole-dipole attraction... - Given its own name due…
35 terms
AP Chemistry Unit 1
precision vs. accuracy
density
mixtures: homogeneous vs. heterogeneous
solution
mass/volume
homogeneous: having visibly indistinguishable parts... heteroge…
homogeneous mixture
precision vs. accuracy
density
mass/volume
80 terms
AP Chemistry Unit 1
Aufbau Principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Hund's Rule
Isoelectronic
Lowest energy orbitals are filled first
Orbitals can only contain a maximum of 2 electrons & when 2 e…
When orbitals of identical energy (degenerate) are available…
Atoms, ions, or molecules that have the same number of electr…
Aufbau Principle
Lowest energy orbitals are filled first
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Orbitals can only contain a maximum of 2 electrons & when 2 e…
AP Chemistry Midterm Vocab
matter
pure substances
element
compound
pure substances or mixtures
elements or compounds
substances where all atoms have the same number of protons (f…
relatively stable combination of 2 or more chemically bonded…
matter
pure substances or mixtures
pure substances
elements or compounds
11 terms
AP Chemistry
Wave
Wavelength (λ)
Frequency (ν)
Wave Speed
a vibrating disturbance by which energy is transmitted
the distance between identical points on successive waves. Ex…
the number of waves that pass through a particular point in o…
depends on the type of wave and the nature of the media throu…
Wave
a vibrating disturbance by which energy is transmitted
Wavelength (λ)
the distance between identical points on successive waves. Ex…
AP Chemistry Color
Ag2CO3
BaCO3
CuCO3
CaCO3
yellow
white
pale blue
white
Ag2CO3
yellow
BaCO3
white
AP Chemistry
Acetate
Chlorate
Chlorite
cyanide
C₂H₃O₂⁻
ClO₃⁻
ClO₂⁻
CN⁻
Acetate
C₂H₃O₂⁻
Chlorate
ClO₃⁻
19 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 8
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
metallic bond
occurs whenever two atoms or ions are strongly attached to on…
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite char…
force that exists from the sharing of electrons between two n…
force that exists in metals in which each atom is bonded to s…
chemical bond
occurs whenever two atoms or ions are strongly attached to on…
ionic bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite char…
AP Chemistry Solution Vocab
solution
solvent
solute
electrolyte
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
substance that does the dissolving
substance that is dissolved
substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions
solution
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
substance that does the dissolving
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2
Atomic Theory
Law of constant composition(helped exp…
Law of conservation of mass(helped exp…
Law of multiple proportions(helped exp…
Came from John Dalton during the period from 1803... Based on 4…
4th postulate:... In a given compound, the relative numbers and…
3rd postulate:... The total mass of materials present after a ch…
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
Atomic Theory
Came from John Dalton during the period from 1803... Based on 4…
Law of constant composition(helped exp…
4th postulate:... In a given compound, the relative numbers and…
30 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 6
electronic structure
electromagnetic radiation
wavelength
frequency
arrangements of electrons in atoms;... refers to number of elect…
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel…
distance between two adjacent peaks (or troughs)
number of complete wavelengths (or cycles) that pass a given…
electronic structure
arrangements of electrons in atoms;... refers to number of elect…
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel…
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