# Study sets matching "ap statistics"

How to describe a distribution:

Standard Deviation

What does it mean to say that the mean…

Linear Transformation: Addition/subtrac…

- Shape (symmetric/skewed/single-peaked)... - Center (mean or med…

Average distance that the observations are from the mean (Alwa…

It is affected by outliers, always pulled in the direction of…

Center changes, shape and spread do not

How to describe a distribution:

- Shape (symmetric/skewed/single-peaked)... - Center (mean or med…

Standard Deviation

Average distance that the observations are from the mean (Alwa…

Independence assumption

Randomization condition

10% condition

Central limit theorem

The individuals in a sample must be independent from each othe…

-If data is coming from an experiment, subjects must be random…

When sampling a population we do not want to sample more than…

The sampling distribution of any mean becomes more nearly norm…

Independence assumption

The individuals in a sample must be independent from each othe…

Randomization condition

-If data is coming from an experiment, subjects must be random…

checking normal for two proportions

two sample z interval

Pooled (combined) sample proportion

two sample z test

check np and n(1-p) are > 10 for 1 and 2

(p1-p1) +- z (sq rt ((p1(1-p1))/n1) + ((p2(1-p2))/n2) )

use for significance tests x1+x2 / n1+n2

z= (P1-P2) - 0 / sq rt (pc (1-pc)) /n1 + (pc(1-pc)) /n2

checking normal for two proportions

check np and n(1-p) are > 10 for 1 and 2

two sample z interval

(p1-p1) +- z (sq rt ((p1(1-p1))/n1) + ((p2(1-p2))/n2) )

Population

Census

Sample

Convenience sample

Is the entire group of individuals we want information about

Collects data from every individual in the population

Is a subset of individuals in the population from which we act…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reach…

Population

Is the entire group of individuals we want information about

Census

Collects data from every individual in the population

parameter

statistic

sampling distribution

unbiased estimator

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…

statistic used to estimate a parameter is this if the mean of…

parameter

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

statistic

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

Observational Study

Experiment

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand…

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher at…

Two events or random variables are dependent if they are not i…

Variables of interest in an experiment (those that are measure…

Observational Study

Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand…

Experiment

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher at…

complementary events

P(at least 1)

mutually exclusive events (disjoint eve…

Interpretation of A ∩ B

two disjoint events that together make up the entire sample sp…

1- P(none)

events that can't happen at the same time

A intersect B; the outcomes that are in A and that are also in…

complementary events

two disjoint events that together make up the entire sample sp…

P(at least 1)

1- P(none)

Simple random sample

Systematic sample

Stratified random sample

Cluster sample

sample size n which every set of n elements in population has…

sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically "every nt…

population is divided into groups of similar elements, called…

entire groups or clusters chosen at random. Each cluster shoul…

Simple random sample

sample size n which every set of n elements in population has…

Systematic sample

sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically "every nt…

Population

Sample

Bias

Randomization

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the e…

A failure of accurately using the sample method to represent t…

Each individual is given a random chance of being selected.

Population

The entire group of people or instances we want to study

Sample

A subset of the population to learn about and understand the e…

Bar graph

Histogram

Class intervals

Class boundaries

QUALITATIVE data; x axis is the CATEGORIES and y is their freq…

QUANTITATIVE data; like X axis has test scores and y axis gas…

Bars of a histogram

The lower and upper ends of a histogram bar; a bar with midpoi…

Bar graph

QUALITATIVE data; x axis is the CATEGORIES and y is their freq…

Histogram

QUANTITATIVE data; like X axis has test scores and y axis gas…

Addition rule

Alpha

Alternative hypothesis

Association

aids in computing the chances of one of several events occurin…

the probability of a Type I error

the hypothesis stating what the researcher is seeking evidence…

relationship between or among variables.

Addition rule

aids in computing the chances of one of several events occurin…

Alpha

the probability of a Type I error

population

sample

observational study

experiment

the population is the entire collection of individuals or obje…

part of the population that is selected for study

study in which the person conducting the study observes charac…

study in which the person conducting the study looks at how a…

population

the population is the entire collection of individuals or obje…

sample

part of the population that is selected for study

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn

set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical popul…

survey conducted on the full set of observation objects belong…

made up of people who are easy to reach

Population

the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn

Sample

set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical popul…

Type I error

Type II error

Undercoverage

P-value

Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true

Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false

When some individuals or a population are not included in the…

The probability, assuming the null hypothesis is true, that th…

Type I error

Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true

Type II error

Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false

individuals

variables

categorical

quantitative

Objects described by a set of data.

Any characteristics measured or collected in a data set.

Places an individual into a category or group.

Measures a specific numerical value that can be used for analy…

individuals

Objects described by a set of data.

variables

Any characteristics measured or collected in a data set.

Statistical Inference

Population

Sample

Parameter

Using a sample statistic to estimate a population parameter

Every individual of interest (not necessarily a person)

Subset of a population

Numerical measure describing a population

Statistical Inference

Using a sample statistic to estimate a population parameter

Population

Every individual of interest (not necessarily a person)

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

objects described by a set of data.

an attribute that describes a person, place, thing, or idea; c…

take on values that are names or labels.

numerical, represent a measurable quantity.

Individuals

objects described by a set of data.

Variable

an attribute that describes a person, place, thing, or idea; c…

Marginal vs. Conditional Distributions

Categorical vs. Quantitative Data

Comparing distributions

SOCS

In a two-way table, marginal distributions consider only one v…

Data are categorical if they fall into groups or categories an…

Address: Shape, Outliers, Center, Spread in context! YOU MUST…

Shape - Skewed Left, Skewed Right, Symmetric, Uniform, Unimoda…

Marginal vs. Conditional Distributions

In a two-way table, marginal distributions consider only one v…

Categorical vs. Quantitative Data

Data are categorical if they fall into groups or categories an…

Parameter

Statistic

Sampling Variability

Sampling Distribution

A number that describes the population

A number that describes a sample

The value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling

The statistic in all possible samples of the same size from th…

Parameter

A number that describes the population

Statistic

A number that describes a sample

Percentile

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

Z-Score

Adding the same number "a" to each obse…

Number < X / Total

- Shows the number, percentage, or proportion of observations…

- Used when comparing the scores of two pieces of data that do…

- Adds "a" to the measures of center and location... - Doesn't ch…

Percentile

Number < X / Total

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

- Shows the number, percentage, or proportion of observations…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space S

Any outcome of a chance process that is a number between 0 and…

The proportion of times that a particular outcome occurs in ma…

An imitation of chance behavior, most often carried out with r…

The set of possible outcomes of a chance process

Probability

Any outcome of a chance process that is a number between 0 and…

Law of Large Numbers

The proportion of times that a particular outcome occurs in ma…

context

data

data table

case

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and…

an individual about whom or which we have data

context

ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the dat…

data

systematically recorded information, whether numbers or labels…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

The objects described by a set of data. May be people, animals…

Any characteristic of an individual, can take different values…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

Takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

The objects described by a set of data. May be people, animals…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual, can take different values…