# Study sets matching "ap statistics vocabulary"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, shou…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

context

data

data table

variable

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

holds information about the same characteristic for many cases

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

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Parameter

Statistic

Convenience Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

A calculation made from population data

A calculation made from sample data

Uses subjects that are readily available (no randomization)

Subjects choose to be part of the sample (no randomization)

Parameter

A calculation made from population data

Statistic

A calculation made from sample data

density curve

µ (mu)

σ (sigma)

outcomes

A curve that describes the overall pattern of a distribution.…

mean of distribution

standard deviation of a density curve

The results of a chance experiment

density curve

A curve that describes the overall pattern of a distribution.…

µ (mu)

mean of distribution

categorical data

continuous data

data

data collection

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or label…

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decimal…

The plural form of the word datum. A collection of pieces of i…

Gathering information for selected population members through…

categorical data

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or label…

continuous data

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decimal…

observational study

experiment

experimental unit

factor

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

the single individual to which the different treatments are as…

the explanatory variable (what is being tested)

observational study

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

experiment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. in…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guarant…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Test of Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis

Type I Error

A decision procedure for evaluating the validity of a null hyp…

The hypothesis of no difference, no change, and no association…

The statement you will adopt in the situation in which the evi…

Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact true; often res…

Test of Hypothesis

A decision procedure for evaluating the validity of a null hyp…

Null Hypothesis

The hypothesis of no difference, no change, and no association…

biased

parameter

blinding

average

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its p…

a number that is used to represent a population characteristic…

not telling participants which treatment a subject is getting

Also called the mean; a number that describes the central tend…

biased

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its p…

parameter

a number that is used to represent a population characteristic…

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

Parameter

Statistic

Sampling variability

Population distribution

a number that describes some characteristic of the population;…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample; often…

the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling

describes individuals

Parameter

a number that describes some characteristic of the population;…

Statistic

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample; often…

Percentile

Standardizing

Standardized Score

Multiply/Dividing a Constant

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than it…

The conversion of observations from original values to standar…

Also known as the z-score. Tells how many standard deviations…

Affects measures of center and spread, but not shape

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than it…

Standardizing

The conversion of observations from original values to standar…

Mean

IQR

Standard Deviation

Measures of Position

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Common measure of spread. How far each observation is from the…

Percentiles: Percentile tells us a data point's position relat…

Mean

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

IQR

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than it…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a d…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than it…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a d…

Histogram

Statistics

Variability

Descriptive Statistics

A graph of vertical bars in intervals representing the frequen…

The scientific discipline that provides methods to help us mak…

In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from…

Methods of organizing and summarizing data; usually aided by t…

Histogram

A graph of vertical bars in intervals representing the frequen…

Statistics

The scientific discipline that provides methods to help us mak…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

context

data

data table

variable

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

holds information about the same characteristic for many cases

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of time…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process,…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that a…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of time…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process,…

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What is the population in a statistical…

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

What is a convenience sample, and why i…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. However…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors certa…

What is the population in a statistical…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

Mean

Median

Shifting (adding and subtracting)

Scaling (multiplying or dividing data)

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

The middle number when the data is in order from least to grea…

Does not affect s.d., IQR or range (measures of spread) affect…

Affects s.d., IQR, range, mean, and 5 number summary

Mean

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

Median

The middle number when the data is in order from least to grea…

parameter (think "parameter" begins wit…

statistic (think "samle" begins with a…

sampling distribution of a statistic

biased

a number that describes some characteristic of the population…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample (typic…

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…

not estimating the true center well

parameter (think "parameter" begins wit…

a number that describes some characteristic of the population…

statistic (think "samle" begins with a…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample (typic…