# Study sets matching "ap statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. in…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guarant…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of time…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process,…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that a…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of time…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process,…

Cluster R.S.

Systematic R.S.

Stratified R.S.

Multistage R.S.

- Heterogenous representative CLUSTER from population... - Best f…

- Sampling using a SYSTEM to identify respondents... - "Every 10t…

- Use when SUBGROUPS may DIFFER on parameter of interest... - SEP…

A COMBINATION of R.S. methods

Cluster R.S.

- Heterogenous representative CLUSTER from population... - Best f…

Systematic R.S.

- Sampling using a SYSTEM to identify respondents... - "Every 10t…

Parameter

Statistic

Statistic

Parameter

Mark retired from competitive athletics last year. In his care…

In a survey conducted in town of Atherton 28% of adult respond…

A study of 3300 college students in the cit of Pemblington fou…

26.2 of the mayors of cities in a certain state are from minor…

Parameter

Mark retired from competitive athletics last year. In his care…

Statistic

In a survey conducted in town of Atherton 28% of adult respond…

observational study

experiment

experimental unit

factor

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

the single individual to which the different treatments are as…

the explanatory variable (what is being tested)

observational study

observe outcomes without imposing treatment

experiment

actively impose some treatment in order to observe the response

5 number summary

z score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space S

Any outcome of a chance process that is a number between 0 and…

The proportion of times that a particular outcome occurs in ma…

An imitation of chance behavior, most often carried out with r…

The set of possible outcomes of a chance process

Probability

Any outcome of a chance process that is a number between 0 and…

Law of Large Numbers

The proportion of times that a particular outcome occurs in ma…

How do you check if there is outliers?

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

If a graph is roughly symmetrical, shou…

What is in the five number summary?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

mean; generally is more accurate if the data has no outliers

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum

How do you check if there is outliers?

calculate IQR; anything above Q3+1.5(IQR) or below Q1-1.5(IQR)…

If a graph is skewed, should we calcula…

median; it is resistant to skews and outliers

Population

Sample

Observational Study

Experiment

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Part of the population selected for the study.

Investigators observe subjects and measure variables of intere…

Investigators apply the treatments to experimental units (peop…

Population

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Sample

Part of the population selected for the study.

Rule for Outliers

Association

Back-to-back stemplot

Bar graph

Call an observation an outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x IQR…

Occurs between two variables if specific values of one variabl…

Used to compare the distribution of a quantitative variable fo…

Used to display the distribution of a categorical variable or…

Rule for Outliers

Call an observation an outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x IQR…

Association

Occurs between two variables if specific values of one variabl…

Conditions for Regression Inference

Standard Error of b

S

standardizing slopes

Linear (data fits a line), Independent, Normal, Equal Variance…

SEb = S/Sx(sq rt n-1)

S = sq rt (E residuals^2 / n-2)

z = b - beta / SEb

Conditions for Regression Inference

Linear (data fits a line), Independent, Normal, Equal Variance…

Standard Error of b

SEb = S/Sx(sq rt n-1)

5 number summary

z-score

standard deviation

population

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on averag…

(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which sample…

5 number summary

The minumum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and…

z-score

a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from th…

Goal of Significance Tests

Significance Test

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypothesis

To assess the evidence provided by data about some claim, or "…

A formal procedure for comparing observed data with a claim, o…

A claim tested by a statistical test. The test is designed to…

The claim about the population that we are trying to find evid…

Goal of Significance Tests

To assess the evidence provided by data about some claim, or "…

Significance Test

A formal procedure for comparing observed data with a claim, o…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Bias

The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hop…

A (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope of…

A study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some popula…

Any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its p…

Population

The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hop…

Sample

A (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope of…

Completely Randomized Design

Block Design (Randomized Block Design)

Matched Pairs Design

Observational Study

Treatments are assigned to experimental units entirely by chan…

Experimental units are first grouped by a similar characterist…

Special type of block design where two experimental units are…

Where we collect data from individuals and measure variables o…

Completely Randomized Design

Treatments are assigned to experimental units entirely by chan…

Block Design (Randomized Block Design)

Experimental units are first grouped by a similar characterist…

point estimate

confidence interval

"level of confidence" or "confidence le…

calculating the margin of error

the value of a statistic from a sample that is used as an esti…

An interval of numbers that provide a set of plausible values…

The expected percent of intervals that will contain the parame…

On the formula packet, the ME is everything after the ± sign.…

point estimate

the value of a statistic from a sample that is used as an esti…

confidence interval

An interval of numbers that provide a set of plausible values…

What is the population in a statistical…

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

What is a convenience sample, and why i…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. However…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors certa…

What is the population in a statistical…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

One sample t statistic

One sample t test

Normality with T-distributions

Power of the one sample t-test

t=xbar-mu/(s/squarerootn)

Draw an SRS of size n from a population having unknown mean mu…

They are robust against non-normality of the population except…

Against a specific alternative value of the population mean, i…

One sample t statistic

t=xbar-mu/(s/squarerootn)

One sample t test

Draw an SRS of size n from a population having unknown mean mu…

Scatterplots

Association

Outlier

Response Variable

A scatterplot show the relationship between two quantitative v…

-Direction:...... -Form:...... -Strength:...

A point that does not fit the overall pattern seen in the scat…

What you hope to predict or explain. Assign to y-axis.

Scatterplots

A scatterplot show the relationship between two quantitative v…

Association

-Direction:...... -Form:...... -Strength:...

simple random sample (of size n)

sampling frame

sampling with replacement

sampling without replacement

a sample selected using a method that ensures each different p…

list or range of objections/individuals in a population, each…

after each item is selected for the sample, it is replaced bac…

each individual may not be selected again, meaning the sample…

simple random sample (of size n)

a sample selected using a method that ensures each different p…

sampling frame

list or range of objections/individuals in a population, each…

What are the properties of a Normal den…

If every observation of a data set is m…

Suppose I take a set of numbers and add…

The 12th percentile is the number x suc…

It is above the x-axis.... The area under the curve is equal to 1…

1.) The mean will be multiplied by -3.... 2.) The median will be…

1.) The mean will be increased by 5 and multiplied by 6.... 2.)…

(d) ... If 12% are below the 12th percentile, then 88% would be…

What are the properties of a Normal den…

It is above the x-axis.... The area under the curve is equal to 1…

If every observation of a data set is m…

1.) The mean will be multiplied by -3.... 2.) The median will be…

Population

Sample

Bias

Census

The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hop…

A subset of the population that we examine in the hope of lear…

A systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its pop…

A sample that consists of the whole population

Population

The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hop…

Sample

A subset of the population that we examine in the hope of lear…

The design of a statistical study shows…

A study that attempts to collect data f…

To take a cluster sample, first divide…

A sample selected by taking the members…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows…

Bias

A study that attempts to collect data f…

Census

Area Principle

Frequency Table (Relative Frequency Tab…

The possible values of the variable and…

Bar chart (Relative frequency bar chart)

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the c…

What does the distribution of a variable give?

Show a bar whose area represents the count (or percentage) of…

Area Principle

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

Frequency Table (Relative Frequency Tab…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the c…

Control Group

Placebo

Blinding

Randomization

A baseline group that receives no treatment or a neutral treat…

A neutral treatment that has no "real" effect on the dependent…

The practice of not telling participants whether they are rece…

Refers to the practice of using chance methods (random number…

Control Group

A baseline group that receives no treatment or a neutral treat…

Placebo

A neutral treatment that has no "real" effect on the dependent…