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Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

When the variables aren't dependent, t…

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (biva…

Independent, x

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

Measures an outcome of a study

Helps explain or influences changes in a response variable

A graphed cluster of points each of which represents the valu…

Data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

Helps explain or influences changes in a response variable

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

DOFS

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

When y is predicted by x, goes on y axis

Direction, Outliers, Form, Strength

Scatterplot

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

Explanatory Variable

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

DOFS

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

When y is predicted by x, goes on y axis

Direction, Outliers, Form, Strength

Scatterplot

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

Explanatory Variable

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

3 Things you should always do first wi…

Relative Frequency Table (distribution…

Distribution of a variable

Area Principle

1. Make a picture- a display to help you THINK... 2. Picture- SH…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and the percen…

Tells us what values a variable takes and how often

Each data value should be represented by the same amount of a…

3 Things you should always do first wi…

1. Make a picture- a display to help you THINK... 2. Picture- SH…

Relative Frequency Table (distribution…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and the percen…

frequency distribution

Comparative bar chart

pie chart

Segmented bar chart

A table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and…

two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…

a graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data set.

A graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data se…

frequency distribution

A table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and…

Comparative bar chart

two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…

Frequency table

Relative frequency table

Distribution

Area principle

lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the…

A frequency table that gives percentage values of each category

gives the possible values of the variable and the relative fr…

In a statistical display, each data value should be represent…

Frequency table

lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the…

Relative frequency table

A frequency table that gives percentage values of each category

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Scatterplot

Direction

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable. T…

Measures an outcome of a study. The y value in a scatterplot.

Shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

The movement of the overall pattern in a scatterplot. Reading…

Explanatory Variable

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable. T…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study. The y value in a scatterplot.

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Direction

Shows the relationship between 2 quantitative variables measu…

Help explain or influence changes in a response variable. The…

Measures an outcome of a study. The x-axis.

Positive, negative or no direction.

Scatterplot

Shows the relationship between 2 quantitative variables measu…

Explanatory Variable

Help explain or influence changes in a response variable. The…

Reading Computer Output for Regression

Interpret r²

Outliers and Influential Points in Reg…

Interpret LSRL "s"

Using foot length (x) to predict height (y):... Y intercept = 10…

____% of the variation in y (context) is accounted for by the…

Any point that falls outside the pattern of the association s…

s = ____ is the standard deviation of the residuals.... It measu…

Reading Computer Output for Regression

Using foot length (x) to predict height (y):... Y intercept = 10…

Interpret r²

____% of the variation in y (context) is accounted for by the…

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Outlier

Plot that shows the relationship between two quantitative var…

Variable that may help explain or predict changes in a respon…

Variable that measures an outcome of a study.

Individual value that falls outside the overall pattern of a…

Scatterplot

Plot that shows the relationship between two quantitative var…

Explanatory Variable

Variable that may help explain or predict changes in a respon…

distribution

histogram

gap

stem-and-leaf display

slices up all the possible variable slices up all the possibl…

uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

a region of the distribution where there are no values

shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dis…

distribution

slices up all the possible variable slices up all the possibl…

histogram

uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

response variable

explanatory variable

how to examine data

scatterplot

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

plot the data. use numerical summaries. look for overall patt…

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

response variable

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

explanatory variable

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

Positive association

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (biva…

As x increases, y increases

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

distribution

histogram

gap

stem-and-leaf display

(of a quantitative variable) slices up all the possible varia…

uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

a region of the distribution where there are no values

shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dis…

distribution

(of a quantitative variable) slices up all the possible varia…

histogram

uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplot

Positive association

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable, i…

Shows the relationship between two quantitive variables measu…

Two variables have a __________ when above average values of…

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable

Explanatory variable

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable, i…

Strength, Direction, Form (Context), a…

when there is an experiment testing th…

extrapolate beyond your data

| 0.7 to 1.0 |

What should you include when describing a scatterplot?

When is the only time you can assume causation?

What is dangerous to do?

When is a correlation strong?

Strength, Direction, Form (Context), a…

What should you include when describing a scatterplot?

when there is an experiment testing th…

When is the only time you can assume causation?

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

When the variables aren't dependent, t…

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (biva…

Independent, x

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Frequency Table

Distribution

Area Principal

Bar Graph

List by categories and provides percents or numbers

The values that are presented

Data value should be presented with the same amount of data.

