Study sets matching "ap chemistry"

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Study sets matching "ap chemistry"

AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
16 terms
AP Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
acetate
ammonium
bromate
carbonate
acetate
ammonium
245 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
148 terms
AP Chemistry
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
Hydrogen
He
Helium
32 terms
AP CHEMISTRY
John Dalton's atomic theory
Henry Becquerel (1896)
J. J. Thompson (1897)
Goldstein (1886)
1. All matter is made up of atoms (T)... 2. Atoms of a given ele…
Accomplishment: observed radioactive decay of U... Significance…
Accomplishment: discovered electrons by experimenting with th…
While experimenting with Cathode Ray tube, he discovered the…
John Dalton's atomic theory
1. All matter is made up of atoms (T)... 2. Atoms of a given ele…
Henry Becquerel (1896)
Accomplishment: observed radioactive decay of U... Significance…
48 terms
AP Chemistry
Demokritus & Leucippos
What is an Atom?
Alchemists tried...
Robert Boyle
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
to make gold through chemistry
1. first true quantitative experimenter... 2. est. the idea of e…
Demokritus & Leucippos
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
What is an Atom?
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
167 terms
AP Chemistry
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
molecular formula
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
actual formula for a substance
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
percent composition
mass of element / mass of compound
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
dipole
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
type of molecular attraction in which a hydrogen atom covalen…
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant mo…
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
dipole moment
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
AP Chemistry: Lab Equipment
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
Graduated Cylinder
Burner
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
40 terms
AP Chemistry: Lab Equipment
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
Graduated Cylinder
Burner
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
45 terms
AP Chemistry: 02: Bonding
Electrostatic
Coulomb's
F = k |q₁q₂| / r²
Electrostatic
all bonds occur due to ___ attractions
electrostatic forces are governed by ___ law
write the equation for Coulomb' s law... F = electrostatic force…
an ionic solid is held together by the ___ attraction between…
Electrostatic
all bonds occur due to ___ attractions
Coulomb's
electrostatic forces are governed by ___ law
72 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
35 terms
AP Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry
radioactivity
radiation
radioisotopes
alpha particle
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
the nuclei of unstable isotopes
particle emitted by a radioactive source that contains two pr…
radioactivity
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
radiation
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
8 terms
AP Chemistry Organic Chemistry
alcohol
halide
organic acid
amine
O-H bonded to C... polar
halogen bonded to C
carboxyl (COOH) bonded to C chain... acidic
amine (NH2) bonded to C... basic
alcohol
O-H bonded to C... polar
halide
halogen bonded to C
Ap Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium constant
K>1
Forward reaction
Reverse reaction
k=products-reactants
Forward reaction is favored
Reactants to Products
Products to reactants
Equilibrium constant
k=products-reactants
K>1
Forward reaction is favored
51 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
28 terms
AP Chemistry: Bonding
Bent
Bent
Tetrahedral
Octahedral
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
Nonpolar... sp3... 109.5 degrees
Nonpolar... Sp3d2... 90 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
26 terms
AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
Activation Energy
Transition State
Activated Complex
Potential Energy Diagram
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
the temporary, unstable substance that forms during the trans…
shows how the energy stored in the bonds of reactants and pro…
Activation Energy
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
Transition State
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
167 terms
AP Chemistry
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
molecular formula
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
actual formula for a substance
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
percent composition
mass of element / mass of compound
AP Chemistry - Exam Review
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Pauli exclusion principle
Hund's rule
Shielding effect
states that it is impossible to know simultaneously the exact…
two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer s…
every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one elect…
describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus…
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is impossible to know simultaneously the exact…
Pauli exclusion principle
two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer s…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2
Composition of an atom based + - =
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
Millikan's oil drop
Rutherford's gold-foil
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
...
Small drops of oil w/ eletric charges fell between two electr…
Shot particles through gold-foil and noted the angles which t…
Composition of an atom based + - =
The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving elec…
Give approx. size, relative mass, and…
...
57 terms
AP Chemistry Big idea #1 --
Molecules in a mole
PV=
Gas constant R
Molarity
6.022 x 10²³
nRT
.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Moles/Liters of solution
Molecules in a mole
6.022 x 10²³
PV=
nRT
57 terms
AP Chemistry Big idea #1
Molecules in a mole
PV=
Gas constant R
Molarity
6.022 x 10²³
nRT
.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Moles/Liters of solution
Molecules in a mole
6.022 x 10²³
PV=
nRT
243 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
21 terms
Graphs Review Pre and AP Chemistry
First order reaction
Second order reaction
Zero order reaction
Boyle's Law
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is ln[A]…
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is 1/[A]…
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is [A] v…
Topic applied to: Gas laws... What to look for: ... Y axis is V (Vo…
First order reaction
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is ln[A]…
Second order reaction
Topic applied to: Kinetics... What to look for: ... Y axis is 1/[A]…
56 terms
AP Bio - Chemistry Basics
Proton - Positive... Neutron - Neutral... El…
Molecule
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
What are the three components of the atom and their charges?
What is the term used to describe groups of two or more atoms…
What is the term used to describe a bond that forms between t…
What is the term used to describe a bond in which electrons a…
Proton - Positive... Neutron - Neutral... El…
What are the three components of the atom and their charges?
Molecule
What is the term used to describe groups of two or more atoms…
103 terms
Ap Chemistry
Aluminum
Antimony(III)
Antimony(V)
Barium
Al(3+)
Sb(3+)
Sb(5+)
Ba(2+)
Aluminum
Al(3+)
Antimony(III)
Sb(3+)
AP Chemistry
Borate
Chromate
Dichromate
Permanganate
Borate
Chromate
52 terms
AP Bio - Chemistry Unit
Proton - Positive... Neutron - Neutral... El…
Molecule
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
The three components of the atom and their charges.
