# ap statistics vocabulary Flashcards

Browse 500 sets of ap statistics vocabulary flashcards

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

parameter

statistic

sampling variability

sampling distribution

a number that describes some characteristics of the population

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample

value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…

parameter

a number that describes some characteristics of the population

statistic

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it would consi…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual in…

To take this sample, first divide the population into smaller…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population that…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it would consi…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual in…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Performing a Simulation

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of time…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process,…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a model that accurate…

There are four steps:... 1. State: Ask a question of interest.... 2…

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of time…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process,…

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

Positive association

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (bivar…

As x increases, y increases

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

Mean

IQR

Standard Deviation

Measures of Position

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Common measure of spread. How far each observation is from the…

Percentiles: Percentile tells us a data point's position relat…

Mean

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

IQR

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

How do you check if there are outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, shou…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there are outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

Parameter

Min, Q1, Med, Q3, Max... 25% of data between each number... The f…

std dev from mean... -Number of standard deviations a score is…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

From the whole population- usually unknown... We use statistics…

5 number summary

Min, Q1, Med, Q3, Max... 25% of data between each number... The f…

z score

std dev from mean... -Number of standard deviations a score is…

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, shou…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

Population

Census

Parameter

Sample

An entire group of study

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Number used to describe the population (Ex. 96% of WLN student…

Small section of population that we use to gain information ab…

Population

An entire group of study

Census

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

p-Value

Empirical rule

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…

The probability of getting a result at least as extreme as the…

States that, in a normal distribution, about 68% of the terms…

Statistical Significance

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…

Non-Response Bias

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…

Completely Randomized Design

Block Design (Randomized Block Design)

Matched Pairs Design

Observational Study

Treatments are assigned to experimental units entirely by chan…

Experimental units are first grouped by a similar characterist…

Special type of block design where two experimental units are…

Where we collect data from individuals and measure variables o…

Completely Randomized Design

Treatments are assigned to experimental units entirely by chan…

Block Design (Randomized Block Design)

Experimental units are first grouped by a similar characterist…

Distribution

Histogram (Relative Frequency Histogram)

Gap

Stem-and-Leaf Display

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-w…

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

A region of the distribution where there are no values.

Shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dist…

Distribution

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-w…

Histogram (Relative Frequency Histogram)

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

standard error

one-sample z interval for a population…

sampling variability (and NOTHING else!)

use phat = .5 (creates largest MoE)

When a standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from dat…

What should you include in step three for labeling (in proport…

What sources of error are taken into account for the margin of…

What should you do when calculating the Margin of Error for a…

standard error

When a standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from dat…

one-sample z interval for a population…

What should you include in step three for labeling (in proport…

Chance experiment

Sample space

Event

Simple event

Any process that generates observations whose outcomes cannot…

Set of all possible outcomes of a chance experiment

An outcome or set of outcomes of a chance experiment

An event that consists of exactly one outcome

Chance experiment

Any process that generates observations whose outcomes cannot…

Sample space

Set of all possible outcomes of a chance experiment

observational study

experiment

experimental unit

factor

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

the single individual to which the different treatments are as…

the explanatory variable (what is being tested)

observational study

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

experiment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Population Parameter

Population mean

Population proportion

Sample Statistics

If the variable is describing an entire population, the number…

If the variable is describing a sample from a population the n…

Population Parameter

If the variable is describing an entire population, the number…

Population mean