# ap statistics vocabulary Flashcards

Browse 500 sets of ap statistics vocabulary flashcards

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Interpret Standard Deviation

Outlier Rule

Linear Transformations

Describe the Distributions OR Compare t…

Standard deviation measures spread by giving the "typical" or…

SOCS!... Shape, Outlier, Center, Spread... Only discuss outlires if…

Interpret Standard Deviation

Standard deviation measures spread by giving the "typical" or…

Outlier Rule

Categorical vs. Quantitative Data

Marginal vs. Conditional Distributions

SOCS

Comparing... Distributions

Data are categorical if they fall into groups or... categories a…

In a two-way table, marginal distributions consider... only one…

Shape - Skewed Left, Skewed Right, Symmetric,... Uniform, Unimod…

Address: Shape, Outliers, Center, Spread... in context!... YOU MUS…

Categorical vs. Quantitative Data

Data are categorical if they fall into groups or... categories a…

Marginal vs. Conditional Distributions

In a two-way table, marginal distributions consider... only one…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it would consi…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual in…

To take this sample, first divide the population into smaller…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population that…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it would consi…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual in…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, shou…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

Variables

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Frequency Table

Characteristic of an individual

Places individual into a category

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Table of counts

Variables

Characteristic of an individual

Categorical Variable

Places individual into a category

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

standard error

one-sample z interval for a population…

sampling variability (and NOTHING else!)

use phat = .5 (creates largest MoE)

When a standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from dat…

What should you include in step three for labeling (in proport…

What sources of error are taken into account for the margin of…

What should you do when calculating the Margin of Error for a…

standard error

When a standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from dat…

one-sample z interval for a population…

What should you include in step three for labeling (in proport…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

Parameter

Min, Q1, Med, Q3, Max... 25% of data between each number... The f…

std dev from mean... -Number of standard deviations a score is…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

From the whole population- usually unknown... We use statistics…

5 number summary

Min, Q1, Med, Q3, Max... 25% of data between each number... The f…

z score

std dev from mean... -Number of standard deviations a score is…

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

Geometric probability model

Mean & Standard Deviation of Geometic m…

Binomial probability model

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2. t…

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts t…

Mean = 1/p... SD = sqrt(q)/p

- Tells us the probabilty for a random variable that counts th…

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2. t…

Geometric probability model

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts t…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Population

Census

Parameter

Sample

An entire group of study

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Number used to describe the population (Ex. 96% of WLN student…

Small section of population that we use to gain information ab…

Population

An entire group of study

Census

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypthesis

One-Sided

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

The claim that we are trying to find evidence for in a signifi…

It states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null Hypothesis

Claim we weigh evidence against in a significance test

Distribution

Histogram (Relative Frequency Histogram)

Gap

Stem-and-Leaf Display

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-w…

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

A region of the distribution where there are no values.

Shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dist…

Distribution

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-w…

Histogram (Relative Frequency Histogram)

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

observational study

experiment

experimental unit

factor

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

the single individual to which the different treatments are as…

the explanatory variable (what is being tested)

observational study

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

experiment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

p-Value

Empirical rule

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…

The probability of getting a result at least as extreme as the…

States that, in a normal distribution, about 68% of the terms…

Statistical Significance

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…

Non-Response Bias

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…

Percentile

Frequency Graph

Relative Frequency Graph

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

A graph showing the percent values of each class from the whol…

The cumulative relative frequency of successive class is the r…

Percentile

The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p perce…

Frequency Graph

A graph showing the counts of each class in a distribution.

Mean

IQR

Standard Deviation

Measures of Position

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Common measure of spread. How far each observation is from the…

Percentiles: Percentile tells us a data point's position relat…

Mean

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

IQR

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Parameter

Statistic

Convenience Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

A calculation made from population data

A calculation made from sample data

Uses subjects that are readily available (no randomization)

Subjects choose to be part of the sample (no randomization)

Parameter

A calculation made from population data

Statistic

A calculation made from sample data

Area Principle

Frequency (Relative) Frequency Table

Distribution

Bar Chart (Relative Frequency Bar Chart)

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the c…

Gives the possible values of the variable and the relative fre…

Shows a bar whose area represents the count (or percentage) of…

Area Principle

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

Frequency (Relative) Frequency Table

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the c…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

What is the population in a statistical…

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

What is a convenience sample, and why i…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. However…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors certa…

What is the population in a statistical…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…