#### Study sets matching "ap statistics"

#### Study sets matching "ap statistics"

mean

x-bar

Σ (sigma)

μ (mu)

arithmetic average, measure of center, NOT RESISTANT, easily…

the mean of a set of observations/sample (add their values an…

sum, add them all up

population mean

mean

arithmetic average, measure of center, NOT RESISTANT, easily…

x-bar

the mean of a set of observations/sample (add their values an…

Which term defines "Using the data to…

Which term defines "Summarizing a samp…

What kind of data is used in bar charts?

Are titles and labels necessary?

Statistical inference and analysis

Descriptive statistics

Qualitative (Categorical)

Yes

Which term defines "Using the data to…

Statistical inference and analysis

Which term defines "Summarizing a samp…

Descriptive statistics

Addition Rule

Alpha (α)

Alternative Hypothesis

Association

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(A) - P(A ∩ B) aids in computing the chanc…

The probability of a Type I error. See significance level.

The hypothesis stating what the researcher is seeking evidenc…

Relationship between or among variables.

Addition Rule

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(A) - P(A ∩ B) aids in computing the chanc…

Alpha (α)

The probability of a Type I error. See significance level.

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Bias

The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we ho…

A (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope o…

A study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some popul…

Any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

Population

The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we ho…

Sample

A (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope o…

categorical variable

quantitative variable

frequency table

relative frequency table

individual into one of several groups that describes something

numerical values that can be averaged in a way that makes sen…

a way to analyze categorical data; displays frequencies in ea…

shows percents (relative frequencies)

categorical variable

individual into one of several groups that describes something

quantitative variable

numerical values that can be averaged in a way that makes sen…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Individuals

Population:

Sample

Census

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

a part (subset) of the population that we actually examine in…

attempts to contact every individual in the entire population

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Population:

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Parameter

Statistic

Convenience Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

A calculation made from population data

A calculation made from sample data

Uses subjects that are readily available (no randomization)

Subjects choose to be part of the sample (no randomization)

Parameter

A calculation made from population data

Statistic

A calculation made from sample data

Relative frequency of a histogram

Modes

Distribution: skewed to the right

Ogive

Represented by relative area (1)

The values with the peaks above them are the mode. (Unimodal/…

Spread far and thinly toward to the higher value (1)

cumulative relative frequency plot (1)

Relative frequency of a histogram

Represented by relative area (1)

Modes

The values with the peaks above them are the mode. (Unimodal/…

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Discrete Variable

Continuous

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

A variable that CANNOT take on any value between its minimum…

Variables that CAN take on any value between its minimum and…

Categorical Variable

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

Quantitative Variable

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Simple random sample (SRS)

Stratified random sample

Systematic random sample

Random cluster sample

A sample where n individuals are selected from a population i…

A sample in which simple random samples are selected from eac…

A sample where every nth individual is selected from a list o…

Population is divided into subgroups then the entire subgroup…

Simple random sample (SRS)

A sample where n individuals are selected from a population i…

Stratified random sample

A sample in which simple random samples are selected from eac…

What type of graph is used to show the…

When describing a scatterplot, what fo…

What is it meant by an explanatory var…

What is it meant by a response variable?

Scatterplot

1. Direction... 2. Form... 3. How strong the relationship is... 4. The…

The independent variable on the x axis (X variable)

The variable of interest, respondent to the explanatory varia…

What type of graph is used to show the…

Scatterplot

When describing a scatterplot, what fo…

1. Direction... 2. Form... 3. How strong the relationship is... 4. The…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Individuals are the people or objects included in the study.

An element, feature, or factor that is liable to vary or chan…

A variable that can take on one of a limited, and usually fix…

Variables that are measured on a numeric or quantitative scale.

Individuals

Individuals are the people or objects included in the study.

Variable

An element, feature, or factor that is liable to vary or chan…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

Measures an outcome of a study

Helps explain or influences changes in a response variable

A graphed cluster of points each of which represents the valu…

Data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

Helps explain or influences changes in a response variable

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

voluntary response sample

confounded

population

sample

a sample made up of volunteers; compared to a random sample,…

occurs when the experimental controls do not allow the experi…

the total set of observations that can be made

a set of observations drawn from a population

voluntary response sample

a sample made up of volunteers; compared to a random sample,…

confounded

occurs when the experimental controls do not allow the experi…

Experiment vs Observational studies

Population vs Sample

Census

Voluntary Response Sample

observe individuals and measure variables, but do not attempt…

entire group of individuals we want information about

attempts to contact every individual in the entire population

individual choose themselves (ex. Radio call in show)

Experiment vs Observational studies

observe individuals and measure variables, but do not attempt…

Population vs Sample

entire group of individuals we want information about

Mean

IQR

Standard Deviation

Measures of Position

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Common measure of spread. How far each observation is from th…

Percentiles: Percentile tells us a data point's position rela…

Mean

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

IQR

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

Objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animals, o…

Any characteristic of an individual, which can take different…

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an av…

Individuals

Objects described by a set of data. Can be people, animals, o…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual, which can take different…

Population

Sample

Observational Study

Experiment

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Part of the population selected for the study.

