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Fundamental Counting Principal

Fundamental Counting Principal

permutation

permutation key words

"How many ways?"

certain procedure (P) can be broken into a number (n) of succ…

An r-permutation of a set of n elements is an ORDERED selecti…

officers, place, arranged, line up

Fundamental Counting Principal

"How many ways?"

Fundamental Counting Principal

certain procedure (P) can be broken into a number (n) of succ…

Margin of Error

Confidence Interval for a Population M…

Confidence Interval for a Population P…

Margin of Error Formula

If we repeated many samples, the [parameter] will be within ±…

x̄ ± z*(σ/√n)

p̂ ± z*(√[p̂q̂/n])

The Formula for Confidence Intervals that Comes After the sta…

Margin of Error

If we repeated many samples, the [parameter] will be within ±…

Confidence Interval for a Population M…

x̄ ± z*(σ/√n)

With what shape is the mean smaller th…

When finding the area between two devi…

When writing about unusual features on…

When two variables are absent in two e…

Skewed left

Use the result of the smaller one as the min and the result o…

Compare/link it to the center, range/IQR, and or shape

Use substitution

With what shape is the mean smaller th…

Skewed left

When finding the area between two devi…

Use the result of the smaller one as the min and the result o…

qualitative variable

quantitative variable

continuous variable

discrete variable

variables that take on values that are names or labels

variables that take on values that are a measurable quanity

variables which can take on any value within it's range

variables which cannot take on any value within it's range

qualitative variable

variables that take on values that are names or labels

quantitative variable

variables that take on values that are a measurable quanity

Mean

IQR

Standard Deviation

Measures of Position

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Common measure of spread. How far each observation is from th…

Percentiles: Percentile tells us a data point's position rela…

Mean

Sum of observations/Number of Observations

IQR

Q3-Q1... Resistant to outliers

Symmetric

Parameter

Statistic

Median

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

value of a population (typically unknown)

a calculated value about a population from a sample(s).

the middle point of the data (50th percentile) when the data…

Symmetric

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

Parameter

value of a population (typically unknown)

Random

Independent

Sample Space

With replacement the denominator is...

Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…

The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…

The set of all possible outcomes. Can be presented as a list…

Constant

Random

Individual outcomes are uncertain, however there is a regular…

Independent

The outcome of one trial does not influence/effect the outcom…

Parameter

Statistics

Sampling variability

Variation in sampling variability is...

A number that describes the population (μ, σ, p)

A number that describes the sample (x̅, s, p̂)

The value of a statistic varies in the repeated random sampling

Normal and expected

Parameter

A number that describes the population (μ, σ, p)

Statistics

A number that describes the sample (x̅, s, p̂)

Which term defines "Using the data to…

Which term defines "Summarizing a samp…

What kind of data is used in bar charts?

Are titles and labels necessary?

Statistical inference and analysis

Descriptive statistics

Qualitative (Categorical)

Yes

Which term defines "Using the data to…

Statistical inference and analysis

Which term defines "Summarizing a samp…

Descriptive statistics

Probability

Random

Trial

Outcome

The likelihood of something occurring . The proportion of tim…

An order/pattern that may not be recognized in the short term

One observation of a random phenomenon

The value of a trial

Probability

The likelihood of something occurring . The proportion of tim…

Random

An order/pattern that may not be recognized in the short term

Pie Chart

Bar Graph

Quantitative Data

What makes a Good Graph?

Used with categorical data and it must add up to 100%... Very r…

+ Used with Categorical Data... + Usually Shows Frequency (Coun…

Data from surveys, experiments, and observational studies

+ Title... + Axes Labeled... + Constant Scale

Pie Chart

Used with categorical data and it must add up to 100%... Very r…

Bar Graph

+ Used with Categorical Data... + Usually Shows Frequency (Coun…

Histogram

Statistics

Variability

Descriptive Statistics

A graph of vertical bars in intervals representing the freque…

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

The extent to which samples differ from one another and from…

The methods of properly organizing and summarizing data that…

Histogram

A graph of vertical bars in intervals representing the freque…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

Sample Standard Deviation

SRS

convenience

Point Estimate

σ/√n

in this sample each person has an equal chance of being selec…

sample where we sample the most convenient individuals

another term for the statistic (mean, probability, etc.)

Sample Standard Deviation

σ/√n

SRS

in this sample each person has an equal chance of being selec…

What is meant by random behavior?

What is the purpose of a simulation?

