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21 terms
Estimating with Confidence Chapter 8 Vocabulary Words (summary) The Pracitice of Statistics fourth edition AP. By Starnes Yates Moore.
Point Estimate
Confidence Interval
Confidence Interval (two parts)
Confidence Level C
To estimate an unknown population parameter, start with a sta…
A (confidence Interval) use sample data to estimate an unknow…
1. Interval computed from the data ... 2. Confidence Level C.
The (confidence Level C), is the success rate of the method t…
Point Estimate
To estimate an unknown population parameter, start with a sta…
Confidence Interval
A (confidence Interval) use sample data to estimate an unknow…
138 terms
AP Statistics
context
data
data table
case
ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…
systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…
an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…
an individual about whom or which we have data
context
ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…
data
systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…
83 terms
AP Statistics
Statistical Significance
Non-Response Bias
P-Value
Empirical Rule
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…
A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…
Statistical Significance
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Non-Response Bias
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
61 terms
AP Statistics Vocabulary
Symmetric
Parameter
Statistic
Median
data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…
value of a population (typically unknown)
a calculated value about a population from a sample(s).
the middle point of the data (50th percentile) when the data…
Symmetric
data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…
Parameter
value of a population (typically unknown)
114 terms
AP Statistics Exam Review
What is a dotplot?
What's the difference between categori…
What is a bar chart?
What are histograms?
A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…
Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…
A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…
Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…
What is a dotplot?
A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…
What's the difference between categori…
Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…
40 terms
AP Statistics Symbols
Predicted y-value
y-intercept
Slope
Correlation coefficient
Predicted y-value
y-intercept
114 terms
AP Statistics Exam Review
What is a dotplot?
What's the difference between categori…
What is a bar chart?
What are histograms?
A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…
Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…
A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…
Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…
What is a dotplot?
A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…
What's the difference between categori…
Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…
23 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 3 VOCAB
Response Variable
Explanatory Variable
Scatterplot
Positive Association
measures an outcome of a study
may help explain or predict changes in a response variable
shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…
data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…
Response Variable
measures an outcome of a study
Explanatory Variable
may help explain or predict changes in a response variable
138 terms
AP Statistics
context
data
data table
case
ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…
systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…
an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…
an individual about whom or which we have data
context
ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…
data
systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…
17 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 5 Vocab
Probability
Law of Large Numbers
Simulation
Sample Space (S)
A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…
If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…
An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…
The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.
Probability
A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…
Law of Large Numbers
If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…
50 terms
AP Statistics
categorical data
continuous data
data
data collection
Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…
Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…
The plural form of the word datum. A collection of pieces of…
Gathering information for selected population members through…
categorical data
Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…
continuous data
Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…
21 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 2 Vocab
Percentile
Frequency Graph
Relative Frequency Graph
Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph
the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…
A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…
A graph showing the percent values of each class from the who…
The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the…
Percentile
the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than i…
Frequency Graph
A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a…
40 terms
AP Statistics Vocabulary Chapter 1
Individuals
Variable
Categorical Variable
Quantitative Variable
the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…
any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…
places an individual into one of several groups or categories.
take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…
Individuals
the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…
Variable
any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…
99 terms
AP Statistics
Individuals
Variable
Categorical Variable
Quantitative Variables
The objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animal…
Any characteristic of an individual.
Type of variable that places an individual into one of severa…
Type of variable that takes numerical values for which it mak…
Individuals
The objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animal…
Variable
Any characteristic of an individual.
9 terms
AP Statistics - Regression II
Residual Plot
Outlier
Influential Point
LN Transformation
1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…
Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…
A point that omitted from analysis gives a very different mod…
LN(y)=LN(ax+b)
Residual Plot
1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…
Outlier
Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…
120 terms
AP Statistics
5 number summary
z score
standard deviation
population
The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…
a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…
A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…
(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…
5 number summary
The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…
z score
a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…
20 terms
AP STATISTICS
population mean
sample mean
population size
sample size
N
n
population mean
sample mean
120 terms
AP Statistics
5 number summary
z score
standard deviation
population
The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…
a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…
A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…
(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…
5 number summary
The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…
z score
a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…
39 terms
AP Statistics: Unit 1 Vocabulary
Population
Sample
Sampling
Census
The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…
The subset of population we collect data from.
