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Study sets matching "ap chemistry exam"

119 terms
AP Chemistry
London dispersion forces
dipole-dipole forces
hydrogen bonding
intermolecular forces
IMF: present between all molecules and increases with larger…
IMF: caused by significant differences in electronegativities
IMF: the strongest of all 3 types of IMFs and in play when di…
forces between molecules caused when the negative end of a di…
London dispersion forces
IMF: present between all molecules and increases with larger…
dipole-dipole forces
IMF: caused by significant differences in electronegativities
36 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Thermochemistry
thermodynamics
thermochemistry
kinetic energy
potential energy
the study of energy and its transformations
the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
the energy that an object possesses by virtue of its motion
the energy that an object possesses as a result of its compos…
thermodynamics
the study of energy and its transformations
thermochemistry
the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
167 terms
AP Chemistry
periods
groups
avogadro's number
1 atm, 273 K
horizontal rows of the periodic table
vertical columns of the periodic table
describes how many atoms are in a single mole of any given el…
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
periods
horizontal rows of the periodic table
groups
vertical columns of the periodic table
28 terms
AP Chemistry: Bonding
Bent
Bent
Tetrahedral
Octahedral
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
Nonpolar... sp3... 109.5 degrees
Nonpolar... Sp3d2... 90 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
45 terms
Pre-AP Chemistry Final
How do you calculate the molar mass of…
What is needed to convert moles of a s…
What is needed to convert atoms to mol…
State the law of conservation of mass.
You add all of the masses together.
Moles to Mass = Multiply by Molar Mass
Divide by Avogadro's number
Mass cannot be created or destroyed; only changed.
How do you calculate the molar mass of…
You add all of the masses together.
What is needed to convert moles of a s…
Moles to Mass = Multiply by Molar Mass
57 terms
AP Chemistry Big Idea #1 More
Molecules in a mole
PV=
Gas constant R
Molarity
6.022 x 10²³
nRT
.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Moles/Liters of solution
Molecules in a mole
6.022 x 10²³
PV=
nRT
33 terms
AP Chemistry Bonding (Ch 8)
Bond energy
Ionic bonding
Ionic compound
Coulomb's law
Energy required to break bond (shows strength of bond)
An atom that loses an electron easily plus an atom with high…
Metal react with non-metal
Energy of interaction between 2 ions is calculated with this…
Bond energy
Energy required to break bond (shows strength of bond)
Ionic bonding
An atom that loses an electron easily plus an atom with high…
AP CHEMISTRY
Type 2 Cations
Fe3+
Fe2+
Cu2+
...
Iron (III)
Iron (II)
Copper (II)
Type 2 Cations
...
Fe3+
Iron (III)
41 terms
AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
Formation of (an) Ether(s)
Ketone(s): polarity
Alcohol Oxidation(s) secondary →
Alkene(s)
bond two alcohols together by removing the water with a dehyd…
Polar (double-bonded O)
Alcohol Oxidations ( )→ketone
double bond, C(n)H(2n), unsaturated
Formation of (an) Ether(s)
bond two alcohols together by removing the water with a dehyd…
Ketone(s): polarity
Polar (double-bonded O)
43 terms
AP Chemistry Concepts
Linear Molecule
Trigonal Planar Molecule
Bent Trigonal Planar Molecule
Tetrahedral Molecule
Bond Angle: 180... Hybridization: sp
Bond Angle: 120... Hybridization: sp²
Bond Angle: 109.5... Hybridization: sp³
Linear Molecule
Bond Angle: 180... Hybridization: sp
Trigonal Planar Molecule
Bond Angle: 120... Hybridization: sp²
56 terms
01 - Cliffs AP Bio - Chemistry
Proton - Positive... Neutron - Neutral... El…
Molecule
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
What are the three components of the atom and their charges?
What is the term used to describe groups of two or more atoms…
What is the term used to describe a bond that forms between t…
What is the term used to describe a bond in which electrons a…
Proton - Positive... Neutron - Neutral... El…
What are the three components of the atom and their charges?
