# Study sets matching "ap statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Population

Sample

Observational Study

Experiment

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Part of the population selected for the study.

Investigators observe subjects and measure variables of intere…

Investigators apply the treatments to experimental units (peop…

Population

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Sample

Part of the population selected for the study.

random variable

discrete random variable

continuous random variable

the mean of a discrete random variable

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some chan…

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome pr…

it can take an infinite number of values, meaning it could be…

multiply each possible value by its probability, then add all…

random variable

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some chan…

discrete random variable

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome pr…

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5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

pth percentile

cumulative relative frequency graph

z-score

Effect of Adding (or Subtracting) a Con…

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

for quantitative data, displays the cumulative relative freque…

tells us how many standard deviations from the mean an observa…

adds c to (or subtracts c from) measures of center and locatio…

pth percentile

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

cumulative relative frequency graph

for quantitative data, displays the cumulative relative freque…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it would consi…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual in…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sma…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population that…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it would consi…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual in…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be peo…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diffe…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an aver…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be peo…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diffe…

Conditions for Regression Inference

Standard Error of b

S

standardizing slopes

Linear (data fits a line), Independent, Normal, Equal Variance…

SEb = S/Sx(sq rt n-1)

S = sq rt (E residuals^2 / n-2)

z = b - beta / SEb

Conditions for Regression Inference

Linear (data fits a line), Independent, Normal, Equal Variance…

Standard Error of b

SEb = S/Sx(sq rt n-1)

Two-Sample Z Interval

Two-Sample T Interval

Two-Sample Z test

Two-Sample T test

Construct this type of confidence interval when data come from…

Construct this type of confidence interval when data come from…

Use this test when testing a claim pertaining to the differenc…

Use this test when testing a claim pertaining to the differenc…

Two-Sample Z Interval

Construct this type of confidence interval when data come from…

Two-Sample T Interval

Construct this type of confidence interval when data come from…

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)

Null hypothesis (H0)

One-sided alternative hypothesis

Power

The claim about the population that we are trying to find evid…

A statement of "no difference."

States that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis val…

The probability that the test will reject the null when the sp…

Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)

The claim about the population that we are trying to find evid…

Null hypothesis (H0)

A statement of "no difference."

5 number summary

z-score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z-score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Individuals

Population:

Sample

Census

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be peo…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

a part (subset) of the population that we actually examine in…

attempts to contact every individual in the entire population

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be peo…

Population:

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Statistical Inference

Confidence Interval

Significance Test

Confidence Interval for Population Mean…

From a sample of data we draw conclusions about a population.

Estimate +/- the margin of error

test statistic= estimate-hypothesized value/ standard deviatio…

xbar +/- z × σ/(square root of)n

Statistical Inference

From a sample of data we draw conclusions about a population.

Confidence Interval

Estimate +/- the margin of error

Completely Randomized Design

Block Design (Randomized Block Design)

Matched Pairs Design

Observational Study

Treatments are assigned to experimental units entirely by chan…

Experimental units are first grouped by a similar characterist…

Special type of block design where two experimental units are…

Where we collect data from individuals and measure variables o…

Completely Randomized Design

Treatments are assigned to experimental units entirely by chan…

Block Design (Randomized Block Design)

Experimental units are first grouped by a similar characterist…

Random

Probability

Simulation

Sample

An outcome where the possible values are none but the particul…

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the long-run frequency o…

A model of a real-world situation by using random numbers to m…

A subset of a population examined in hope of learning about th…

Random

An outcome where the possible values are none but the particul…

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the long-run frequency o…

simple random sample (of size n)

sampling frame

sampling with replacement

sampling without replacement

a sample selected using a method that ensures each different p…

list or range of objections/individuals in a population, each…

after each item is selected for the sample, it is replaced bac…

each individual may not be selected again, meaning the sample…

simple random sample (of size n)

a sample selected using a method that ensures each different p…

sampling frame

list or range of objections/individuals in a population, each…

population

census

sample

convenience sample

the entire grorp of individuals we want information about

collects data from every individual in the pupulation

subset of individuals in the population from which we actually…

choosing individuals from the population that are easy to reach

population

the entire grorp of individuals we want information about

census

collects data from every individual in the pupulation

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. in…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guarant…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

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Cluster R.S.

Systematic R.S.

Stratified R.S.

Multistage R.S.

- Heterogenous representative CLUSTER from population... - Best f…

- Sampling using a SYSTEM to identify respondents... - "Every 10t…

- Use when SUBGROUPS may DIFFER on parameter of interest... - SEP…

A COMBINATION of R.S. methods

Cluster R.S.

- Heterogenous representative CLUSTER from population... - Best f…

Systematic R.S.

- Sampling using a SYSTEM to identify respondents... - "Every 10t…

A hypothesis which the researcher tries…

The hypothesis is used in hypothesis te…

A false positive

A false negative

What is a null hypothesis?

What is an alternative hypothesis ?

Type I error is also known as...

Type II error is also known as...

A hypothesis which the researcher tries…

What is a null hypothesis?

The hypothesis is used in hypothesis te…

What is an alternative hypothesis ?

observational study

experiment

experimental unit

factor

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

the single individual to which the different treatments are as…

the explanatory variable (what is being tested)

observational study

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

experiment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

parameter

statistic

sampling distribution

unbiased estimator

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…

statistic used to estimate a parameter is this if the mean of…

parameter

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

statistic

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…