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Study sets matching "ap government gov supreme court"

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Study sets matching "ap government gov supreme court"

10 terms
AP Gov - Supreme Court
Original Jurisdiction
Appellate Jurisdiction
Judicial Powers
Rule of Four
⁍Supreme Court = court of last resort... ⁍cases that go directly…
⁍power to hear cases that are on appeal from lower courts... ⁍ca…
⁍Article III of Constitution... ⁍power to SC and "inferior" cour…
⁍four justices agree to hear the case... ⁍8000 cases are appeale…
Original Jurisdiction
⁍Supreme Court = court of last resort... ⁍cases that go directly…
Appellate Jurisdiction
⁍power to hear cases that are on appeal from lower courts... ⁍ca…
50 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Baker v Carr
Barron v Baltimore
Buckley v Valeo
Bush v Gore
- one man, one vote... - guidelines for drawing up congresional…
- bill of rights only applies to the national govt, not the s…
- 1st Amendment, free speech... - upheld federal limits on campa…
- 14th Amendment, equal protection clause... - recounting the vo…
Baker v Carr
- one man, one vote... - guidelines for drawing up congresional…
Barron v Baltimore
- bill of rights only applies to the national govt, not the s…
AP Gov The Supreme Court
Appellate Jurisdiction
Senatorial Courtesy
Writ of Certiorari
Rule of Four
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
An order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send…
An order by the Supreme Court will hear a case if four justic…
Appellate Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
Senatorial Courtesy
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
34 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Amicus Curiae (beliefs)
Appellate Jurisdiction
Burger Court
Concurring Opinion
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the pur…
The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on…
Nixon appointed Burger... -more conservative than Warren, but st…
A written opinion filed by supreme court justices who agree w…
Amicus Curiae (beliefs)
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the pur…
Appellate Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on…
37 terms
AP Government Supreme Court Cases
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857)
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Ju…
Court ruled that congress did have authority to charter bank,…
Established a broad view of the commerce clause when a federa…
Justice Taney's opinion in this case stated that slave owners…
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Ju…
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
Court ruled that congress did have authority to charter bank,…
32 terms
AP Government Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Established judicial review (the right to judge the constitut…
Ruled that the state of New York could not grant a steamship…
The Court ruled that states did not have the power to tax the…
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public sch…
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review (the right to judge the constitut…
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Ruled that the state of New York could not grant a steamship…
9 terms
AP Gov: The Supreme Court
Appellate Jurisdiction
Senatorial Courtesy
Writ of Certiorari
Rule of Four
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
An order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send…
The Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to…
Appellate Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
Senatorial Courtesy
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
AP Government- The Supreme Court
Appellate juridiction
Senatorial courtesy
Writ of CERTIORARI
Rule of four
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
An order by the Supreme Court direction a lower court to send…
The Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to…
Appellate juridiction
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
Senatorial courtesy
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
50 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Baker v Carr
Barron v Baltimore
Buckley v Valeo
Bush v Gore
- one man, one vote... - guidelines for drawing up congresional…
- bill of rights only applies to the national govt, not the s…
- 1st Amendment, free speech... - upheld federal limits on campa…
- 14th Amendment, equal protection clause... - recounting the vo…
Baker v Carr
- one man, one vote... - guidelines for drawing up congresional…
Barron v Baltimore
- bill of rights only applies to the national govt, not the s…
26 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Incorportation
Establishment Clause
Free Exercise clause
Engel v. Vitale
to apply the Bill of Rights to the states
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may no…
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from in…
School-sanctioned prayer in public schools ruled unconstituti…
Incorportation
to apply the Bill of Rights to the states
Establishment Clause
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may no…
90 terms
Supreme Court Cases - AP Government
*Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
*McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
*Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
*Wickard v. Filburn (1942)
State may not act to void valid contracts.
Implied powers of Congress and supremacy of Congressional acts
Power of Congress to legislate over matters that affect intra…
Most expansive commerce Clause interpretation: aggregation of…
*Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
State may not act to void valid contracts.
*McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Implied powers of Congress and supremacy of Congressional acts
32 terms
Supreme Court AP Gov
US v. Nixon
Buckley v. Valeo
Citizens United v. FEC
Baker v. Carr
Executive privilege
Campaign financing. You can spend as much of your own money a…
Campaign contributions. Corporations are people kinda thing.
"One man, one vote."... 14th equal protection = representation.…
US v. Nixon
Executive privilege
Buckley v. Valeo
Campaign financing. You can spend as much of your own money a…
74 terms
AP Gov - Supreme Court
Agostini v. Felton
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition
Atkins v. Virginia
Barron v. Baltimore
SC agreed to permit public school teachers to go into parochi…
SC ruled that the Child Online Protection Act of 1998 was unc…
Execution of the mentally retarded is prohibited by the Eight…
Decision that limited the application of the BoR to actions o…
Agostini v. Felton
SC agreed to permit public school teachers to go into parochi…
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition
SC ruled that the Child Online Protection Act of 1998 was unc…
20 terms
AP gov Supreme court
linkage Institutions
federalism
public policy
Appellate jurisdiction
political parties, media, interest groups, elections
the division and sharing of power between the national and st…
a choice that government makes in response to an issue like t…
going up one court at a time
linkage Institutions
political parties, media, interest groups, elections
federalism
the division and sharing of power between the national and st…
AP Gov- The Supreme Court
Appellate Jurisdiction
Senatorial Courtesy
Writ of Certiorari
Rule of Four
jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on app…
unwritten traditions whereby nominations for state-level fede…
the term in latin means "To be shown"; legal term in American…
at least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to cons…
Appellate Jurisdiction
jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on app…
Senatorial Courtesy
unwritten traditions whereby nominations for state-level fede…
9 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
John G. Roberts, Jr.
Antonin Scalia
Anthony M. Kennedy
Clarence Thomas
Conservative... US Court of Appeals... GW Bush... 2005
Conservative... US Court of Appeals... Reagan... 1986... DEAD
Conservative... US Court of Appeals... Reagan... 1988
Conservative... US Court of Appeals... Bush Sr.... 1991
John G. Roberts, Jr.
Conservative... US Court of Appeals... GW Bush... 2005
Antonin Scalia
Conservative... US Court of Appeals... Reagan... 1986... DEAD
9 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Writ of Certiorari
Rule of Four
Stare Decisis
Amicus Curiae
A common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferi…
Requirement that a case can only be heard by the Supreme Cour…
A common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to fol…
A Latin term meaning "friend of the court." Refers to interes…
Writ of Certiorari
A common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferi…
Rule of Four
Requirement that a case can only be heard by the Supreme Cour…
12 terms
AP Gov. The Supreme Court
John G. Roberts Jr.
Antonin Scalia
Anthony M. Kennedy
Clarence Thomas
2005, nominated by George W. Bush, republican, the chief just…
1986, nominated by Ronald Reagan, republican, first Italian-a…
1988, nominated by Ronald Reagan, moderate (swing conservativ…
1991, nominated by George H. W. Bush, republican, the 2nd Afr…
John G. Roberts Jr.
2005, nominated by George W. Bush, republican, the chief just…
Antonin Scalia
1986, nominated by Ronald Reagan, republican, first Italian-a…
25 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
judiciary
appellate
appeals
jurisdiction
system of courts that interprets the law and provides a mecha…
type of a court that is concerned with decisions to be revers…
application to a higher court for a reversal of the decision…
the extent of a court's region/district/circuit's power to be…
judiciary
system of courts that interprets the law and provides a mecha…
appellate
type of a court that is concerned with decisions to be revers…
28 terms
AP GOV Supreme Court
Miranda v Arizona
Weeks v US
Mapps v Ohio
Gideon v Wainwright
Created the rights which must be read to a suspect upon his/h…
This court case created the Exclusionary Rule regarding the u…
This court case incorporated the 4th Amendment and the Exclus…
Incorporated a Citizen's Right to an Attorney unto the States
Miranda v Arizona
Created the rights which must be read to a suspect upon his/h…
Weeks v US
This court case created the Exclusionary Rule regarding the u…
17 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Engel v. Vitale
Leman v. Kurtzman
Schenk v. Baltimore
Barron v. Baltimore.
