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Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Data Analysis

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Varibale

To help understand data, it is organized, displayed, summariz…

Are the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may b…

Any characteristics of an individual. A variable can take dif…

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories

Data Analysis

To help understand data, it is organized, displayed, summariz…

Individuals

Are the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may b…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical variable

Quantitative variable

The objects described by a set of data; may be people, animal…

Any characteristic of an individual; can take different value…

Places an individual into one of several groups

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Individuals

The objects described by a set of data; may be people, animal…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual; can take different value…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

statistics

population

sample

individuals

the science of gaining information from numerical data

group of interest

subgroup of the population meant to represent the population

objects being described by data set

statistics

the science of gaining information from numerical data

population

group of interest

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

stem & leaf plot or stemplot

back-to-back stem & leaf plot or back-…

dotplot

histogram

a graph of a distribution of quantitative data in which all b…

a stem-and-leaf plot or stemplot that is used to compare dist…

a graph of a distribution of quantitative data in which each…

a graph of a distribution of quantitative data in which nearb…

stem & leaf plot or stemplot

a graph of a distribution of quantitative data in which all b…

back-to-back stem & leaf plot or back-…

a stem-and-leaf plot or stemplot that is used to compare dist…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

The objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Any characteristic of and individual. A variable can take dif…

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Individuals

The objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

Any characteristic of and individual. A variable can take dif…

individuals

conditional

categorical

variable

the objects described by a set of data

describes the distribution of values of a categorical variabl…

a variable that places an individual into one or several grou…

a characteristic of an individual that can take different val…

individuals

the objects described by a set of data

conditional

describes the distribution of values of a categorical variabl…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data

any characteristic of an individual

places an individual into one of several groups or categories

takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data

Variable

any characteristic of an individual

stemplot

clusters

histogram

frequencies

Represents data by separating each value into two parts: the…

these are formed when there is a gap between the data

This breaks the range of values of a variable into classes an…

the counts of the number of individuals in each class

stemplot

Represents data by separating each value into two parts: the…

clusters

these are formed when there is a gap between the data

statistics

data

quantitative data

qualitative (categorical) data

the science of data

systematically recorded information

takes on a numerical value

places an individual into one of several groups/categories

statistics

the science of data

data

systematically recorded information

data analysis

individuals

variables

categorical variable

process of describing data using graphs and numerical summaries

objects described by a set of data; may be people, animals, o…

characteristics of an individual; can take different values f…

variable that places an individual into one of several groups…

data analysis

process of describing data using graphs and numerical summaries

individuals

objects described by a set of data; may be people, animals, o…

Data

Individuals

Variable

Categorial Variable (Qualitative)

Collection of statistics relayed into a certain situation wit…

The living or non-living things that you are describing with…

Quality that can be observed in an individual

A statistical individual put into a group based on its variable

Data

Collection of statistics relayed into a certain situation wit…

Individuals

The living or non-living things that you are describing with…

response variable... (dependent variable)

explanatory variable... (independent vari…

scatterplots

direction

measures the outcome of any study and is plotted on the y axis

influences the response variable and is plotted on the x axis

graphs used to find the relationships between 2 quantitative…

the overall pattern moves up, left to right (+) or down, left…

response variable... (dependent variable)

measures the outcome of any study and is plotted on the y axis

explanatory variable... (independent vari…

influences the response variable and is plotted on the x axis

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Objects described by a set of data. ... E.g. People, animals, th…

- Any characteristic of an individual... - Can take different va…

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories

Takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such a…

Individuals

Objects described by a set of data. ... E.g. People, animals, th…

Variable

- Any characteristic of an individual... - Can take different va…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Individuals are objects described by a set of data. Individua…

A variable is any characteristic of an individual. A variable…

A categorical variable places an individual into one of sever…

A quantitative variable takes numerical values for which arit…

Individuals

Individuals are objects described by a set of data. Individua…

Variable

A variable is any characteristic of an individual. A variable…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Symmetric

Parameter

Statistic

Median

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

value of a population (typically unknown)

a calculated value about a population from a sample(s).

the middle point of the data (50th percentile) when the data…

Symmetric

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

Parameter

value of a population (typically unknown)

Distribution

Range

Dotplot

Symmetric

Distribution of a variable tells us what values the variable…

Maximum value minus minimum value for a set of quantitative d…

One of the simplest graphs to construct and interpret/each da…

A distribution is roughly symmetric if the right and left sid…

Distribution

Distribution of a variable tells us what values the variable…

Range

Maximum value minus minimum value for a set of quantitative d…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

categorical data

continuous data

data

data collection

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…

The plural form of the word datum. A collection of pieces of…

Gathering information for selected population members through…

categorical data

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…

continuous data

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…

Residual Plot

Outlier

Influential Point

LN Transformation

1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…

Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…

A point that omitted from analysis gives a very different mod…

LN(y)=LN(ax+b)

Residual Plot

1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…

Outlier

Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variables

The objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animal…

Any characteristic of an individual.

Type of variable that places an individual into one of severa…

Type of variable that takes numerical values for which it mak…

Individuals

The objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animal…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual.

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

Population

Sample

Sampling

Census

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

The subset of population we collect data from.

Studying a part to gain info about the whole (studying the sa…

Contacts every individual of the population.

Population

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

Sample

The subset of population we collect data from.

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

Type I Error

Type II Error

z-distribution

normal

Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…

Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…

The standard normal distribution (z distribution) is a normal…

a bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristi…

Type I Error

Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…

Type II Error

Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data

any characteristic of an individual

places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

individuals

objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data

variable

any characteristic of an individual

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Mean

Median

Shifting (adding and subtracting)

Scaling (multiplying or dividing data)

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…

Does not affect s.d., IQR or range (measures of spread) affec…

Affects s.d., IQR, range, mean, and 5 number summary

Mean

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

Median

The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, sho…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

LSRL

standard deviation

outlier rule

linear transformations

Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…

Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…

Upper Bound = Q3 + 1.5(IQR)... Lower Bound = Q1 - 1.5(IQR)... IQR =…

Adding "a" to every member of a data set adds "a" to the meas…

LSRL

Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…

standard deviation

Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…