Study sets matching "ap statistics"
Study sets
Diagrams
Classes
Users
independent variable
dependent variable
experiment
survey
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whos…
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response t…
an investigation seeking to understand relations of cause and…
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or be…
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whos…
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response t…
sampling distribution of a statistic
Parameter
Statistic
Unbiased Estimator
The distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…
A number that describes some characteristic of the population
A number that describes some characteristic of a sample
A statistic used to estimate a parameter is an unbiased estima…
sampling distribution of a statistic
The distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…
Parameter
A number that describes some characteristic of the population
data analysis
individuals
variables
categorical variable
asking questions of data, organizing data, displaying data, an…
the people or objects we sample in order to record different a…
a class of attributes or values which we can measure or by whi…
a variable with values that are different categories only one…
data analysis
asking questions of data, organizing data, displaying data, an…
individuals
the people or objects we sample in order to record different a…
Why use a control Group ?
describing a control group in context
Using Normalcdf (calculator tip)
Using Invnorm (calculator tip)
gives the researchers a comparison group to be used to evaluat…
gauge the effect of the treatments compared to no treatment at…
Normalcdf(min, max, mean, standard deviation)
Invnorm(are to the left as a decimal, mean, standard deviation)
Why use a control Group ?
gives the researchers a comparison group to be used to evaluat…
describing a control group in context
gauge the effect of the treatments compared to no treatment at…
Voluntary sample
Convenience sample
Simple random sampling
Stratified sampling
Made up of people who decide for themselves to be in the surve…
Made up of people who are easy to reach (bad)
Method in which all possible samples of n objects are equally…
Population is divided into groups, based on similarities. Then…
Voluntary sample
Made up of people who decide for themselves to be in the surve…
Convenience sample
Made up of people who are easy to reach (bad)
Confounding Variable
Measurement or Response Data
Selection bias
Non-response bias
A variable that is related both to group membership and to the…
The tendency for samples to differ from the population because…
Tendency for samples to differ from the population because of…
Tendency for sale post to differ from the population because m…
Confounding Variable
A variable that is related both to group membership and to the…
Measurement or Response Data
The tendency for samples to differ from the population because…
descriptive statistics
inferential statistics
measure of central tendency
measure of variability
way of organizing numbers and summarizing them
reduce the possibility of error in measurement
summarize the data and gives typical score
indicates how spread out is or tightly packed data is
descriptive statistics
way of organizing numbers and summarizing them
inferential statistics
reduce the possibility of error in measurement
Descriptive Statistics
Population
Sample
Categorical Data
Numerical, graphical, and tabular methods for organizing and s…
The entire collection of individuals or measurements about whi…
A part of a population selected for study
Individual observations are nonnumerical
Descriptive Statistics
Numerical, graphical, and tabular methods for organizing and s…
Population
The entire collection of individuals or measurements about whi…
What does P-Value mean?
Type I Error
Type II Error
Alpha
"There is a (p-value %) chance of getting a sample proportion…
happens when we reject a TRUE null hypothesis
happens when we fail to reject a FALSE null hypothesis
The probability of a Type I Error
What does P-Value mean?
"There is a (p-value %) chance of getting a sample proportion…
Type I Error
happens when we reject a TRUE null hypothesis
Statistical Significance
Non-Response Bias
p-Value
Empirical rule
When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…
A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…
The probability of getting a result at least as extreme as the…
States that, in a normal distribution, about 68% of the terms…
Statistical Significance
When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if n…
Non-Response Bias
A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to the…
descriptive statistics
measures of central tendency
measures of variability
range
describes data
mean median mode
range, variance, standard deviation, z-score, normal curve, pe…
distance between highest and lowest
descriptive statistics
describes data
measures of central tendency
mean median mode
Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test
Chi-Square Test of Independence
Chi Square Test for Homogeneity
One way table
Significance test used to find convincing evidence that the sp…
Significance test used to find convincing evidence of an assoc…
Significance test used to find convincing evidence that there…
Used to display the distributions of a single categorical vari…
Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test
Significance test used to find convincing evidence that the sp…
Chi-Square Test of Independence
Significance test used to find convincing evidence of an assoc…
proportion, 1 sample
difference of proportions, 2 samples
mean, 1 sample
mean of differences, matched pairs
qualitative, 1 sample, 1 variable, z distribution, no df
qualitative, 2 samples, 1 variable, z distribution, no df
quantitative, 1 sample, 1 variable, t distribution, df=n-1
quantitative, 2 samples, 1 variable, t distribution, df=n-1 wh…
proportion, 1 sample
qualitative, 1 sample, 1 variable, z distribution, no df
difference of proportions, 2 samples
qualitative, 2 samples, 1 variable, z distribution, no df
Descriptive statistics
Inferential statistics
Describe the two main types of descript…
What is a sample group?