Struck down state-sponsered prayer in public schools. Ruled t…
Struck down state funding for private religious schools. Rule…
Ruled that free speech could be limited when it presents a "c…
Ruled that the bill of rights cannot be applied to the states.
Engel v. Vitale
Struck down state-sponsered prayer in public schools. Ruled t…
Leman v. Kurtzman
Struck down state funding for private religious schools. Rule…
AP Gov Supreme Court
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
Maryland vs. McCulloch (1819)
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1857)
Judicial review; wants commission, judiciary act unconstituti…
implied powers; Court can create bank, states like maryland c…
interstate commerce; defined "commerce" basically as any inte…
states can't claim property that was already property in anot…
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
Judicial review; wants commission, judiciary act unconstituti…
Maryland vs. McCulloch (1819)
implied powers; Court can create bank, states like maryland c…
12 terms
AP GOV SUPREME COURT
Appellate Jurisdiction
Original Jurisdiction
Judicial Review
Judicial Activism
A court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court
A court's power to hear and decide a matter before any other…
Authority given the courts to review constitutionality of act…
A philosophy that argues judges should use their power broadl…
Appellate Jurisdiction
A court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court
Original Jurisdiction
A court's power to hear and decide a matter before any other…
24 terms
AP GOV-Supreme Court
Oldest Supreme Court Justice
Chief Justice
Strict Contructionist
# Federal District Courts
Ginsburg
Head of supreme court
The ORIGINAL intent of the constitution
94
Oldest Supreme Court Justice
Ginsburg
Chief Justice
Head of supreme court
21 terms
AP GOV SUPREME COURT
Chief Justice John G. Roberts
Associate Justice Antonin Scalia
Associate Justice Anthony M. Kennedy
Associate Justice Clarence Thomas
Age: 60 *... Year appointed: 2005... Appointed by: George W. Bush... I…
Age: 79... Year appointed: 1986... Appointed by: Ronald Reagan... Ideo…
Age: 79... Year appointed: 1988... Appointed by: Ronald Reagan... Ideo…
Age: 67... Year appointed: 1986... Appointed by: Ronald Reagan... Ideo…
Chief Justice John G. Roberts
Age: 60 *... Year appointed: 2005... Appointed by: George W. Bush... I…
Associate Justice Antonin Scalia
Age: 79... Year appointed: 1986... Appointed by: Ronald Reagan... Ideo…
33 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Articles of Confederation
during the Articles of Confed
District court
court of appeals
had no national court system
ppl had the power to interpret and apply laws
constitutional court
constitutional court
Articles of Confederation
had no national court system
during the Articles of Confed
ppl had the power to interpret and apply laws
37 terms
AP Gov- The Supreme Court
standing to sue
class action suits
justiciable disputes
amicus curae briefs
the requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a…
lawsuits in which a small number of people sue on behalf of a…
issues capable of being settled as a matter of law
legal briefs submitted by 'friends of the court' for the purp…
standing to sue
the requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a…
class action suits
lawsuits in which a small number of people sue on behalf of a…
97 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
two court systems in the U.S.
dual sovereignty
3 U.S. Appeals courts
What rules apply to judges of Article 3
State and federal
both federal and state laws are broken/tried in both courts
12 Circuits, Federal Circuit, Armed Forces
cannot be fired, salaries cannot be reduced
two court systems in the U.S.