Investigators observe subjects and measure variables of inter…

Investigators apply the treatments to experimental units (peo…

Population

The entire collection of individuals or objects that you want…

Sample

Part of the population selected for the study.

One Sample Z-Test (for mean)

Two Sample Z-Test (for mean)

One Sample T-Test (for mean)

Two Sample T-Test (for mean)

1. σ is known... 2. SRS... 3. normal distribution... or... n is large (>30)

1. both σs are known... 2. SRS... 3. independent samples... 4. normal…

1. σ is unknown... 2. SRS... 3. observations have a normal distribu…

1. both σs are unknown... 2. two independent SRSs... 3. populations…

One Sample Z-Test (for mean)

1. σ is known... 2. SRS... 3. normal distribution... or... n is large (>30)

Two Sample Z-Test (for mean)

1. both σs are known... 2. SRS... 3. independent samples... 4. normal…

Pie Chart

Bar Graph

Quantitative Data

What makes a Good Graph?

Used with categorical data and it must add up to 100%... Very r…

+ Used with Categorical Data... + Usually Shows Frequency (Coun…

Data from surveys, experiments, and observational studies

+ Title... + Axes Labeled... + Constant Scale

Pie Chart

Used with categorical data and it must add up to 100%... Very r…

Bar Graph

+ Used with Categorical Data... + Usually Shows Frequency (Coun…

What does "r" mean? What is its name?

What does r^2 mean? What is its name?

What is the equation of the least squa…

Place a value in x to produce y

There is a strong/mild/weak positive/negative linear relation…

_____% of the variability of (response variable) is due to th…

(predicted) y = a + bx where (predicted) y is the predicted (…

Solve

What does "r" mean? What is its name?

There is a strong/mild/weak positive/negative linear relation…

What does r^2 mean? What is its name?

_____% of the variability of (response variable) is due to th…

roundoff error

pie chart

stemplot

clusters

the error that occurs when the percents don't add up to 100%

This must include all the categories that make up a whole. Us…

Represents data by separating each value into two parts: the…

these form when there is a gap between the data

roundoff error

the error that occurs when the percents don't add up to 100%

pie chart

This must include all the categories that make up a whole. Us…

response variable

explanatory variable

scatterplot

Interpreting Scatterplots (FODS)

outcome of the explanatory

helps explain or influence outcome of response variable

plot that shows relationship between 2 QUANTITATIVE variables

F: Form (curved/linear/etc.)... O: Outliers ... D: Direction (posit…

response variable

outcome of the explanatory

explanatory variable

helps explain or influence outcome of response variable

What is the population in a statistica…

What is the sample in a statistical st…

What is a convenience sample, and why…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. Howeve…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors cert…

What is the population in a statistica…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical st…

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

A researcher carefully computes the co…

Given r=0.543, what is r²? After findi…

Why is linear regression sometimes ref…

Fisherman have been recording the dead…

A error was made! All correlation coefficients: −1 ≤ r ≤ 1.

0.5432 = .295 ... .295 --> 29.5%

Mathematically the coefficients are determined from computing…

What is the slope? It is m = 9.607. ... What is the meaning of…

A researcher carefully computes the co…

A error was made! All correlation coefficients: −1 ≤ r ≤ 1.

Given r=0.543, what is r²? After findi…

0.5432 = .295 ... .295 --> 29.5%

alternative hypothesis

association

bar graph

bimodal

the theory that the researcher hopes to confirm by rejecting…

when some of the variability in one variable can be accounted…

graph in which the frequencies of categories are displayed wi…

distribution made with two or more most common values (peaks-…

alternative hypothesis

the theory that the researcher hopes to confirm by rejecting…

association

when some of the variability in one variable can be accounted…

Probability

Random

Trial

Outcome

The likelihood of something occurring . The proportion of tim…

An order/pattern that may not be recognized in the short term

One observation of a random phenomenon

The value of a trial

Probability

The likelihood of something occurring . The proportion of tim…

Random

An order/pattern that may not be recognized in the short term

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

p-Value

Null Hypothesis

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if…

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to th…

The probability of getting a result at least as extreme as th…

The hypothesis that states there is no difference between two…

Statistical Significance

When your discovered p-value is less than your alpha (.05 if…

Non-Response Bias

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to th…

probability

sample space (S)

probability model

event

of any outcome of a chance process is a number between 0 and…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