Studying a part to gain info about the whole (studying the sa…
Contacts every individual of the population.
Population
The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…
Sample
The subset of population we collect data from.
90 terms
AP Statistics
Type I Error
Type II Error
z-distribution
normal
Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…
Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…
The standard normal distribution (z distribution) is a normal…
a bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristi…
Type I Error
Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…
Type II Error
Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…
83 terms
AP Statistics
Statistical Significance
Non-Response Bias
P-Value
Empirical Rule
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…
A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…
Statistical Significance
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Non-Response Bias
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
144 terms
AP Statistics
individuals
variable
categorical variable
quantitative variable
objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data
any characteristic of an individual
places an individual into one of several groups or categories…
takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…
individuals
objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data
variable
any characteristic of an individual
194 terms
AP Statistics
How do you check if there is outliers?
If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…
If a graph is roughly symmetrical, sho…
What is in the five number summary?
calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…
median; it is resistant to skews and outliers
mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers
Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum
How do you check if there is outliers?
calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…
If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…
median; it is resistant to skews and outliers
42 terms
AP Statistics
LSRL
standard deviation
outlier rule
linear transformations
Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…
Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…
Upper Bound = Q3 + 1.5(IQR)... Lower Bound = Q1 - 1.5(IQR)... IQR =…
Adding "a" to every member of a data set adds "a" to the meas…
LSRL
Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…
standard deviation
Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…
28 terms
AP Statistics Q1 Review
Mean
Median
Shifting (adding and subtracting)
Scaling (multiplying or dividing data)
The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items
The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…
Does not affect s.d., IQR or range (measures of spread) affec…
Affects s.d., IQR, range, mean, and 5 number summary
Mean
The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items
Median
The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…
83 terms
AP Statistics
Statistical Significance
Non-Response Bias
P-Value
Empirical Rule
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…
A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…
Statistical Significance
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Non-Response Bias
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
39 terms
AP Statistics - Chapter 4
Population
Sample
Sample Survey
Convenience Sample
The entire group of individuals about which we want information
The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…
A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…
Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…
Population
The entire group of individuals about which we want information
Sample
The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…
41 terms
AP Statistics: Chapter 6
Random
Independent
Sample Space
With replacement the denominator is...
Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…
The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…
The set of all possible outcomes. Can be presented as a list…
Constant
Random
Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…
Independent
The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…
13 terms
AP Statistics Chap 3
Frequency Distribution
Comparative bar chart
Pie chart
Segmented bar graph
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…
Two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…
a graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data se…
Used to compare the distribution of a categorical variable in…
Frequency Distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…
Comparative bar chart
Two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…
15 terms
AP Statistics Chap 4
Sample mean
Population mean
Trimmed mean
Trimming percentage
x̅ The average of the data values in a sample
μ the average in the entire population
A method of averaging that removes a small percentage of the…
the percentage of values deleted fro each end of an ordered l…
Sample mean
x̅ The average of the data values in a sample
Population mean
μ the average in the entire population
91 terms
AP Statistics
Alpha
Alternative Hypothesis
Back to Back Stemplots
Bar Chart
the probability of a Type I Error
the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by som…
a graphic option for comparing data from two populations
graph in which the frequencies of categorial data are display…
Alpha
the probability of a Type I Error
Alternative Hypothesis
the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by som…
83 terms
AP Statistics
Statistical Significance
Non-Response Bias
P-Value
Empirical Rule
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…
A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…
Statistical Significance
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Non-Response Bias
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
141 terms
AP Statistics TERM 1 VOCAB
Probability
Law of Large Numbers
Simulation
Sample Space (S)
A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…
If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…
An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…
The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.
Probability
A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…
Law of Large Numbers
If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…
52 terms
Chapter 4 AP Statistics
Bias
Census
Cluster sample
Convenience sample
The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…
A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…
To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…
A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…
Bias
The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…
Census
A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…
42 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 1
Variables
Categorical Variable
Quantitative Variable
Frequency Table
Characteristic of an individual
Places individual into a category
Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…
Table of counts
Variables
Characteristic of an individual
Categorical Variable
Places individual into a category
35 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 1
Population
Sample
Observational Study
Experiment
The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…
Part of the population selected for the study.
Investigators observe subjects and measure variables of inter…
Investigators apply the treatments to experimental units (peo…
Population
The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…
Sample
Part of the population selected for the study.