In the short run, probability is _____…

A subset of outcomes from the sample s…

Not chaotic behavior; a tendency to overcome bias (unpredicta…

To imitate random chance behavior.

Unpredictable.

Event.

What is meant by random behavior?

Not chaotic behavior; a tendency to overcome bias (unpredicta…

What is the purpose of a simulation?

To imitate random chance behavior.

alternative hypothesis

association

bar graph

bimodal

the theory that the researcher hopes to confirm by rejecting…

when some of the variability in one variable can be accounted…

graph in which the frequencies of categories are displayed wi…

distribution made with two or more most common values (peaks-…

alternative hypothesis

the theory that the researcher hopes to confirm by rejecting…

association

when some of the variability in one variable can be accounted…

What is the population in a statistica…

What is the sample in a statistical st…

What is a convenience sample, and why…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. Howeve…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors cert…

What is the population in a statistica…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical st…

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

Sample Standard Deviation

SRS

convenience

Point Estimate

σ/√n

in this sample each person has an equal chance of being selec…

sample where we sample the most convenient individuals

another term for the statistic (mean, probability, etc.)

Sample Standard Deviation

σ/√n

SRS

in this sample each person has an equal chance of being selec…

What is Statistics?

What is variability?

What are 2 branches of AP STATS?

What are DESCRIPTIVE STATS?

The study of variability

Differences... how things differ. There is variability everyw…

Inferential and Descriptive

Tell me what you got! Describe to me the data that you collec…

What is Statistics?

The study of variability

What is variability?

Differences... how things differ. There is variability everyw…

random variable

discrete random variable

continuous random variable

How do you find the mean of a discrete…

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some cha…

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome p…

it can take an infinite number of values, meaning it could be…

multiply each possible value by its probability, then add all…

random variable

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some cha…

discrete random variable

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome p…

parameter

statistic

sampling variability

sampling distribution

a number that describes the population; in statistical practi…

a number that can be computed from the sample data without ma…

the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all poss…

parameter

a number that describes the population; in statistical practi…

statistic

a number that can be computed from the sample data without ma…

dotplot

overall pattern

outlier

describing a distribution of quantitat…

individual values shown as a dot above its location on a numb…

shape, center, spread

individual value that falls outside the overall pattern

S- shape... O- outliers... C- center... S- spread

dotplot

individual values shown as a dot above its location on a numb…

overall pattern

shape, center, spread

What does "r" mean? What is its name?

What does r^2 mean? What is its name?

What is the equation of the least squa…

Place a value in x to produce y

There is a strong/mild/weak positive/negative linear relation…

_____% of the variability of (response variable) is due to th…

(predicted) y = a + bx where (predicted) y is the predicted (…

Solve

What does "r" mean? What is its name?

There is a strong/mild/weak positive/negative linear relation…

What does r^2 mean? What is its name?

_____% of the variability of (response variable) is due to th…

What type of sampling design deals wit…

What are some advantages and disadvant…

If someone is having a survey and leav…

What is Convenience Sampling, and what…

Cluster Sample

Advantages- unbiased and easy... Disadvantages- Large variance,…

Undercoverage

It is asking people who are easy to talk to, but produces bia…

What type of sampling design deals wit…

Cluster Sample

What are some advantages and disadvant…

Advantages- unbiased and easy... Disadvantages- Large variance,…

frequency table

relative frequency table

roundoff error

pie charts, bar graphs

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

computational error due to rounding, ex: all numbers add to 9…

display the distribution of a categorical variable

frequency table

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

relative frequency table

distribution of a categorical variable, lists the categories…

How does an experiment differ from an…

What is the difference between samplin…

Why are voluntary response samples unr…

Why might convenience sampling be unre…

In an experiment we impose some treatments on individuals in…

In sampling, you study a part of the population in order to g…

Voluntary response samples tend to be unreliable because indi…

Since it involves choosing individuals who are easiest to rea…

How does an experiment differ from an…

In an experiment we impose some treatments on individuals in…

What is the difference between samplin…

In sampling, you study a part of the population in order to g…

A researcher carefully computes the co…

Given r=0.543, what is r²? After findi…

Why is linear regression sometimes ref…

Fisherman have been recording the dead…

A error was made! All correlation coefficients: −1 ≤ r ≤ 1.

