#### Study sets matching "ap statistics"

#### Study sets matching "ap statistics"

Independence assumption

Randomization condition

10% condition

Central limit theorem

The individuals in a sample must be independent from each othe…

-If data is coming from an experiment, subjects must be random…

When sampling a population we do not want to sample more than…

The sampling distribution of any mean becomes more nearly norm…

Independence assumption

The individuals in a sample must be independent from each othe…

Randomization condition

-If data is coming from an experiment, subjects must be random…

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by ad…

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of…

Most frequently occurring score.

Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.

Mean

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by ad…

Median

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of…

Sampling

Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

Population

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

People who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Sampling

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

Sample

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

Population

Census

Sample

Convenience sample

Is the entire group of individuals we want information about

Collects data from every individual in the population

Is a subset of individuals in the population from which we act…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reach…

Population

Is the entire group of individuals we want information about

Census

Collects data from every individual in the population

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

The objects described by a set of data. May be people, animals…

Any characteristic of an individual, can take different values…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

The objects described by a set of data. May be people, animals…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual, can take different values…

population

individual

sample

descriptive statistics

the entire group of individuals to be studied

a person or object that is a member of the population being st…

a subset of the population that is being studied

consists of organizing and summarizing data

population

the entire group of individuals to be studied

individual

a person or object that is a member of the population being st…

Statistics

Data analysis

Individual

Variable

science of data

organizing, displaying, summarizing, and asking questions abou…

(outcomes) the objects described by a set of data. Individuals…

characteristic of a variable

Statistics

science of data

Data analysis

organizing, displaying, summarizing, and asking questions abou…

Population

Census

Parameter

Sample

An entire group of study

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Number used to describe the population (Ex. 96% of WLN student…

Small section of population that we use to gain information ab…

Population

An entire group of study

Census

When we ask every member of the entire population to gain info…

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informatio…

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guarant…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informatio…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

Statistical Significance

Non-Response Bias

P-Value

Empirical Rule

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sam…

found by substituting the x-value in the regression equation;…

A statistical rule stating that for a normal distribution, alm…

Statistical Significance

An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.

Non-Response Bias

Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sam…

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

DOFS

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1 v…

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

When y is predicted by x, goes on y axis

Direction, Outliers, Form, Strength

Scatterplot

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1 v…

Explanatory Variable

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

Methods to answer questions involving c…

Experimental Probability

Theoretical Probability

Simulation

Experimental Probability ... Theoretical Probability... Simulation

estimate the likelihood of an event by observing the random ph…

Develop a mathematical probability model and use it to calcula…

Start with a model that in some way reflects the truth about t…

Methods to answer questions involving c…

Experimental Probability ... Theoretical Probability... Simulation

Experimental Probability

estimate the likelihood of an event by observing the random ph…

Paramater

Statistic

Sampling Distribution

Sampling variability

A number that desribes a population

A number that describes a sample

Statistic is the distribution of values taken by the statistic…

Value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling

Paramater

A number that desribes a population

Statistic

A number that describes a sample

Simple random sample

Systematic sample

Stratified random sample

Cluster sample

sample size n which every set of n elements in population has…

sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically "every nt…

population is divided into groups of similar elements, called…

entire groups or clusters chosen at random. Each cluster shoul…

Simple random sample

sample size n which every set of n elements in population has…

Systematic sample

sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically "every nt…

Population

Sample

Bias

Randomization

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the e…

A failure of accurately using the sample method to represent t…

Each individual is given a random chance of being selected.

Population

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

Sample

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the e…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Mutually Exclusive

Independent

Mutually Exclusive and Not Independent

Not Mutually Exclusive and Independent

Two event can't happen at the same time

One outcome doesn't affect the other

...

...

Mutually Exclusive

Two event can't happen at the same time

Independent

One outcome doesn't affect the other

PERCENTILE

Z-SCORE

Z-SCORE (Formula)

TRANSFORMING DATA (Adding/Subtracting a…

Describes the location in a distribution

Describes how many standard deviations... above or below the mean…

z = (x - mean)/Std. Dev.

-Affects measures of center... -NOT measures of spread or shape

PERCENTILE

Describes the location in a distribution

Z-SCORE

Describes how many standard deviations... above or below the mean…

one way table

chi-square goodness of fit test

chi-square statistic

expected count

displays the distribution of a categorical variable for the in…

determines whether a categorical variable has a specified dist…

for any variable category is obtained by multiplying the propo…

one way table

displays the distribution of a categorical variable for the in…

chi-square goodness of fit test

determines whether a categorical variable has a specified dist…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Parameter

Statistics

Sampling variability

Variation in sampling variability is...

A number that describes the population (μ, σ, p)

A number that describes the sample (x̅, s, p̂)

The value of a statistic varies in the repeated random sampling

Normal and expected

Parameter

A number that describes the population (μ, σ, p)

Statistics

A number that describes the sample (x̅, s, p̂)

Simple Random Sampling

Table of Random Digits

Unbiased

Sampling Variability

Every possible sample has an equal chance of being the sample…

Constructed so that each position is equally likely to be occu…

Values of the statistic from different random samples are cent…

Refers to the fact that the values of sample statistics vary f…

Simple Random Sampling

Every possible sample has an equal chance of being the sample…

Table of Random Digits

Constructed so that each position is equally likely to be occu…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…