# Study sets matching "ap statistics vocabulary"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people, a…

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different value…

-places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

-takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

individuals

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people, a…

variable

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different value…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Population

Census

Parameter

Sample

An entire group of study

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Number used to describe the population (Ex. 96% of WLN student…

Small section of population that we use to gain information ab…

Population

An entire group of study

Census

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, shou…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

Parameter

Min, Q1, Med, Q3, Max... 25% of data between each number... The f…

std dev from mean... -Number of standard deviations a score is…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

From the whole population- usually unknown... We use statistics…

5 number summary

Min, Q1, Med, Q3, Max... 25% of data between each number... The f…

z score

std dev from mean... -Number of standard deviations a score is…

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

Geometric probability model

Mean & Standard Deviation of Geometic m…

Binomial probability model

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2. t…

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts t…

Mean = 1/p... SD = sqrt(q)/p

- Tells us the probabilty for a random variable that counts th…

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2. t…

Geometric probability model

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts t…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

p-Value

Empirical rule

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…

The probability of getting a result at least as extreme as the…

States that, in a normal distribution, about 68% of the terms…

Statistical Significance

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…

Non-Response Bias

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…

standard error

one-sample z interval for a population…

sampling variability (and NOTHING else!)

use phat = .5 (creates largest MoE)

When a standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from dat…

What should you include in step three for labeling (in proport…

What sources of error are taken into account for the margin of…

What should you do when calculating the Margin of Error for a…

standard error

When a standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from dat…

one-sample z interval for a population…

What should you include in step three for labeling (in proport…

Mean

IQR

Standard Deviation

Measures of Position

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Common measure of spread. How far each observation is from the…

Percentiles: Percentile tells us a data point's position relat…

Mean

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

IQR

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than it…

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a d…

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

the value in a data set with p percent of values lower than it…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts (or frequency) of each class in a d…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. in…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guarant…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

Observational Study

Survey

Experiment

Factors

Investigator observes characteristics of a subset an existing…

Interviewer seeks information from a respondent by engaging in…

Investigator observes how a response variable behaves when oth…

Another name for the variables that researchers manipulate to…

Observational Study

Investigator observes characteristics of a subset an existing…

Survey

Interviewer seeks information from a respondent by engaging in…

context

data

data table

variable

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

holds information about the same characteristic for many cases

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Pie Chart

Outliers

Bar Chart

Segmented Bar Chart

Qualitative data display that shows how a "whole" divides into…

Individual observation(s) that falls outside the overall patte…

Qualitative display showing the frequency or relative frequenc…

Qualitative display where sub-categories are represented by a…

Pie Chart

Qualitative data display that shows how a "whole" divides into…

Outliers

Individual observation(s) that falls outside the overall patte…

Probability Distribution

Sampling Distribution

Uniform Distribution

Bar chart

The probability distribution of a sample statistic when a samp…

Distribution where populations are spaced evenly

A graph that measures the distribution of data over discrete g…

Probability Distribution

Sampling Distribution

The probability distribution of a sample statistic when a samp…