#### Study sets matching "ap statistics"

#### Study sets matching "ap statistics"

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

Symmetric

Parameter

Statistic

Median

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

value of a population (typically unknown)

a calculated value about a population from a sample(s).

the middle point of the data (50th percentile) when the data…

Symmetric

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

Parameter

value of a population (typically unknown)

Parameter

Statistic

Convenience Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

A calculation made from population data

A calculation made from sample data

Uses subjects that are readily available (no randomization)

Subjects choose to be part of the sample (no randomization)

Parameter

A calculation made from population data

Statistic

A calculation made from sample data

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

Type I Error

Type II Error

z-distribution

normal

Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…

Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…

The standard normal distribution (z distribution) is a normal…

a bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristi…

Type I Error

Type 1 Error (level of significance-alpha):... FALSE POSITIVE: I…

Type II Error

Type 2 Error (Statistical power-beta): ... FALSE NEGATIVE: Failu…

Residual Plot

Outlier

Influential Point

LN Transformation

1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…

Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…

A point that omitted from analysis gives a very different mod…

LN(y)=LN(ax+b)

Residual Plot

1) Residual = Observed Value - Predicted Value... e = y - ŷ = Ob…

Outlier

Data points that stand away from body of distribution. 1.5 IQ…

categorical data

continuous data

data

data collection

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…

The plural form of the word datum. A collection of pieces of…

Gathering information for selected population members through…

categorical data

Data are categorical if they are in the form of names or labe…

continuous data

Measured data that can be whole numbers, fractions, or decima…

Alpha

Alternative Hypothesis

Back to Back Stemplots

Bar Chart

the probability of a Type I Error

the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by som…

a graphic option for comparing data from two populations

graph in which the frequencies of categorial data are display…

Alpha

the probability of a Type I Error

Alternative Hypothesis

the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by som…

Random

Independent

Sample Space

With replacement the denominator is...

Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…

The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…

The set of all possible outcomes. Can be presented as a list…

Constant

Random

Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…

Independent

The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on avera…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sampl…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, an…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from t…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, sho…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data

any characteristic of an individual

places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

individuals

objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data

variable

any characteristic of an individual

One proportion z-test conditions

One proportion givens

One proportion null hypothesis

One proportion alternative hypothesis

1. One SRS is given/assumed... 2. np̂ > 10... 3. nq^ > 10... 4. Popula…

p, p̂, x, n, SRS

p = ____

p (>/</≠) ____

One proportion z-test conditions

1. One SRS is given/assumed... 2. np̂ > 10... 3. nq^ > 10... 4. Popula…

One proportion givens

p, p̂, x, n, SRS

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

LSRL

standard deviation

outlier rule

linear transformations

Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…

Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…

Upper Bound = Q3 + 1.5(IQR)... Lower Bound = Q1 - 1.5(IQR)... IQR =…

Adding "a" to every member of a data set adds "a" to the meas…

LSRL

Least Squares Regression Line: the linear fit that matches th…

standard deviation

Measures spread by giving the "typical" or "average" distance…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, al…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sa…

Population

Sample

Observational Study

Experiment

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Part of the population selected for the study.

Investigators observe subjects and measure variables of inter…

Investigators apply the treatments to experimental units (peo…

Population

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Sample

Part of the population selected for the study.

Population

Sample

Sampling

Census

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

The subset of population we collect data from.

Studying a part to gain info about the whole (studying the sa…

Contacts every individual of the population.

Population

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

Sample

The subset of population we collect data from.

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, sho…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcul…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

formula for 1-proportion z-interval

formula for 1 sample t-interval for a…

type I error

type II error

Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact true.

Failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact false.

formula for 1-proportion z-interval

formula for 1 sample t-interval for a…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

response variable

trial

population

sample

values of this variable record the results of each trial with…

the sequence of several components representing events that w…

the entire group of individuals or instances about whom we ho…

a representative subset of a population, examined in hope of…

response variable

values of this variable record the results of each trial with…

trial

the sequence of several components representing events that w…

Density Curve

Median of density curve

Quartiles

Mean of density curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Area under the curve is divided into quarters

The "balance" part

Density Curve

A curve that is always above the horizontal axis and has an a…

Median of density curve

The "equal areas" part, the part with half the curve to it's…

Adding or subtracting a constant to ev…

Multiplying or dividing every data val…

Changing the center and spread of a va…

Standardizing

adds or subtracts to measures of POSITION and CENTER... does not…

multiplies or divides that constant to measures of POSITION,…

changing its units

Uses the standard deviation as a ruler to measure distance fr…

Adding or subtracting a constant to ev…

adds or subtracts to measures of POSITION and CENTER... does not…

Multiplying or dividing every data val…

multiplies or divides that constant to measures of POSITION,…

Statistics

Individuals

Variable

Objects

the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numer…

Objects described by a set of data

Any characteristic of an individual (can be measured, recorded)

People, animals, things

Statistics

the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numer…

Individuals

Objects described by a set of data

Mean

Median

Shifting (adding and subtracting)

Scaling (multiplying or dividing data)

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…

Does not affect s.d., IQR or range (measures of spread) affec…

Affects s.d., IQR, range, mean, and 5 number summary

Mean

The sum of the data set divided by the number of data items

Median

The middle number when the data is in order from least to gre…

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…

-places an individual into one of several groups or categorie…

-takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an a…

individuals

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…

variable

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…

Goodness of fit test

X² distribution

X² goodness of fit test

Rule for X² hypotheses

●Skewed right... ●Not normal... ●As d.f. increases, it looks more s…

●Uses categorical data (table or chart)... ●Takes only positive…

One list of observed values

Always written in words

Goodness of fit test

●Skewed right... ●Not normal... ●As d.f. increases, it looks more s…

X² distribution

●Uses categorical data (table or chart)... ●Takes only positive…

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

Geometric probability model

Mean & Standard Deviation of Geometic…

Binomial probability model

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2.…

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts…

Mean = 1/p... SD = sqrt(q)/p

- Tells us the probabilty for a random variable that counts t…

Conditions for Bernoulli Trials

1. There are two possible outcomes (success and failure).... 2.…

Geometric probability model

- Tells us the probability for a random variable that counts…

Statistics

Available Data

Population

Sample

The art and science of collecting, organizing, describing, an…

Data that were produced in the past for some other purpose bu…

The entire group being studied.

A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen to be…

Statistics

The art and science of collecting, organizing, describing, an…

Available Data

Data that were produced in the past for some other purpose bu…

Statistics

Individuals

Variable

Objects

the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numer…

Objects described by a set of data

Any characteristic of an individual (can be measured, recorded)

People, animals, things

Statistics

the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numer…

Individuals

Objects described by a set of data

Random

Simulation

Simulation Component

Trial

An outcome is ______ if we know the possible values it can ha…

A ______ models a real-world situation by using random-digit…

A ______ ______ uses equally likely random digits to model si…

The sequence of several components, representing events that…

Random

An outcome is ______ if we know the possible values it can ha…

Simulation

A ______ models a real-world situation by using random-digit…

Probability

Trial

Outcome

Event

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

A single attempt

Value measured, observed, or reported for an individual insta…

A collection of outcomes

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

Trial

A single attempt

Statistics

statistics

Data

Context

a method of reasoning, along with a collection of tools and m…

particular calculations made from data

values along with their context

who, what, when, where, why, and how

Statistics

a method of reasoning, along with a collection of tools and m…

statistics

particular calculations made from data

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Objects described by a set of data

Any characteristic of an individual. Can take different value…

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Individuals

Objects described by a set of data

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual. Can take different value…

p-hat gives the sample proportion; use…

proportion parameter used in the null…

p-value or P-score

z

probability of obtaining a sample value at least as extreme a…

standardized value; (aka, a standard score) indicates how man…

p-hat gives the sample proportion; use…

proportion parameter used in the null…