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Point Estimate

Confidence Interval

Confidence Interval (two parts)

Confidence Level C

To estimate an unknown population parameter, start with a sta…

A (confidence Interval) use sample data to estimate an unknow…

1. Interval computed from the data ... 2. Confidence Level C.

The (confidence Level C), is the success rate of the method t…

Point Estimate

To estimate an unknown population parameter, start with a sta…

Confidence Interval

A (confidence Interval) use sample data to estimate an unknow…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Symmetric

Parameter

Statistic

Median

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

value of a population (typically unknown)

a calculated value about a population from a sample(s).

the middle point of the data (50th percentile) when the data…

Symmetric

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

Parameter

value of a population (typically unknown)

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

categorical data

continuous data

data

data collection

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…

The plural form of the word datum. A collection of pieces of…

Gathering information for selected population members through…

categorical data

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…

continuous data

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variables

The objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animal…

Any characteristic of an individual.

Type of variable that places an individual into one of severa…

Type of variable that takes numerical values for which it mak…

Individuals

The objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animal…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual.

Residual Plot

Outlier

Influential Point

LN Transformation

1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…

Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…

A point that omitted from analysis gives a very different mod…

LN(y)=LN(ax+b)

Residual Plot

1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…

Outlier

Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

Population

Sample

Sampling

Census

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

The subset of population we collect data from.

Studying a part to gain info about the whole (studying the sa…

Contacts every individual of the population.

Population

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

Sample

The subset of population we collect data from.

Type I Error

Type II Error

z-distribution

normal

Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…

Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…

The standard normal distribution (z distribution) is a normal…

a bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristi…

Type I Error

Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…

Type II Error

Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data

any characteristic of an individual

places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

individuals

objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data

variable

any characteristic of an individual

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, sho…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

LSRL

standard deviation

outlier rule

linear transformations

Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…

Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…

Upper Bound = Q3 + 1.5(IQR)... Lower Bound = Q1 - 1.5(IQR)... IQR =…

Adding "a" to every member of a data set adds "a" to the meas…

LSRL

Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…

standard deviation

Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…

Mean

Median

Shifting (adding and subtracting)

Scaling (multiplying or dividing data)

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…

Does not affect s.d., IQR or range (measures of spread) affec…

Affects s.d., IQR, range, mean, and 5 number summary

Mean

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

Median

The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Random

Independent

Sample Space

With replacement the denominator is...

Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…

The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…

The set of all possible outcomes. Can be presented as a list…

Constant

Random

Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…

Independent

The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…

Frequency Distribution

Comparative bar chart

Pie chart

Segmented bar graph

A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…

Two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…

a graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data se…

Used to compare the distribution of a categorical variable in…

Frequency Distribution

A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…

Comparative bar chart

Two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…

Sample mean

Population mean

Trimmed mean

Trimming percentage

x̅ The average of the data values in a sample

μ the average in the entire population

A method of averaging that removes a small percentage of the…

the percentage of values deleted fro each end of an ordered l…

Sample mean

x̅ The average of the data values in a sample

Population mean

μ the average in the entire population

Alpha

Alternative Hypothesis

Back to Back Stemplots

Bar Chart

the probability of a Type I Error

the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by som…

a graphic option for comparing data from two populations

graph in which the frequencies of categorial data are display…

Alpha

the probability of a Type I Error

Alternative Hypothesis

the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by som…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

Variables

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Frequency Table

Characteristic of an individual

Places individual into a category

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Table of counts

Variables

Characteristic of an individual

Categorical Variable

Places individual into a category

Population

Sample

Observational Study

Experiment

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Part of the population selected for the study.

Investigators observe subjects and measure variables of inter…

Investigators apply the treatments to experimental units (peo…

Population

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Sample

Part of the population selected for the study.

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

Geometric probability model

Mean & Standard Deviation of Geometic…

Binomial probability model

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2.…

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts…

Mean = 1/p... SD = sqrt(q)/p

- Tells us the probabilty for a random variable that counts t…

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2.…

Geometric probability model

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts…

One proportion z-test conditions

One proportion givens

One proportion null hypothesis

One proportion alternative hypothesis

1. One SRS is given/assumed... 2. np̂ > 10... 3. nq^ > 10... 4. Popula…

p, p̂, x, n, SRS

p = ____

p (>/</≠) ____

One proportion z-test conditions

1. One SRS is given/assumed... 2. np̂ > 10... 3. nq^ > 10... 4. Popula…

One proportion givens

p, p̂, x, n, SRS

formula for 1-proportion z-interval

formula for 1 sample t-interval for a…

type I error

type II error

Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact true.

Failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact false.

formula for 1-proportion z-interval

formula for 1 sample t-interval for a…

Adding or subtracting a constant to ev…

Multiplying or dividing every data val…

Changing the center and spread of a va…

Standardizing

adds or subtracts to measures of POSITION and CENTER... does not…

multiplies or divides that constant to measures of POSITION,…

changing its units

Uses the standard deviation as a ruler to measure distance fr…

Adding or subtracting a constant to ev…

adds or subtracts to measures of POSITION and CENTER... does not…

Multiplying or dividing every data val…

multiplies or divides that constant to measures of POSITION,…

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…

-places an individual into one of several groups or categorie…

-takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an a…

individuals

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…

variable

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

Goodness of fit test

X² distribution

X² goodness of fit test

Rule for X² hypotheses

●Skewed right... ●Not normal... ●As d.f. increases, it looks more s…

●Uses categorical data (table or chart)... ●Takes only positive…

One list of observed values

Always written in words

Goodness of fit test

●Skewed right... ●Not normal... ●As d.f. increases, it looks more s…

X² distribution

●Uses categorical data (table or chart)... ●Takes only positive…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Probability

Trial

Outcome

Event

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

A single attempt

Value measured, observed, or reported for an individual insta…

A collection of outcomes

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

Trial

A single attempt

Interpret Standard Deviation

Linear Transformations

Outlier Rule

Describe the Distribution Or Compare t…

Standard Deviation measures spread by giving the "typical" or…

Interpret Standard Deviation

Standard Deviation measures spread by giving the "typical" or…

Linear Transformations

Density Curve

Median of density curve

Quartiles

Mean of density curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Area under the curve is divided into quarters

The "balance" part

Density Curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

Median of density curve

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…