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A bond that forms between two atoms when one or more electron…
A bond in which electrons are shared
Proton - Positive... Neutron - Neutral... El…
The three components of the atom and their charges.
Molecule
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
46 terms
AP Chemistry Ions and Polyatomic Ions
Ammonium
Cadmium
Barium
Cesium
Ammonium
Cadmium
245 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
265 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
AP Chemistry Big Idea #5
temperature
heat transfer
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.
transfer of kinetic energy from a warmer body to a cooler body
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed…
Every energy transformation increases the entropy of the univ…
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.
heat transfer
transfer of kinetic energy from a warmer body to a cooler body
AP Chemistry Gas Laws
Diffusion
Effusion
(Kinetic Molecular Theory) The higher…
(Kinetic Molecular Theory) The higher…
when gas particles go from a high amount of itself to a low a…
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny whole into a evacu…
slower
slower
Diffusion
when gas particles go from a high amount of itself to a low a…
Effusion
The escape of gas molecules through a tiny whole into a evacu…
41 terms
AP Biology Organic Chemistry
monomer
polymer
carbohydrate
lipid
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:…
organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen & relatively few ox…
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form d…
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
14 terms
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
dipole
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
type of molecular attraction in which a hydrogen atom covalen…
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant mo…
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
dipole moment
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
73 terms
AP Chemistry: Essential Elements
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
H
Helium
He
27 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 4
solution
solvent
solute
electrolyte
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
substance that does the dissolving
substance that is dissolved
substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions
solution
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
substance that does the dissolving
73 terms
AP Chemistry Final Review
State Symbols
Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas
Oxidation vs. Reduction
Arrhenius Acids and Bases
Solid (s)... Liquid (l)... Gas (g)... Precipitate (s)... Solution (aq)
Ideal: low pressure, high temperature, don't have any attract…
Oxidation: the loss of electrons/atom increases in oxidation…
Acid: Produces H30 by releasing H... Base: Produces OH by releas…
State Symbols
Solid (s)... Liquid (l)... Gas (g)... Precipitate (s)... Solution (aq)
Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas
Ideal: low pressure, high temperature, don't have any attract…
19 terms
AP Chemistry Solubility Rules
Soluble except with Hg₂²⁺, Ag⁺, Pb²⁺
Soluble except with Hg₂²⁺, Ag⁺, Pb²⁺
Soluble except with Hg₂²⁺, Hg²⁺, Ag⁺,…
Soluble except with Pb²⁺, Sr²⁺, Ba²⁺,…
Cl⁻
Br⁻
I⁻
F⁻
Soluble except with Hg₂²⁺, Ag⁺, Pb²⁺
Cl⁻
Soluble except with Hg₂²⁺, Ag⁺, Pb²⁺
Br⁻
40 terms
AP Biology - Basic Chemistry
Matter
Energy
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Atom
Anything that has mass and occupies space
The ability to do work; comes in many forms - kinetic, potent…
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
The most basic unit of matter; the smallest particle of an el…
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Energy
The ability to do work; comes in many forms - kinetic, potent…
66 terms
AP Chemistry Symbol Flashcards
U
H
He
Li
Uranium
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
U
Uranium
H
Hydrogen
100 terms
AP Chemistry Midterm Review
sublimation
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
solid to gas
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
sublimation
solid to gas
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
AP Chemistry Big Idea #3
Synthesis Reactions
Decomposition
Acid-base Reaction
Oxidation-Reduction reaction
When simple compounds are combined to form a single, more com…
The opposite of synthesis. A reaction where a single compound…
A reaction when an evidence reacts with a base to form water…
A reaction that results in the change of the oxidation states…
Synthesis Reactions
When simple compounds are combined to form a single, more com…
Decomposition
The opposite of synthesis. A reaction where a single compound…
AP Chemistry Chapter 6
Speed of light
Wavelengths from longest to shortest
The four characteristics that describe…
Amplitude of a wave
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Long radio waves, radio waves (AM, FM), microwaves, infrared…
Amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed.
The height of a wave from the origin to the crest or peak.
Speed of light
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Wavelengths from longest to shortest
Long radio waves, radio waves (AM, FM), microwaves, infrared…
24 terms
AP Biology - Basic Chemistry
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Structure of an Atom
Ion
Cation
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
Consists of mostly empty space; Protons (+) and neutrons (0)…
An atom with a positive or negative electric charge
An atom that lost electrons and therefore has a positive char…
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and pr…
Structure of an Atom
Consists of mostly empty space; Protons (+) and neutrons (0)…
AP Chemistry Solubility Rules
nitrates
acetates
chlorates
chlorides
soluble
soluble (silver acetate only slightly soluble)
soluble
soluble except with Hg(I), Ag+, and Pb(II)
nitrates
soluble
acetates
soluble (silver acetate only slightly soluble)
38 terms
AP Chemistry Ch 2
amu
electron
angstrom
atomic number
unit used for atomic mass
atomic particle with a mass that is negligible
unit used for atomic length
number of protons is equal to what
amu
unit used for atomic mass
electron
atomic particle with a mass that is negligible
33 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 12
chemical kinetics
reaction rate
instantaneous rate
rate law
the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit…
the value of the rate at a particular time
an expression that shows hoe the rate of reaction depends on…
chemical kinetics
the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
reaction rate
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit…
AP Chemistry Review
sublimation
deposition
London dispersion forces
Dipole-dipole forces
phase change from solid to gas
phase change from gas to solid
universal IMF for nonpolar molecules
IMF that exists in polar molecules
sublimation
phase change from solid to gas
deposition
phase change from gas to solid
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