Study sets matching "ap chemistry"

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Study sets matching "ap chemistry"

AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
148 terms
AP Chemistry
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
Hydrogen
He
Helium
48 terms
AP Chemistry
Demokritus & Leucippos
What is an Atom?
Alchemists tried...
Robert Boyle
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
to make gold through chemistry
1. first true quantitative experimenter... 2. est. the idea of e…
Demokritus & Leucippos
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
What is an Atom?
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
32 terms
AP CHEMISTRY
John Dalton's atomic theory
Henry Becquerel (1896)
J. J. Thompson (1897)
Goldstein (1886)
1. All matter is made up of atoms (T)... 2. Atoms of a given ele…
Accomplishment: observed radioactive decay of U... Significance…
Accomplishment: discovered electrons by experimenting with th…
While experimenting with Cathode Ray tube, he discovered the…
John Dalton's atomic theory
1. All matter is made up of atoms (T)... 2. Atoms of a given ele…
Henry Becquerel (1896)
Accomplishment: observed radioactive decay of U... Significance…
8 terms
AP Chemistry Organic Chemistry
alcohol
halide
organic acid
amine
O-H bonded to C... polar
halogen bonded to C
carboxyl (COOH) bonded to C chain... acidic
amine (NH2) bonded to C... basic
alcohol
O-H bonded to C... polar
halide
halogen bonded to C
35 terms
AP Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry
radioactivity
radiation
radioisotopes
alpha particle
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
the nuclei of unstable isotopes
particle emitted by a radioactive source that contains two pr…
radioactivity
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
radiation
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
dipole
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
type of molecular attraction in which a hydrogen atom covalen…
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant mo…
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
dipole moment
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
72 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
Ap Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium constant
K>1
Forward reaction
Reverse reaction
k=products-reactants
Forward reaction is favored
Reactants to Products
Products to reactants
Equilibrium constant
k=products-reactants
K>1
Forward reaction is favored
245 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
103 terms
Ap Chemistry
Aluminum
Antimony(III)
Antimony(V)
Barium
Al(3+)
Sb(3+)
Sb(5+)
Ba(2+)
Aluminum
Al(3+)
Antimony(III)
Sb(3+)
51 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
167 terms
AP Chemistry
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
molecular formula
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
actual formula for a substance
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
percent composition
mass of element / mass of compound
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Composition of an atom based + - =
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
Millikan's oil drop
Rutherford's gold-foil
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
...
Small drops of oil w/ eletric charges fell between two electr…
Shot particles through gold-foil and noted the angles which t…
Composition of an atom based + - =
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
...
28 terms
AP Chemistry: Bonding
Bent
Bent
Tetrahedral
Octahedral
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
Nonpolar... sp3... 109.5 degrees
Nonpolar... Sp3d2... 90 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
16 terms
AP Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
acetate
ammonium
bromate
carbonate
acetate
ammonium
AP Chemistry - Exam Review
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Pauli exclusion principle
Hund's rule
Shielding effect
states that it is impossible to know simultaneously the exact…
two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer s…
every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one elect…
describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus…
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is impossible to know simultaneously the exact…
Pauli exclusion principle
two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer s…
26 terms
AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
Activation Energy
Transition State
Activated Complex
Potential Energy Diagram
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
the temporary, unstable substance that forms during the trans…
shows how the energy stored in the bonds of reactants and pro…
Activation Energy
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
Transition State
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
AP Chemistry
Borate
Chromate
Dichromate
Permanganate
Borate
Chromate
73 terms
AP Chemistry: Essential Elements
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
H
Helium
He
27 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 4
solution
solvent
solute
electrolyte
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
substance that does the dissolving
substance that is dissolved
substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions
solution
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
substance that does the dissolving
73 terms
AP Chemistry Final Review
State Symbols
Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas
Oxidation vs. Reduction
Arrhenius Acids and Bases
Solid (s)... Liquid (l)... Gas (g)... Precipitate (s)... Solution (aq)
Ideal: low pressure, high temperature, don't have any attract…
Oxidation: the loss of electrons/atom increases in oxidation…
Acid: Produces H30 by releasing H... Base: Produces OH by releas…
State Symbols
Solid (s)... Liquid (l)... Gas (g)... Precipitate (s)... Solution (aq)
Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas
Ideal: low pressure, high temperature, don't have any attract…
66 terms
AP Chemistry Symbol Flashcards
U
H
He
Li
Uranium
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
U
Uranium
H
Hydrogen
AP Chemistry Chapter 6
Speed of light
Wavelengths from longest to shortest
The four characteristics that describe…
Amplitude of a wave
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Long radio waves, radio waves (AM, FM), microwaves, infrared…
Amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed.