9 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 17
Conditions for Bernoulli Trials
Geometric probability model
Mean & Standard Deviation of Geometic…
Binomial probability model
1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2.…
- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts…
Mean = 1/p... SD = sqrt(q)/p
- Tells us the probabilty for a random variable that counts t…
Conditions for Bernoulli Trials
1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2.…
Geometric probability model
- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts…
Ap Lang- Wes Moore
Phalanx
Narcissistic
Heinous
Self-exculpatory
N. A body of troops
Adj. Full of ones self
Adj. Ugly, Disgusting, Evil
Adj. Clearing of guilt
Phalanx
N. A body of troops
Narcissistic
Adj. Full of ones self
23 terms
AP Statistics: Chapter 12
One proportion z-test conditions
One proportion givens
One proportion null hypothesis
One proportion alternative hypothesis
1. One SRS is given/assumed... 2. np̂ > 10... 3. nq^ > 10... 4. Popula…
p, p̂, x, n, SRS
p = ____
p (>/</≠) ____
One proportion z-test conditions
1. One SRS is given/assumed... 2. np̂ > 10... 3. nq^ > 10... 4. Popula…
One proportion givens
p, p̂, x, n, SRS
46 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 1
Individuals
Variables
Categorical Variable
Quantitative Variable
Objects
Characteristic of an individual
Places individual into a category
Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…
Individuals
Objects
Variables
Characteristic of an individual
40 terms
AP Statistics Symbols
Predicted y-value
y-intercept
Slope
Correlation coefficient
Predicted y-value
y-intercept
77 terms
AP Statistics Exam Review
formula for 1-proportion z-interval
formula for 1 sample t-interval for a…
type I error
type II error
Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact true.
Failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact false.
formula for 1-proportion z-interval
formula for 1 sample t-interval for a…
30 terms
AP Statistics Chapter 6
Adding or subtracting a constant to ev…
Multiplying or dividing every data val…
Changing the center and spread of a va…
Standardizing
adds or subtracts to measures of POSITION and CENTER... does not…
multiplies or divides that constant to measures of POSITION,…
changing its units
Uses the standard deviation as a ruler to measure distance fr…
Adding or subtracting a constant to ev…
adds or subtracts to measures of POSITION and CENTER... does not…
Multiplying or dividing every data val…
multiplies or divides that constant to measures of POSITION,…
191 terms
AP Statistics: Key Vocabulary
individuals
variable
categorical variable
quantitative variable
-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…
-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…
-places an individual into one of several groups or categorie…
-takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an a…
individuals
-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…
variable
-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…
114 terms
AP Statistics Exam Review
What is a dotplot?
What's the difference between categori…
What is a bar chart?
What are histograms?
A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…
Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…
A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…
Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…
What is a dotplot?
A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…
What's the difference between categori…
Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…
17 terms
AP Statistics: Chapter 13
Goodness of fit test
X² distribution
X² goodness of fit test
Rule for X² hypotheses
●Skewed right... ●Not normal... ●As d.f. increases, it looks more s…
●Uses categorical data (table or chart)... ●Takes only positive…
One list of observed values
Always written in words
Goodness of fit test
●Skewed right... ●Not normal... ●As d.f. increases, it looks more s…
X² distribution
●Uses categorical data (table or chart)... ●Takes only positive…
83 terms
AP Statistics
Statistical Significance
Non-Response Bias
P-Value
Empirical Rule
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…
A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…
Statistical Significance
An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Non-Response Bias
Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…
14 terms
AP Statistics Probability
Probability
Trial
Outcome
Event
A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…
A single attempt
Value measured, observed, or reported for an individual insta…
A collection of outcomes
Probability
A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…
Trial
A single attempt
60 terms
AP Statistics Vocab TPS4
Interpret Standard Deviation
Linear Transformations
Outlier Rule
Describe the Distribution Or Compare t…
Standard Deviation measures spread by giving the "typical" or…
Interpret Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation measures spread by giving the "typical" or…
Linear Transformations
35 terms
AP Statistics: Chapter 2
Density Curve
Median of density curve
Quartiles
Mean of density curve
A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…
The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…
Area under the curve is divided into quarters
The "balance" part
Density Curve
A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…
Median of density curve
The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…
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