Molecule
What is the term used to describe groups of two or more atoms…
12 terms
AP Chemistry
H2C2O4
HBrO3
HBr
HNO2
Oxalic acid
Bromic acid
Hydrogen bromide
Nitrous acid
H2C2O4
Oxalic acid
HBrO3
Bromic acid
22 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 1
Matter
Atoms
Molecules
Gas
physical material of the universe, anything that has mass or…
small building blocks of matter
two or more atoms joined in a SPECIFIC shape
-no fixed volume... -no fixed shape... -molecules move fast... -molecu…
Matter
physical material of the universe, anything that has mass or…
Atoms
small building blocks of matter
AP Chemistry
Hg2^2+
NH4+
NO2-
NO3-
Mercury (1)
Ammonimum
Nitrite
Nitrate
Hg2^2+
Mercury (1)
NH4+
Ammonimum
AP Chemistry Ch. 16 - Jamerlan
Acid (Brønsted-Lowry)
Base (Brønsted-Lowry)
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
Auto-ionization (water)
Proton donor
Proton Acceptor
Two species that differ by the presence/absence of a proton
Produces small quantities of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions
Acid (Brønsted-Lowry)
Proton donor
Base (Brønsted-Lowry)
Proton Acceptor
17 terms
AP Chemistry: 12: Nuclear Chemistry
Strong (Nuclear Force)
83
α (Alpha Decay)
Electron (Emission)
the nucleus of an atom is held together by a nonelectrical, n…
elements are naturally radioactive after atomic number ___
in ___, the nucleus emits a particle that has the same consti…
in β⁻ decay, known as ___, the nucleus changes a neutron into…
Strong (Nuclear Force)
the nucleus of an atom is held together by a nonelectrical, n…
83
elements are naturally radioactive after atomic number ___
83 terms
AP Chemistry-Chapter 5
Boltzmann's constant
electron charge
D
K
k=1.38*10⁻²³JK⁻¹
e=-1.602*10⁻¹⁹ coulomb
m/V
°C + 273
Boltzmann's constant
k=1.38*10⁻²³JK⁻¹
electron charge
e=-1.602*10⁻¹⁹ coulomb
8 terms
AP Chemistry Big Idea 4: Kinetics
Reaction rates depends on
rate law
rate constant (k)
collision model
1. reactant concentrations... 2. temperature... 3. surface area... 4.…
1. the proportionality constant in the rate law... 2. depends on…
Elementary reactions are mediated... by collisions between molec…
Reaction rates depends on
1. reactant concentrations... 2. temperature... 3. surface area... 4.…
rate law
94 terms
AP Chemistry Ions - All Types
H⁺¹
Li⁺¹
Na⁺¹
K⁺¹
Hydrogen
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
H⁺¹
Hydrogen
Li⁺¹
Lithium
17 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Gases
Pressure
Pascals
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
Boyle's Law
Force per unit area.
The SI unit for pressure.
The typical pressure at sea level, the pressure that can supp…
States that the volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained…
Pressure
Force per unit area.
Pascals
The SI unit for pressure.
10 terms
AP Chemistry
Molecules
Macro-
Intensive property
Extensive property
Two or more atoms joined in specific shapes.
Large
Do not depend on the amount of sample examined
Depend on how much of the sample is examined
Molecules
Two or more atoms joined in specific shapes.
Macro-
Large
19 terms
AP Chemistry Big Idea 1: Atomic Theory
empirical formula
percent composition
mole
Coulomb's law
lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
the mass percent of each element in a compound
the fundamental unit for counting numbers of particles on the…
empirical formula
lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
percent composition
the mass percent of each element in a compound
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Ray
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
Particles existing that are smaller than an atom
Radiation that is produced between electrodes when high amoun…
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass present at the end of a chemical reaction is e…
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of atoms.... 2. All atoms of a given…
34 terms
SPHS AP Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
Ammonium
Hydronium
Acetate
Arsenate
NH₄⁺
H₃O⁺
CH₃COO⁻ or C₂H₃O₂⁻
AsO₄³⁻
Ammonium
NH₄⁺
Hydronium
H₃O⁺
AP Chemistry Gas Laws
Diffusion
Effusion
(Kinetic Molecular Theory) The higher…
(Kinetic Molecular Theory) The higher…
when gas particles go from a high amount of itself to a low a…
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny whole into a evacu…
slower
slower
Diffusion
when gas particles go from a high amount of itself to a low a…
Effusion
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny whole into a evacu…
28 terms
AP Chemistry Big Idea #4
reaction rate
increase
increase
increase
change in concentration over time.