The height of a wave from the origin to the crest or peak.
Speed of light
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Wavelengths from longest to shortest
Long radio waves, radio waves (AM, FM), microwaves, infrared…
38 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 2
amu
electron
angstrom
atomic number
unit used for atomic mass
atomic particle with a mass that is negligible
unit used for atomic length
number of protons is equal to what
amu
unit used for atomic mass
electron
atomic particle with a mass that is negligible
AP Chemistry Solubility Rules
nitrates
acetates
chlorates
chlorides
soluble
soluble (silver acetate only slightly soluble)
soluble
soluble except with Hg(I), Ag+, and Pb(II)
nitrates
soluble
acetates
soluble (silver acetate only slightly soluble)
99 terms
AP Chemistry - Physical Chemistry
law of mass action
specific reaction, temperature of the…
K(p)
K(sp)
also called the equilibrium expression; law that says that th…
value of the equilibrium constant depends on _ _ _ _ and _ _…
equilibrium constant for the partial pressures of gases
equilibrium constant for solubility product
law of mass action
also called the equilibrium expression; law that says that th…
specific reaction, temperature of the…
value of the equilibrium constant depends on _ _ _ _ and _ _…
33 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 12
chemical kinetics
reaction rate
instantaneous rate
rate law
the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit…
the value of the rate at a particular time
an expression that shows hoe the rate of reaction depends on…
chemical kinetics
the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
reaction rate
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit…
38 terms
Chapter 1 AP Chemistry
matter
macroscopic world
microscopic world
fundamental concepts of chemistry
consists of individual atoms... anything occupying space and hav…
the world that we can see
world of atoms and molecules
- matter is composed of various types of atoms ... - one substan…
matter
consists of individual atoms... anything occupying space and hav…
macroscopic world
the world that we can see
17 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 3
Reactants
products
law of conservation of mass
ionic
chemical formulas left of the arrow
chemical formulas right of the arrow
atoms can neither be created or destroyed
metal + nonmetal bonded
Reactants
chemical formulas left of the arrow
products
chemical formulas right of the arrow
AP Chemistry Chapter 5
Different forms of energy
Units in which energy is expressed
First law of thermodynamics
How is the change of internal energy r…
potential or kinetic. Potential energy comes in forms that ar…
1 cal = 4.184 J... 1 J = 1 km m2 / s2
The law of conservation of energy states that the total energ…
...
