# Study sets matching "ap statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Qualitative Variables

Quantitative Variables

Discrete Variables

Continuous Variables

Variables that are not numerical that describes data that fits…

Variables that have are measured on a numeric or quantitative…

Variables that can only take on a finite(limited) number of va…

variable that has an infinite number of possible values, the o…

Qualitative Variables

Variables that are not numerical that describes data that fits…

Quantitative Variables

Variables that have are measured on a numeric or quantitative…

Center

Mean

Median

Mode

the most likely value of a data set

a center value where all data values are added together and di…

a center value that is the middle number of the ordered data s…

a center value that is the highest frequency value in the data…

Center

the most likely value of a data set

Mean

a center value where all data values are added together and di…

categorical variables

quantitative variable

discrete variable

continuous

Variables are classified as qualitative not quantitative.

Variables measured on a numeric scale. Ordinal, interval and r…

If a variable can't take on any value between its minimum valu…

If a variable can take on any value between its minimum value…

categorical variables

Variables are classified as qualitative not quantitative.

quantitative variable

Variables measured on a numeric scale. Ordinal, interval and r…

Statistical Inference

Confidence Interval

Significance Test

Confidence Interval for Population Mean…

From a sample of data we draw conclusions about a population.

Estimate +/- the margin of error

test statistic= estimate-hypothesized value/ standard deviatio…

xbar +/- z × σ/(square root of)n

Statistical Inference

From a sample of data we draw conclusions about a population.

Confidence Interval

Estimate +/- the margin of error

Skewed to the right

Skewed to the left

Variance

Standard Deviation

A distribution that spreads far and thinly toward the higher v…

A distribution that spreads far and thinly toward the lower va…

Determined by averaging the squared differences of all values…

The squared deviations from the mean.

Skewed to the right

A distribution that spreads far and thinly toward the higher v…

Skewed to the left

A distribution that spreads far and thinly toward the lower va…

Interpret LSRL y - intercept "a"

Experimental Designs

Interpreting Probability

Interpreting z-score

expected y-value when x is 0

Completely Randomized Design (CRD) = all experimental units ar…

proportion of times an outcome would occur in a very long seri…

z = (value-mean) / Sx... how many standard deviations away from…

Interpret LSRL y - intercept "a"

expected y-value when x is 0

Experimental Designs

Completely Randomized Design (CRD) = all experimental units ar…

Population

Census

Sample

Convenience sample

The entire group of individuals we want information about

Study that collects data from every individual in population

Subset of individuals in population from which we collect data

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to get r…

Population

The entire group of individuals we want information about

Census

Study that collects data from every individual in population

Statistics

True

Population

Census

The science of collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions…

T or F: Variability is universal

The entire collection of individuals or objects about which in…

Performed to gather information abut the entire population

Statistics

The science of collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions…

True

T or F: Variability is universal

Simple Random Sample

Systematic Random Sample

Stratified Random Sample

Cluster Sample

A simple random sample is a subset of a statistical population…

Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method i…

Stratified random sampling is a method of sampling that involv…

groups (clusters) of sampling units (and not individual units)…

Simple Random Sample

A simple random sample is a subset of a statistical population…

Systematic Random Sample

Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method i…

How to describe a distribution:

Standard Deviation

What does it mean to say that the mean…

Linear Transformation: Addition/subtrac…

- Shape (symmetric/skewed/single-peaked)... - Center (mean or med…

Average distance that the observations are from the mean (Alwa…

It is affected by outliers, always pulled in the direction of…

Center changes, shape and spread do not

How to describe a distribution:

- Shape (symmetric/skewed/single-peaked)... - Center (mean or med…

Standard Deviation

Average distance that the observations are from the mean (Alwa…

Independence assumption

Randomization condition

10% condition

Central limit theorem

The individuals in a sample must be independent from each othe…

-If data is coming from an experiment, subjects must be random…

When sampling a population we do not want to sample more than…

The sampling distribution of any mean becomes more nearly norm…

Independence assumption

The individuals in a sample must be independent from each othe…

Randomization condition

-If data is coming from an experiment, subjects must be random…

random

probability

independence

sample space

individual outcomes are uncertain but there is nonetheless a r…

proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long ser…

when the outcome of one trial must not influence the outcome o…

set of all possible outcomes

random

individual outcomes are uncertain but there is nonetheless a r…

probability

proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long ser…

checking normal for two proportions

two sample z interval

Pooled (combined) sample proportion

two sample z test

check np and n(1-p) are > 10 for 1 and 2

(p1-p1) +- z (sq rt ((p1(1-p1))/n1) + ((p2(1-p2))/n2) )

use for significance tests x1+x2 / n1+n2

z= (P1-P2) - 0 / sq rt (pc (1-pc)) /n1 + (pc(1-pc)) /n2

checking normal for two proportions

check np and n(1-p) are > 10 for 1 and 2

two sample z interval

(p1-p1) +- z (sq rt ((p1(1-p1))/n1) + ((p2(1-p2))/n2) )

parameter

statistic

sampling distribution

unbiased estimator

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…

statistic used to estimate a parameter is this if the mean of…

parameter

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

statistic

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

Population

Census

Sample

Convenience sample

Is the entire group of individuals we want information about

Collects data from every individual in the population

Is a subset of individuals in the population from which we act…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reach…

Population

Is the entire group of individuals we want information about

Census

Collects data from every individual in the population

Confounding

3 names for confounding variable

response bias

cohort

Varibale associated with explanatory and response variables

Age, physical activity, smoking

Anything in a survey design that influences responses.

Group of subjects to subjects who share defining characteristic

Confounding

Varibale associated with explanatory and response variables

3 names for confounding variable

Age, physical activity, smoking

Population

Sample

Observational Study

Experimental Study

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Part of the population that is selected for study

A study in which the person conducting the study observes char…

A study in which the person conducting the study looks at how…

Population

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Sample

Part of the population that is selected for study

Observational Study

Experiment

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand…

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher at…

Two events or random variables are dependent if they are not i…

Variables of interest in an experiment (those that are measure…

Observational Study

Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand…

Experiment

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher at…

population

sample

variability

univariate

the collection of individuals or objects for which information…

a subset of the population that is selected for study to repre…

samples will produce results that are spread across a variety…

data consisting of a single characteristic

population

the collection of individuals or objects for which information…

sample

a subset of the population that is selected for study to repre…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Blocking

Mean

Standard Deviation

R^2

Creating groups of homogeneous experimental units. Everyone is…

How often we expect the event to occur after lots of trials

By how much the (context) will differ from the mean

% variation in y is explained by the regression line

Blocking

Creating groups of homogeneous experimental units. Everyone is…

Mean

How often we expect the event to occur after lots of trials

Simple random sample

Systematic sample

Stratified random sample

Cluster sample

sample size n which every set of n elements in population has…

sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically "every nt…

population is divided into groups of similar elements, called…

entire groups or clusters chosen at random. Each cluster shoul…

Simple random sample

sample size n which every set of n elements in population has…

Systematic sample

sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically "every nt…

Population

Sample

Bias

Randomization

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the e…

A failure of accurately using the sample method to represent t…

Each individual is given a random chance of being selected.

Population

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

Sample

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the e…