State and federal
dual sovereignty
both federal and state laws are broken/tried in both courts
9 terms
AP GOV: THE SUPREME COURT
Appellate Jurisdiction
Senatorial Courtesy
Writ of Certiorari
Rule of Four
the authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
An order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send…
The Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to…
Appellate Jurisdiction
the authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
Senatorial Courtesy
An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
9 terms
AP Gov: The Supreme Court
Appellate Jurisdiction
Senatorial courtesy
Writ of Certiorari
Rule of four
authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm nomin…
Order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send up…
Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to do so
Appellate Jurisdiction
authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
Senatorial courtesy
unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm nomin…
9 terms
AP GOV. ( The Supreme Court)
Appellate Jurisdiction
Senatorial Courtesy
Writ of Certiorari
Rule Of Four
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from the lower court
An unwritten tradition whereby the senate will not confirm no…
An order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send…
The Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to…
Appellate Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear an appeal from the lower court
Senatorial Courtesy
An unwritten tradition whereby the senate will not confirm no…
34 terms
Gov AP Supreme Court
What US president attempted to "pack t…
primary lawyer in Brown v Board of edu…
who nominated Earl Warren to be chief…
What did earl warren consider his top…
FDR
Thurgood Marshall
Dweight Eisenhower
legislative reapportionment
What US president attempted to "pack t…
FDR
primary lawyer in Brown v Board of edu…
Thurgood Marshall
19 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Chief Justice
Who are the 9 Supreme Court Justices?
number of Protestant justices
number of catholic justices
John Roberts
Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Ginsburg, Breyer, Alito, So…
0
6
Chief Justice
John Roberts
Who are the 9 Supreme Court Justices?
Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Ginsburg, Breyer, Alito, So…
18 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court
Chief Justice
Who are the 9 Supreme Court Justices?
number of Protestant justices
number of catholic justices
John Roberts
Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Ginsburg, Breyer, Alito, So…
0
6
Chief Justice
John Roberts
Who are the 9 Supreme Court Justices?
Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Ginsburg, Breyer, Alito, So…
27 terms
AP Gov. - Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)
"Midnight Judges" - William Marbury did NOT receive his appoi…
Upheld the constitutionality of the First Bank of the United…
Regulating interstate commerce (business) is a power reserved…
Congress does not have the power to prohibit guns in an area…
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
"Midnight Judges" - William Marbury did NOT receive his appoi…
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Upheld the constitutionality of the First Bank of the United…
54 terms
AP Government - Supreme Court
What did the aricles of confederation…
Judiciary Act of 1789
Marbury v. Madison
What is judicial review?
No nationl court system
Established 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts, all with…
1803 Supreme Court case that established Judicial review
Court authority to determine that an action taken by any gove…
What did the aricles of confederation…
No nationl court system
Judiciary Act of 1789
Established 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts, all with…
38 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch V. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Barren v. Baltimore
judicial review; marbury wants commission, judiciary act unco…
implied powers; C can create bank, states maryland can't tax…
interstate commerce; defined "commerce" basically as any inte…
bill of rights only from federal government; man's dock ruine…
Marbury v. Madison
judicial review; marbury wants commission, judiciary act unco…
McCulloch V. Maryland
implied powers; C can create bank, states maryland can't tax…
AP Government: The Supreme Court
appellate jurisdiction
senatorial courtesy
writ of certiorari
rule of four
the authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
an unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
an order by the supreme court directing a lower court to send…
the supreme court will hear a case if four justices agree to…
appellate jurisdiction
the authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
senatorial courtesy
an unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm no…
36 terms
AP Gov Supreme Courts
criminal law
civil law
Judiciable Disputes
Constitutional courts
the government charges an individual who violated specific la…
no charge of criminality, usually a dispute b/w two parties
a requirement that to be heard a case must be capable of bein…
lower federal courts of general jurisdiction
criminal law
the government charges an individual who violated specific la…
civil law
no charge of criminality, usually a dispute b/w two parties
37 terms
AP Government: The Supreme Court
What is the size of the supreme court?
What are two general descriptions of t…
Who appoints the Chief Justice of the…
What are the roles of the Chief Justice?
8 justices and 1 chief justice.
Highest court in the land, also known as "court of last resort"
The president and approved by the senate.
Head of judicial branch, presides over Supreme Court, preside…
What is the size of the supreme court?
8 justices and 1 chief justice.