Organizes categorical data

Frequency Table

List by categories and provides percents or numbers

Distribution

The values that are presented

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

DOFS

Correlation

Measures the outcome of a study. Y

May help explain/predict changes in a response variable. X

Direction, Outliers, Form, Strength

r

Response Variable

Measures the outcome of a study. Y

Explanatory Variable

May help explain/predict changes in a response variable. X

Association ... (strong,moderate,weak)

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Direction

Represent the pattern of data

Dependant variable

Independant variable

-positvly associated... Negation association

Association ... (strong,moderate,weak)

Represent the pattern of data

Response variable

Dependant variable

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

Attempts to explain the observed outcome

Outcomes of study

Graphical Representation to display the relation between two…

Positive slope direction

Explanatory Variable

Attempts to explain the observed outcome

Response Variable

Outcomes of study

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

Attempts to explain the observed outcomes.

Outcomes of study.

Graphical representation to display the relation between two…

Positive slop direction.

Explanatory Variable

Attempts to explain the observed outcomes.

Response Variable

Outcomes of study.

response variables

explanatory variable

scatterplot

what axis does the eXplanatory variabl…

measures an outcome of a study. Also called Independent Varia…

helps explain or influence changes in a response variable.…

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

the eXplanatory variable is always drawn on the horizontal X-…

response variables

measures an outcome of a study. Also called Independent Varia…

explanatory variable

helps explain or influence changes in a response variable.…

Explanatory variable

Response variable

Scatterplot

Interpreting Scatterplots

Independent variable that may help explain or predict changes…

Dependent variable that measures an outcome of a study

Graph that shows relationships between 2 quantitative variabl…

DUFS- Direction, (Unusual features, if any), Form, and Strength

Explanatory variable

Independent variable that may help explain or predict changes…

Response variable

Dependent variable that measures an outcome of a study

response variable

explanatory variable

how to examine data

scatterplot

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

plot the data. use numerical summaries. look for overall patt…

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

response variable

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

explanatory variable

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

scatter plot

Form, Direction, Strength

Correlation Coefficient

equation for r

shows relationship between 2 variables measured on the same i…

Form (cluster of points, groups, outliers, gaps) Direction (p…

measures direction and strength of relationship, always a num…

r=(1/n) E (x-mean of x/std dev of x) (y-mean of y/std dev of y)

scatter plot

shows relationship between 2 variables measured on the same i…

Form, Direction, Strength

Form (cluster of points, groups, outliers, gaps) Direction (p…

describing relationships

describing scatterplots

correlation coefficient

rules of thumb for r-values

examining the relationships between two quantitative variable…

form: linear/non-linear (curved) ... strength: weak/moderate/st…

negative association = -r... positive association = +r

strong correlation: 0.8 ≤ r ≤ 1, -1 ≤ r ≤ -0.8... moderate corr…

describing relationships

examining the relationships between two quantitative variable…

describing scatterplots

form: linear/non-linear (curved) ... strength: weak/moderate/st…

Measures of Center

Measures of Spread

Sample Mean

Population Mean

Where the data distribution is located along the number line,…

How much variability there is in a data distribution, provide…

arithmetic average of values in sample (x-bar) x= sum of all…

Denoted by μ, arithmetic average of all x values in an entire…

Measures of Center

Where the data distribution is located along the number line,…

Measures of Spread

How much variability there is in a data distribution, provide…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

Frequency distribution

Comparative bar chart

Pie chart

Segmented bar chart

A table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and…

Two or more bar carts that use the same set of horizontal and…

A graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data se…

A graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data se…

Frequency distribution

A table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and…

Comparative bar chart

Two or more bar carts that use the same set of horizontal and…

Segmented bar chart

Stem

Leaf

Class intervals

The use of a rectangular bar rather than a circle to represen…

The numbers in the vertical column on the left of a stem-and-…

The numbers to the right of the vertical line on a stem-and-l…

Intervals used to classify continuous numerical data

Segmented bar chart

The use of a rectangular bar rather than a circle to represen…

Stem

The numbers in the vertical column on the left of a stem-and-…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Direction

Measures the outcome of a study

Helps explain/predict changes in a response variable

Shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

If the relationship has a clear direction, we speak of either…

Response Variable

Measures the outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

Helps explain/predict changes in a response variable

scatterplot

explanatory variable

response variable

direction

displays the relationship between two quantitative variables…

the x value (independent variable)

the y value (dependent variable)

if the direction has a clear direction, we speak od either po…

scatterplot

displays the relationship between two quantitative variables…

explanatory variable

the x value (independent variable)

