# Study sets matching "ap statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Population

Sample

Sample survey

Convenience sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

Studies that used an organized plan to choose a sample that re…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect info…

a

b

c

e

For which of the following variables would it be more appropri…

Here is a stemplot of the percents of residents aged 65 and ol…

Ignoring the outlier in the stemplot above, the shape of the d…

The scores on a statistics test had a mean of 81 and a standar…

a

For which of the following variables would it be more appropri…

b

Here is a stemplot of the percents of residents aged 65 and ol…

population

sample

variable

data

the entire group of individuals that we want information about

representative of an entire population

A variable is any characteristic whose value may change from o…

results from making observations either on a single variable o…

population

the entire group of individuals that we want information about

sample

representative of an entire population

Area Principle

Frequency Table

Distribution

Bar chart

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

(Relative Frequency Table)

Distribution gives us:... -the possible values of the variable... -t…

shows a bar whose area represents the count (or percentage) of…

Area Principle

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

Frequency Table

(Relative Frequency Table)

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Scatterplot

Direction

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable. Th…

Measures an outcome of a study. The y value in a scatterplot.

Shows the relationship between two quantitative variables meas…

The movement of the overall pattern in a scatterplot. Reading…

Explanatory Variable

May help explain or predict changes in a response variable. Th…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study. The y value in a scatterplot.

significance test or hypothesis test

Null hypothesis (H₀)

Alternative hypothesis (Ha)

One-sided alternative hypothesis

a formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Generally, a statement of no change, no difference, or no rela…

Usually identifies a particular relationship between 2 or more…

An alternative hypothesis that includes either > or <.

significance test or hypothesis test

a formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null hypothesis (H₀)

Generally, a statement of no change, no difference, or no rela…

Sample

Simulation

Stratified Random Sample

Simple Random Sample

A (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope of…

Models random events by using random numbers to specify event…

A sampling design in which the population is divided into seve…

A simple random sample of sample size n is one in which each s…

Sample

A (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope of…

Simulation

Models random events by using random numbers to specify event…

random variable

discrete random variable

continuous random variable

How do you find the mean of a discrete…

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some chan…

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome pr…

it can take an infinite number of values, meaning it could be…

multiply each possible value by its probability, then add all…

random variable

takes numerical values that describe the outcomes of some chan…

discrete random variable

describes a fixed set of possible values, and these outcome pr…

Demography

Population Density

arithmetic density

Population Composition

the scientific study of population characteristics

A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

The total number of people divided by the total land area

Structure of population in terms of age, sex and other propert…

Demography

the scientific study of population characteristics

Population Density

A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

A ________ is a statistic that provides…

The value of the statistic from a sampl…

A _____________ gives an interval of pl…

The difference between the point estima…

Point estimator

Point estimate

C% confidence interval; point estimate +/- margin of error

less

A ________ is a statistic that provides…

Point estimator

The value of the statistic from a sampl…

Point estimate

point estimate

confidence interval

"level of confidence" or "confidence le…

calculating the margin of error

the value of a statistic from a sample that is used as an esti…

An interval of numbers that provide a set of plausible values…

The expected percent of intervals that will contain the parame…

On the formula packet, the ME is everything after the ± sign.…

point estimate

the value of a statistic from a sample that is used as an esti…

confidence interval

An interval of numbers that provide a set of plausible values…

What is the population in a statistical…

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

What is a convenience sample, and why i…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. However…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors certa…

What is the population in a statistical…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical stu…

part of the population from which we actually collect informat…

Statistics (the subject with a capital…

statistics ( a value with a small s)

data

datum

a way of reasoning with a collection of tools and methods desi…

a particular calculation made from data values

values (plural) along with context that measure or count

the singular form of data

Statistics (the subject with a capital…

a way of reasoning with a collection of tools and methods desi…

statistics ( a value with a small s)

a particular calculation made from data values

pth percentile

cumulative relative frequency graph

z-score

transforming

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

for quantitative data, displays the cumulative relative freque…

tells us how many standard deviations from the mean an observa…

converts the original observations from the original units of…

pth percentile

the value with p percent of the observations less than it

cumulative relative frequency graph

for quantitative data, displays the cumulative relative freque…

significance test or hypothesis test

Null hypothesis (H₀)

Alternative hypothesis (Ha)

One-sided alternative hypothesis

a formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Generally, a statement of no change, no difference, or no rela…

Usually identifies a particular relationship between 2 or more…

An alternative hypothesis that includes either > or <.

significance test or hypothesis test

a formal procedure for using observed data to decide between t…

Null hypothesis (H₀)

Generally, a statement of no change, no difference, or no rela…

Random Variables

Probability Distribution

Discrete Random Variable

Mean of a discrete random variable

Variable that takes numerical values that describe the outcome…

Gives the possible values of a random variable and their proba…

Takes a fixed set of possible values with gaps between. The pr…

To find the mean of X, multiply each possible value by the pro…

Random Variables

Variable that takes numerical values that describe the outcome…

Probability Distribution

Gives the possible values of a random variable and their proba…

Chance experiment

Sample space

Event

Simple event

Any process that generates observations whose outcomes cannot…

Set of all possible outcomes of a chance experiment

An outcome or set of outcomes of a chance experiment

An event that consists of exactly one outcome

Chance experiment

Any process that generates observations whose outcomes cannot…

Sample space

Set of all possible outcomes of a chance experiment

complementary events

P(at least 1)

mutually exclusive events (disjoint eve…

A ∩ B

two disjoint events that together make up the entire sample sp…

1- P(none)

events that can't happen at the same time

A intersect B; the outcomes that are in A and that are also in…

complementary events

two disjoint events that together make up the entire sample sp…

P(at least 1)

1- P(none)

Percentile

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

Z-Score

Adding the same number "a" to each obse…

Number < X / Total

- Shows the number, percentage, or proportion of observations…

- Used when comparing the scores of two pieces of data that do…

- Adds "a" to the measures of center and location... - Doesn't ch…

Percentile

Number < X / Total

Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph

- Shows the number, percentage, or proportion of observations…

In what shape is a normal distribution…

Describe the shape of normal distributi…

What is the area under a bell curve?

What is a z-score?

A bell curve.

Unimodal and symmetric.

One

Deviation score over the standard deviation.

In what shape is a normal distribution…

A bell curve.

Describe the shape of normal distributi…

Unimodal and symmetric.

Population

Census

Sample

Population vs. Sample

A statistical study is the entire group of individuals we want…

Collects data from every individual in a population.

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actual…

The population is the whole group while a sample are parts of…

Population

A statistical study is the entire group of individuals we want…

Census

Collects data from every individual in a population.

Parameter

Statistics

Sampling Distribution

Unbiased Estimator

is a number that describes some characteristics of the populat…

is a number that describes some characteristics of the sample

is the distribution of values taken by the statistics in all p…

a statistic used to estimate a parameter , if the mean of its…

Parameter

is a number that describes some characteristics of the populat…

Statistics

is a number that describes some characteristics of the sample

Sampling

Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

Population

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

People who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Sampling

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

Sample

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…