Different forms of energy
potential or kinetic. Potential energy comes in forms that ar…
Units in which energy is expressed
1 cal = 4.184 J... 1 J = 1 km m2 / s2
AP Chemistry Gas Laws
Diffusion
Effusion
(Kinetic Molecular Theory) The higher…
(Kinetic Molecular Theory) The higher…
when gas particles go from a high amount of itself to a low a…
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny whole into a evacu…
slower
slower
Diffusion
when gas particles go from a high amount of itself to a low a…
Effusion
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny whole into a evacu…
21 terms
Graphs Review Pre and AP Chemistry
First order reaction
Second order reaction
Zero order reaction
Boyle's Law
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is ln[A]…
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is 1/[A]…
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is [A] v…
Topic applied to: Gas laws... What to look for: ... Y axis is V (Vo…
First order reaction
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is ln[A]…
Second order reaction
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is 1/[A]…
45 terms
AP Chemistry: 02: Bonding
Electrostatic
Coulomb's
F = k |q₁q₂| / r²
Electrostatic
all bonds occur due to ___ attractions
electrostatic forces are governed by ___ law
write the equation for Coulomb' s law... F = electrostatic force…
an ionic solid is held together by the ___ attraction between…
Electrostatic
all bonds occur due to ___ attractions
Coulomb's
electrostatic forces are governed by ___ law
40 terms
AP Chemistry: Lab Equipment
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
Graduated Cylinder
Burner
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
36 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 7
electromagnetic radiation
wavelength
frequency
Planck's constant
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behaviour and travels t…
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given poi…
the constant relating the change in energy for a system to th…
electromagnetic radiation
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behaviour and travels t…
wavelength
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
39 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 1
matter
property
element
atoms
physical material of the universe
characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type…
basic susbtance that can't be simplified
the smallest amount of an element
matter
physical material of the universe
property
characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type…
100 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Absorbance
Activation Energy
Alpha Particle
Anion
Light that does not pass through a solution A = abc
Minimum energy needs to be added to a system in order for the…
He2+ 2 protons, mass number = 4, 2+ charge Highly ionizing pa…
Negatively charge ion
Absorbance
Light that does not pass through a solution A = abc
Activation Energy
Minimum energy needs to be added to a system in order for the…
17 terms
AP Chemistry acids
Hf
HCI
HBr
H2S
Hydrofluoric acid
hydrochloric acid
Hydrobromic acid
hydrosulfuric acid
Hf
Hydrofluoric acid
HCI
hydrochloric acid
AP Chemistry Midterm
Endpoint (Titration) (LM)
Delocalization (LM)
Polyatomic Ion (LM)
Kinetic Energy (LM)
When conducting a titration, this is the point at which the…
When electrons in a molecule are not associated with just two…
An ion (usually an anion) that is made up of more than one at…
Defined as one-half the produce of the mass and the velocity…
Endpoint (Titration) (LM)
When conducting a titration, this is the point at which the…
Delocalization (LM)
When electrons in a molecule are not associated with just two…
39 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportion
Avogadro's hypothesis
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of t…
at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of differ…
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed…
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
43 terms
AP Chemistry Molecular Geometries
molecular geometries
180 degrees
120 degrees
109.5 degrees
________ __________ are subsets of electron domain geometries.
Angle for: linear electron domain
Angle for: trigonal planar electron domain
Angle for: tetrahedral electron domain
molecular geometries
________ __________ are subsets of electron domain geometries.
180 degrees
Angle for: linear electron domain
41 terms
AP Biology Organic Chemistry
monomer
polymer
carbohydrate
lipid
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:…
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen & relatively few ox…
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
14 terms
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
dipole
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
type of molecular attraction in which a hydrogen atom covalen…
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant mo…
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
dipole moment
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
29 terms
Polyatomics AP Chemistry
Ammonium
Acetate
Bromate
Perchlorate
NH4+
C2H3O2-
BrO3-
ClO4-
Ammonium
NH4+
Acetate
C2H3O2-
AP Chemistry Ch. 7
Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation
Light has three parts:
Speed
Wavelength
Radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels th…
1) Speed... 2) Wavelength... 3) Frequency
All light waves (in a vacuum) travel at the same speed = spee…
The distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs of a wa…
Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation
Radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels th…
Light has three parts:
1) Speed... 2) Wavelength... 3) Frequency
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
polar molecule
hydration
solubility
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of…
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
polar molecule
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
40 terms
AP Biology - Basic Chemistry
Matter
Energy
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Atom
Anything that has mass and occupies space
The ability to do work; comes in many forms - kinetic, potent…
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
The most basic unit of matter; the smallest particle of an el…
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Energy
The ability to do work; comes in many forms - kinetic, potent…
26 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 8
bond energy
ionic bonding
ionic compound
Coulomb's Law
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal t…
E = 2.31 x 10^-19 (Q1Q2 / r) where E is the energy of interac…
bond energy
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
ionic bonding
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
28 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 10
condensed states
intermolecular forces
dipole-dipole attraction
hydrogen bonding
liquids and solids
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
the attraction force resulting when polar molecules line up s…
unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among m…
condensed states
liquids and solids
intermolecular forces
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
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