increase concentration, ________ reaction rate
increase temperature, _____ reaction rate
increase surface area, _____ reactionary
reaction rate
change in concentration over time.
increase
increase concentration, ________ reaction rate
31 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Kinetics
chemical kinetics
reaction rate
instantaneous rate
Beer's law
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates at…
the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
the reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the aver…
the light absorbed by a substance (A) equals the product of i…
chemical kinetics
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates at…
reaction rate
the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
53 terms
AP Biology - Chemistry Review
matter
element
atom
saturated
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
The smallest component of an element having the chemical prop…
Fat with the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of it…
matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
30 terms
AP Chemistry Common Polyatomic Anions
Acetate Ion
Carbonate Ion
Chlorate Ion
Chlorite Ion
C2H3O2 -1
CO3 -2
ClO3 -1
ClO2 -1
Acetate Ion
C2H3O2 -1
Carbonate Ion
CO3 -2
80 terms
AP Chemistry
Solvent
Solute
Electrolyte
Nonelectrolyte
Does the dissolving
Gets dissolved
Any substance whose aqueous solution will conduct electricity
Any sugar or any alcohol, doesn't conduct electricity
Solvent
Does the dissolving
Solute
Gets dissolved
64 terms
AP Chemistry Big Idea #2 More
Ionic bonds
State and Boiling/Melting point of ion…
Why are ionic solids poor conductors o…
Why do ionic liquids conduct electrici…
Held together by the electrostatic attractions between ions t…
Solid at room temp... Very high melting and boiling points
Each electron is localized around a particular atom and do no…
The ions are free to move about in the liquid phase
Ionic bonds
Held together by the electrostatic attractions between ions t…
State and Boiling/Melting point of ion…
Solid at room temp... Very high melting and boiling points
18 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 5
gas variables
pressure
temperature
manometer
pressure, volume, temperature, moles
force of gas molecules hitting/colliding with everything... unit…
measure of kinetic energy of a substance... temperature ↑, kinet…
measures pressure of gas... Pgas = Patm + mmHg (air pressure > g…
gas variables
pressure, volume, temperature, moles
pressure
force of gas molecules hitting/colliding with everything... unit…
22 terms
AP Chemistry: 14: Organic Chemistry
Organic (Chemistry)
Hydrocarbon(s)
Alkane(s)
Alkene(s)
___ is the study or carbon compounds
___ are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
___ are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds; they are…
___ are hydrocarbons that contain double bonds; CⁿH²ⁿ
Organic (Chemistry)
___ is the study or carbon compounds
Hydrocarbon(s)
___ are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
77 terms
AP Chemistry
NH₄⁺
Hg₂²⁺
C₂H₃O₂⁻
CH₃O₂⁻
Ammonium Ion
Mercury(I) Mercurous Ion
Acetate Ion
Acetate Ion
NH₄⁺
Ammonium Ion
Hg₂²⁺
Mercury(I) Mercurous Ion
29 terms
AP Chemistry
Boyle's Law
When does K=Q?
One of the few substances that expands…
Temperature
Pressure and volume of gases are inversely related at constan…
The system is at equilibrium and the reaction does not shift…
Water
The average kinetic energy and the speed of the particles
Boyle's Law
Pressure and volume of gases are inversely related at constan…
When does K=Q?
The system is at equilibrium and the reaction does not shift…
19 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry
Mole Ratio
Limiting Reagents
Excess Reagent
The portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships…
A conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanc…
Any reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction; it…
A reagent present in a quantity that is more than sufficient…
Stoichiometry
The portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships…
Mole Ratio
A conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanc…
41 terms
AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
Formation of (an) Ether(s)
Ketone(s): polarity
Alcohol Oxidation(s) secondary →
Alkene(s)
bond two alcohols together by removing the water with a dehyd…
Polar (double-bonded O)
Alcohol Oxidations ( )→ketone
double bond, C(n)H(2n), unsaturated
Formation of (an) Ether(s)
bond two alcohols together by removing the water with a dehyd…
Ketone(s): polarity
Polar (double-bonded O)
31 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Element
Compound
Mixture
Name the diatomic 7
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical chan…
can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes…
...