Histogram

Stem&Leaf Displays

Shape

Mode

a graph using adjacent bars to show the distribution of value…

shows the quantitative data values in a way that sketches the…

to describe the shape of the distribution; single v multiple…

used when describing the distribution of data for a histogram

Histogram

a graph using adjacent bars to show the distribution of value…

Stem&Leaf Displays

shows the quantitative data values in a way that sketches the…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Overall Pattern (strength, form, direc…

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable

shows relationship between two quantitative variables measure…

strength: how closely points follow a clear form, form: shape…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable

response variable

explanatory variable

how to examine data

scatterplot

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

plot the data. use numerical summaries. look for overall patt…

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

response variable

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

explanatory variable

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

response variable

explanatory variable

describing scatterplot

direction

measure an outcome of the study

helps explain or predict changes in a response variable... plot…

look for patterns, departures, direction, form and strength

where the pattern moves from and to where

response variable

measure an outcome of the study

explanatory variable

helps explain or predict changes in a response variable... plot…

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Direction

Form

Helps explain or influence changes in a response variable (IV)

Measures an outcome of study

Wether the relationsip between y and x is positive, negative,…

The shape of the association (linear, power, exponential, qua…

Explanatory Variable

Helps explain or influence changes in a response variable (IV)

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of study

explanatory variable

response variable

scatterplot

direction

the independent variable, goes on the x-axis

the dependent variable, goes on the y-axis

shows the relationship between 2 quantitative variables measu…

where the overall pattern of the graph moves, positive or neg…

explanatory variable

the independent variable, goes on the x-axis

response variable

the dependent variable, goes on the y-axis

response variable

explanatory variable

how to examine data

scatterplot

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

plot the data. use numerical summaries. look for overall patt…

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

response variable

measures an outcome of a study. independent variable.

explanatory variable

attempts to explain the observed outcomes. dependent variable.

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Correlation

Lurking Variable

May help explain or influence changes in a response variable…

Measures an outcome of a study (dependent variable).

Numerical method to measure a relationship. It measures the d…

A variable that is not the explanatory or the response but ma…

Explanatory Variable

May help explain or influence changes in a response variable…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study (dependent variable).

R

R^2

1st trait of r and r^2

2nd trait of r and r^2

Correlation coefficient... Tells us strength and direction of li…

Coefficient of determination... Tells us the percent of the vari…

Not resistant to outliers

No units

R

Correlation coefficient... Tells us strength and direction of li…

R^2

Coefficient of determination... Tells us the percent of the vari…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures outcome of a study

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

when above-average values of one tend to accompany above-aver…

Response Variable

measures outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

FDSO

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (biva…

guide to looking at scatterplot; form, direction, strength, o…

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Coefficient of determination r^2

Correlation

Equation of the least-squares regressi…

Explanatory variable

The fraction of the variation in the values of y that is acco…

Measures the direction and strength of the linear relationshi…

y hat = a +bx with slope b= r(s(y)/s(x)) and y intercept a= y…

A variable that may help explain or influences changes in a r…

Coefficient of determination r^2

The fraction of the variation in the values of y that is acco…

Correlation

Measures the direction and strength of the linear relationshi…

Coefficient of determination r2

Correlation

Equation of the least-squares regressi…

Explanatory variable

The fraction of the variation in the values of y that is... acco…

Measures the direction and strength of the linear relationshi…

y a bx ˆ = + with slope... sy b r... sx... = and y... intercept a y bx =…

A variable that may help explain or influences changes in a... r…

Coefficient of determination r2

The fraction of the variation in the values of y that is... acco…

Correlation

Measures the direction and strength of the linear relationshi…

r

Linear Regression

LSRL

r^2

Pearson Correlation Coefficient, measures the strength and di…

A line that describes how a response variable y changes with…

Least Squares Regression Line, a model for a linear trend tha…

Coefficient of Determination: the proportion of variability i…

r

Pearson Correlation Coefficient, measures the strength and di…

Linear Regression

A line that describes how a response variable y changes with…

r

r-squared

residual

least-squares regression

Measure of linear correlation.... -1 </= r </= 1... r > 0 Positiv…

The % of the variation in y explained by your regression mode…

y-i - y-hati = epsilon-hati

...

r

Measure of linear correlation.... -1 </= r </= 1... r > 0 Positiv…

r-squared

The % of the variation in y explained by your regression mode…