0.5432 = .295 ... .295 --> 29.5%

Mathematically the coefficients are determined from computing…

What is the slope? It is m = 9.607. ... What is the meaning of…

A researcher carefully computes the co…

A error was made! All correlation coefficients: −1 ≤ r ≤ 1.

Given r=0.543, what is r²? After findi…

0.5432 = .295 ... .295 --> 29.5%

Probability

Trial

Outcome

Event

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

A single attempt

Value measured, observed, or reported for an individual insta…

A collection of outcomes

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that reports the likelihood of the e…

Trial

A single attempt

stratified random sampling (SRS)

stratified

cluster

systematic

every group of size n has an equal chance of being selected (…

first divide into groups (strata), then randomly select n fro…

first divide into groups (clusters), then randomly select n g…

randomly select first subject, then select every kth subject…

stratified random sampling (SRS)

every group of size n has an equal chance of being selected (…

stratified

first divide into groups (strata), then randomly select n fro…

point estimator

point estimate

confidence interval equation

margin of error

statistic that provides an estimate of a population parameter

value of that statistic from a sample; "best guess" at the va…

estimate +/- margin of error; # </= mean </= #

how close the estimate tends to be to the unknown parameter

point estimator

statistic that provides an estimate of a population parameter

point estimate

value of that statistic from a sample; "best guess" at the va…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

biased

parameter

blinding

average

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

a number that is used to represent a population characteristi…

not telling participants which treatment a subject is getting

Also called the mean; a number that describes the central ten…

biased

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

parameter

a number that is used to represent a population characteristi…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

random variable

discrete random variable

continuous random variable

How do you find the mean of a discrete…

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some cha…

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome p…

it can take an infinite number of values, meaning it could be…

multiply each possible value by its probability, then add all…

random variable

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some cha…

discrete random variable

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome p…

What is a dotplot?

What's the difference between categori…

What is a bar chart?

What are histograms?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

A display for categorical data which indicates frequencies or…

Histograms are good for large quantitative data sets- either…

What is a dotplot?

A graphical display which shows "dots" for each point. It's g…

What's the difference between categori…

Categorical data fits into various categories; whereas, quant…

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…

-places an individual into one of several groups or categorie…

-takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an a…

individuals

-the objects described by a set of data... -they may be people,…

variable

-any characteristic of an individual... -can take different valu…

Simple random sample (SRS)

Stratified random sample

Systematic random sample

Random cluster sample

A sample where n individuals are selected from a population i…

A sample in which simple random samples are selected from eac…

A sample where every nth individual is selected from a list o…

Population is divided into subgroups then the entire subgroup…

Simple random sample (SRS)

A sample where n individuals are selected from a population i…

Stratified random sample

A sample in which simple random samples are selected from eac…

Pth percentile

Cumulative frequency

To make a cumulative relative frequenc…

Standardized Value (z-score)

Of a distrubution is the value with p percent of the observat…

Add the counts in the frequency column for the current class…

Plot a point corresponding to the cumulative relative frequen…

If x is an observation from a distribution that has a known m…

Pth percentile

Of a distrubution is the value with p percent of the observat…

Cumulative frequency

Add the counts in the frequency column for the current class…

Frequency table

Relative frequency table

Distribution

Area principle

lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the…

A frequency table that gives percentage values of each category

gives the possible values of the variable and the relative fr…

In a statistical display, each data value should be represent…

Frequency table

lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the…

Relative frequency table

A frequency table that gives percentage values of each category

Frequency

Histogram

Relative Frequency

Interquartile Range

the number of times a value of the data occur

a graphical representation in x-y form of the distribution of…

the ratio of the number of times a value of the data occurs i…

or IQR, is the range of the middle 50 percent of the data val…

Frequency

the number of times a value of the data occur

Histogram

a graphical representation in x-y form of the distribution of…

random variable

discrete random variable

continuous random variable

How do you find the mean of a discrete…

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some cha…

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome p…

it can take an infinite number of values, meaning it could be…

multiply each possible value by its probability, then add all…

random variable

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some cha…

discrete random variable

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome p…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical

Quantitative

Objects described by the set of data.

Characteristic of an individual.

(Qualitative) Places an individual into one of several catego…

Takes numeral values from which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

Objects described by the set of data.

Variable

Characteristic of an individual.

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Scatterplot

Direction

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable. T…

Measures an outcome of a study. The y value in a scatterplot.

Shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

The movement of the overall pattern in a scatterplot. Reading…

Explanatory Variable

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable. T…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study. The y value in a scatterplot.