A description of some chance behavior that consists of two pa…

Designated by a capital letter, any collection of outcomes fr…

probability

of any outcome of a chance process is a number between 0 and…

sample space (S)

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

biased

parameter

blinding

average

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

a number that is used to represent a population characteristi…

not telling participants which treatment a subject is getting

Also called the mean; a number that describes the central ten…

biased

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

parameter

a number that is used to represent a population characteristi…

D - there is no linear relationship be…

E - The observation in the lower-right…

C - the square of the correlation coef…

A - I only

A school guidance counselor examines the number of extracurri…

The British government conducts regular surveys of household…

The fraction of the variation in the values of y that is expl…

An AP® Statistics student designs an experiment to see whethe…

D - there is no linear relationship be…

A school guidance counselor examines the number of extracurri…

E - The observation in the lower-right…

The British government conducts regular surveys of household…

stratified random sampling (SRS)

stratified

cluster

systematic

every group of size n has an equal chance of being selected (…

first divide into groups (strata), then randomly select n fro…

first divide into groups (clusters), then randomly select n g…

randomly select first subject, then select every kth subject…

stratified random sampling (SRS)

every group of size n has an equal chance of being selected (…

stratified

first divide into groups (strata), then randomly select n fro…

Determine whether the numerical value…

Determine whether the numerical value…

Determine whether the numerical value…

Determine whether the numerical value…

STATISTIC - the value $68,000 is a numerical description of a…

STATISTIC - the value of 38% is a numerical description of a…

PARAMETER - the 62 surviving passengers out of 97 total passe…

PARAMETER - the value of 60% is a numerical description of th…

Determine whether the numerical value…

STATISTIC - the value $68,000 is a numerical description of a…

Determine whether the numerical value…

STATISTIC - the value of 38% is a numerical description of a…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical variable

Quantitative variable

objects described by a set of data: could be people/animals/t…

characteristics of an individual. There can be different valu…

separating individuals into separate groups

describing an individual with numerical values for which arit…

Individuals

objects described by a set of data: could be people/animals/t…

Variable

characteristics of an individual. There can be different valu…

Observational Study

Experiment

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand…

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher a…

Two events or random variables are dependent if they are not…

Variables of interest in an experiment (those that are measur…

Observational Study

Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand…

Experiment

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher a…

dotplot

overall pattern

outlier

describing a distribution of quantitat…

individual values shown as a dot above its location on a numb…

shape, center, spread

individual value that falls outside the overall pattern

S- shape... O- outliers... C- center... S- spread

dotplot

individual values shown as a dot above its location on a numb…

overall pattern

shape, center, spread

Population

Census

Sample

Sample Survey

In a statistical study, it is the entire group of individuals…

Collects data from every individual in the population.

The subset of individuals in the population from which we act…

Studies that use an organized plan to choose a sample that re…

Population

In a statistical study, it is the entire group of individuals…

Census

Collects data from every individual in the population.

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case an…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or label…

Population

Sample

Bias

Randomization

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the…

A failure of accurately using the sample method to represent…

Each individual is given a random chance of being selected.

Population

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

Sample

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the…

frequency table

relative frequency table

roundoff error

pie charts, bar graphs

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

computational error due to rounding, ex: all numbers add to 9…

display the distribution of a categorical variable

frequency table

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

relative frequency table

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

Interpreting Lsrl y intercept

Interpret lsrl slope b

Interpret Isrl s

Interpret r2

When the x is zero, the y variable is predicted to be -

For every one unit change in the x variable the y variable is…

It measures the typical distance between the actual y and the…

%of the variation in y is accounted for by the Lsrl of y on x

Interpreting Lsrl y intercept

When the x is zero, the y variable is predicted to be -

Interpret lsrl slope b

For every one unit change in the x variable the y variable is…

sampling

random

factors

units

studying a part in order to gain information about the whole

table of _____ digits can be used to select samples

another name for explanatory variables in an experiment

individuals on which an experiment is done

sampling

studying a part in order to gain information about the whole

random

table of _____ digits can be used to select samples

Probability

Trial

Outcome

Event

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

A single attempt

Value measured, observed, or reported for an individual insta…

A collection of outcomes

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

Trial

A single attempt

Probability Model

Random Variable

Probability Distribution

Discrete Random Variables

Describes the possible outcomes of a chance process and the l…

The numerical value that describes the outcomes of a chance p…

The probability model for a random variable

- Random variables that can assume a countable number (finite…

Probability Model

Describes the possible outcomes of a chance process and the l…

Random Variable

The numerical value that describes the outcomes of a chance p…