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Element
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical chan…
Compound
can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes…
37 terms
AP Chemistry Ions - Polyatomic Ions
NH₄⁺¹
NO₂⁻¹
NO₃⁻¹
SO₃⁻²
ammonium
nitrite
nitrate
sulfite
NH₄⁺¹
ammonium
NO₂⁻¹
nitrite
19 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 3
stoichiometry
chemical reactions
reactants
products
area of study that examines the quantities of substances cons…
a concise way of representing chemical reactions
the starting substances in a chemical reaction that are repre…
the substances produced in a chemical reaction that are repre…
stoichiometry
area of study that examines the quantities of substances cons…
chemical reactions
a concise way of representing chemical reactions
22 terms
AP Chemistry
Soluble
Soluble
Soluble
Soluble
All Group I elements and NH4+
All Nitrates (NO3-) , Chlorates (ClO3-) , Perchlorates (ClO4-…
All Chlorides, Bromides, and Iodides EXCEPT Ag, Hg, Pb
All Sulfates EXCEPT Sr, Ba, Pb
Soluble
All Group I elements and NH4+
Soluble
All Nitrates (NO3-) , Chlorates (ClO3-) , Perchlorates (ClO4-…
14 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 11
Mass percent
Mole fraction
Molality
Normality
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture
The ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mi…
The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a so…
The number of equivalents of a substance dissolved in a liter…
Mass percent
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture
Mole fraction
The ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mi…
AP Chemistry: Chapter 1
4 rules for determining sig figs
Adding/subtracting sig figs
Multiplying/dividing sig figs
Law of Conservation of Mass
1. All non zeros are significant ... 2. Captive zeros are signif…
Answer should have the same number of decimal places as the c…
Answer must have the same number of sig figs as the component…
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
4 rules for determining sig figs
1. All non zeros are significant ... 2. Captive zeros are signif…
Adding/subtracting sig figs
Answer should have the same number of decimal places as the c…
58 terms
AP Biology Chemistry
Hydroxyl
Hydroxyl
Hydroxyl
Hydroxyl
Hydrogen atom bonded to oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded…
-OH
Alcohols, names usually end in -ol
Polar, can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping…
Hydroxyl
Hydrogen atom bonded to oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded…
Hydroxyl
-OH
35 terms
AP chemistry chapter 4
Stoichiometry
Limiting reactant
Theoretical yield
Excess reactants
The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quan…
The reactant that makes the least amount of product
The maximum number of product you can make (in perfect condit…
Reactants not completely consumed
Stoichiometry
The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quan…
Limiting reactant
The reactant that makes the least amount of product
88 terms
AP Chemistry - Unit 1
CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Significant Figures
Accuracy vs. Precision
...
-Quantitative is numbers, Qualitative are words;... -Data using…
All of the digits in a measurement except proceeding zeros
-The degree of closeness between the measured value and the t…
CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS
...
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
-Quantitative is numbers, Qualitative are words;... -Data using…
51 terms
APES Chemistry to Energy to Life
Bioremediation
matter
Law of conservation of energy
Law of conservation of matter
The act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microor…
anything that occupies space and has mass
The law that states that energy cannot be created or destroye…
The idea that matter is neither created nor destroyed in only…
Bioremediation
The act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microor…
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
19 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 8
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
metallic bond
occurs whenever two atoms or ions are strongly attached to on…
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite char…
force that exists from the sharing of electrons between two n…
force that exists in metals in which each atom is bonded to s…
chemical bond
occurs whenever two atoms or ions are strongly attached to on…
ionic bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite char…
61 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 9
Number of Electrons: 2
Number of Electrons: 3
Number of Electrons: 4
Number of Electrons: 5
Linear (180°)
Trigonal Planar (120°)
Tetrahedral (109.5°)
Trigonal Bipyramidal (120° and 90°)
Number of Electrons: 2
Linear (180°)
Number of Electrons: 3
Trigonal Planar (120°)
31 terms
AP Chemistry Chpt 12: Kinetics
units for k are M * s⁻¹
[A] = -kt + [A]₀
[A] vs. time straight line plot
t₁/₂ = [A]₀/2k
zero order rxn
integrated rate law for zero order rxn
zero order rxn
half life for zero order rxn
units for k are M * s⁻¹
zero order rxn
[A] = -kt + [A]₀
integrated rate law for zero order rxn
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