a way of organizing numbers and summarizing them so that patte…
statistical analysis of 2 or more sets of numerical data to re…
- measures of central tendency : used to summarize the data…
group of subjects selected from a larger population of subject…
Descriptive statistics
a way of organizing numbers and summarizing them so that patte…
Inferential statistics
statistical analysis of 2 or more sets of numerical data to re…
Use for Two Proportion z-Test
Conditions for Two Proportion z-Test
Use for One Sample t-Test
Conditions for One Sample t-Test
Testing the difference between two proportions
Random... Independence... 10% Condition... Success/Failure... Independent…
Is an observed average different than a known average
Random... Independence... 10% Condition... Nearly Normal
Use for Two Proportion z-Test
Testing the difference between two proportions
Conditions for Two Proportion z-Test
Random... Independence... 10% Condition... Success/Failure... Independent…
conditions to be a binomial distribution
what does binomialpdf do?
what does binomialcdf do?
difference between binomial and geometr…
1. 2 outcomes (success and failure)... 2. outcomes are independen…
finds the probability of a specific number of successes
finds the cumulative probability of numbers of successes
when you do pdf/cdf for binomial distributions you are finding…
conditions to be a binomial distribution
1. 2 outcomes (success and failure)... 2. outcomes are independen…
what does binomialpdf do?
finds the probability of a specific number of successes
Descriptive Statistics/Exploring data a…
Inference for t with mu
Chi Squared Inference
LinReg Inference
Bar Graph and Pie Charts. marginal distribution. conditional d…
na
A right-sewed distribution that takes on only positive values
na
Descriptive Statistics/Exploring data a…
Bar Graph and Pie Charts. marginal distribution. conditional d…
Inference for t with mu
na
if the mean is greater than the median…
the relationship between bivariate quan…
in order to determine if a(n) ___ ___ m…
two measures of spread are ___ and ___
skewed right
scatterplot
exponential model
IQR, standard deviation
if the mean is greater than the median…
skewed right
the relationship between bivariate quan…
scatterplot
Categorical Data
Quantitative Data
Pie Charts
Bar Graphs
Variables that separate the data into groups. Ex: Male/female,…
Dividing data with numbers that describe it. Ex: weights, amou…
must sum to 100%
bars do not touch
Categorical Data
Variables that separate the data into groups. Ex: Male/female,…
Quantitative Data
Dividing data with numbers that describe it. Ex: weights, amou…
Distributions of Sample Proportions
Confidence Interval
Level of Confidence
Conditions
1. Since most of the time we don't know what the population pr…
- An interval based on the sample proportions in which we have…
Typical : ... 90% z* = 1.645... 95% z* = 1.960... 99% z* = 2.576... How to…
** same as one-proportion z-test... 1. Randomization : ... - stated…
Distributions of Sample Proportions
1. Since most of the time we don't know what the population pr…
Confidence Interval
- An interval based on the sample proportions in which we have…
Census
Population
Sample
Survey
A polling of a large area of population
Collection of individuals or items under consideration
Part of population which information is contained
...
Census
A polling of a large area of population
Population
Collection of individuals or items under consideration
power
one sample t interval
two sample t test
one sample t test
probability that a hypothesis test will correctly reject a fal…
type of interval used to show a plausible range of values for…
type of test used to show that the true mean of one population…
type of test used to show that the true mean of a population i…
power
probability that a hypothesis test will correctly reject a fal…
one sample t interval
type of interval used to show a plausible range of values for…
note #1
linear regression equations
Linearity Assumption
Independence Assumption
the model assumes that the means of the distributions of y for…
μ = β₀ + β₁x... y = β₀ + β₁x + ε
Straight Enough Condition and Quantitative Data Condition
Randomization Condition
note #1
the model assumes that the means of the distributions of y for…
linear regression equations
μ = β₀ + β₁x... y = β₀ + β₁x + ε
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experiment
Survey
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whos…
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response t…
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or…
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or be…
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whos…
Dependent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response t…
Hypothesis Tests
4 Parts
Hypotheses
one-tail (one-sided) probabilities
1. Used to test a claim about a population using a given sampl…
1. Hypotheses... 2. Conditions... 3. Mechanics... 4. Conclusion
1. Null Hypothesis: specifies a population parameter of intere…
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Hypothesis Tests
1. Used to test a claim about a population using a given sampl…
4 Parts
1. Hypotheses... 2. Conditions... 3. Mechanics... 4. Conclusion