What are two general descriptions of t…
Highest court in the land, also known as "court of last resort"
64 terms
Supreme Court Cases (AP Gov)
Everson v Board of Ed
Zorach v Clauson
Engle v Vitale
Abington School District v Schempp
Children being bused to religious schools; Constitutional bec…
Children wanted to leave school to attend church; Does not vi…
State prayer in school is not forcible
Bible reading in public schools; They could have a letter to…
Everson v Board of Ed
Children being bused to religious schools; Constitutional bec…
Zorach v Clauson
Children wanted to leave school to attend church; Does not vi…
63 terms
AP Government Supreme Court Cases
Schenck v. United States (1917)
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Wesberry v. Sanders (1963)
Justice Oliver Wendell Homes articulated the "clear and prese…
Held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsui…
The denying of African Americans the right to vote in a prima…
Ordered House districts to be near as equal as possible--ensh…
Schenck v. United States (1917)
Justice Oliver Wendell Homes articulated the "clear and prese…
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
Held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsui…
45 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch V. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Barren v. Baltimore
judicial review; marbury wants commission, judiciary act unco…
implied powers; C can create bank, states maryland can't tax…
interstate commerce; defined "commerce" basically as any inte…
bill of rights only from federal government; man's dock ruine…
Marbury v. Madison
judicial review; marbury wants commission, judiciary act unco…
McCulloch V. Maryland
implied powers; C can create bank, states maryland can't tax…
52 terms
AP Gov. Supreme Court Cases
Engle v. Vitale (1962)
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Oregon v. Smith (1990)
Reynolds v. Unites States (1879)
Parents in NY protest mandatory prayer at beginning of public…
PA/RI gave $ to private Catholic schools. Violation of establ…
2 Native Americans fired for smoking Peyote, applied for unem…
mormon thought anti-bigomy act violated his freedom of religi…
Engle v. Vitale (1962)
Parents in NY protest mandatory prayer at beginning of public…
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
PA/RI gave $ to private Catholic schools. Violation of establ…
37 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Schenck V. U.S. (1919)
Established judicial review; "midnight judges;" John Marshall…
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; u…
Established separate but equal.
Oliver Wendell Holmes; clear and present danger test; shoutin…
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review; "midnight judges;" John Marshall…
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; u…
35 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court test
jurisdiction
federal court jurisdiction
original jurisdiction
appellate jurisdiction
the authority of the courts to hear certain cases
cases involving federal law, treaties, and the interpretation…
lower courts have authority to hear cases for the first time
courts that hear reviews or appeals of decisions from the low…
jurisdiction
the authority of the courts to hear certain cases
federal court jurisdiction
cases involving federal law, treaties, and the interpretation…
70 terms
AP Government -- Supreme Court Cases
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
Roth v. US (1957)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
denied that states needed to abide by the Bill or Rights (ove…
recognized a 10-hour work day for women workers on the ground…
obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment
broadly interpreted interstate commerce clause, encompassing…
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
denied that states needed to abide by the Bill or Rights (ove…
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
recognized a 10-hour work day for women workers on the ground…
63 terms
AP Government Supreme Court Cases
Schenck v. United States (1917)
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Wesberry v. Sanders (1963)
Justice Oliver Wendell Homes articulated the "clear and prese…
Held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsui…
The denying of African Americans the right to vote in a prima…
Ordered House districts to be near as equal as possible--ensh…
Schenck v. United States (1917)
Justice Oliver Wendell Homes articulated the "clear and prese…
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
Held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsui…
47 terms
AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v Madison
McCulloch v Maryland
Gibbons v Ogden
Barron v Baltimore
Established "judicial review"—changed Supreme Court
National supremacy, elastic clause, Bank of the US.
Only Congress can regulate interstate commerce. Waterways and…
Eminent domain (5thAm.) only applies to federal government -n…
Marbury v Madison
Established "judicial review"—changed Supreme Court
McCulloch v Maryland
National supremacy, elastic clause, Bank of the US.
62 terms
Supreme Court Cases AP gov
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
Ex Parte Milligan 1866
Schechter Poultry Corporation v. Unite…
Baker v. Carr, 1962
Judicial Review
Military v. Civilian Court
Supreme Court
One man one vote—electoral procedures of states
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
Judicial Review
Ex Parte Milligan 1866
Military v. Civilian Court
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