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Study sets matching "archaeology chapter 4"

35 terms
Intro to Archaeology Chapter 4
In Africa before 60,000 years ago, sym…
African Homo fossils dating to before…
Rebecca Cann discovered that
Transitional Homo sapiens
is first seen in the form of red ocher artifacts... is evidenced…
have clear Homo sapiens traits but also numerous retentions f…
the common mitochondrial ancestor of all modern people was Af…
date to between 450,000 and 225,000 years ago... have been found…
In Africa before 60,000 years ago, sym…
is first seen in the form of red ocher artifacts... is evidenced…
African Homo fossils dating to before…
have clear Homo sapiens traits but also numerous retentions f…
28 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
Relative Dating
Absolute Dating
Attribute
Type
The idea that something is older or younger relative to somet…
Full or absolute age in years before the present
A minimal characteristic of an artifact such that it cannot b…
Several artifacts with the same attributes
Relative Dating
The idea that something is older or younger relative to somet…
Absolute Dating
Full or absolute age in years before the present
Chapter 4: archaeology
"Modern" humans
Origin of H. Sapiens
Transitional H.Sapiens
Anatomically Modern ... Humans
paleolithic period: lower (prior 250k), middle (250-55k), upp…
4 competing theories: 1. African replacement hypothesis 2. Af…
Transition, gradient; Not a sudden appearance; Small fossil s…
150-100K years ago:... •Die KeldersCave... •Equus Cave... •Border Cave…
"Modern" humans
paleolithic period: lower (prior 250k), middle (250-55k), upp…
Origin of H. Sapiens
4 competing theories: 1. African replacement hypothesis 2. Af…
22 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4 definitions
Occipital
Prognathous
Supraorbital Torus
Calvarium
area at the rear of the skull
the quality of having a forward-thrusting lower face
a continuous ridge of bone above and across the eye orbits
the top part of a skull, lacking the lower jaw (mandible) and…
Occipital
area at the rear of the skull
Prognathous
the quality of having a forward-thrusting lower face
29 terms
chapter 4 (archaeology)
structural genes
regulatory genes
genotype
phenotype
genes that contain the information to make a protein
genes that guide the expression of structural genes, without…
the genetic makeup of an individual. Genotype can refer to…
an observable or measurable feature of an organism. phenotype…
structural genes
genes that contain the information to make a protein
regulatory genes
genes that guide the expression of structural genes, without…
Archaeology Vocab Chapter 4
Amud Cave
Beeches Pit
Bianche-Saint-Vaast
Bose
A site in Israel where a Neanderthal child was found buried w…
A site in England dating to 400,000 years ago that had produc…
The site in France where the oldest known fossil of a Neander…
A site in southern China that produced a stone tool industry…
Amud Cave
A site in Israel where a Neanderthal child was found buried w…
Beeches Pit
A site in England dating to 400,000 years ago that had produc…
31 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
anthropogenic
bioturbation
casual tool
component
human-caused changes in the environment; often used to refer…
any disturbance or movement of deposited materials by biologi…
objects with no purposeful modification used as a tool once o…
that portion of a site or site depsite representing occupatio…
anthropogenic
human-caused changes in the environment; often used to refer…
bioturbation
any disturbance or movement of deposited materials by biologi…
Archaeology chapter 4
Experimental archaeology
Ethnoarchaeology
Culture
Archaeological culture
Modern experiments to reproduce artifacts, architecture, or t…
Archaeological study of living societies for information to h…
A complement to biology, human adaptation based on intelligen…
A group off related materials from a region that indicates a…
Experimental archaeology
Modern experiments to reproduce artifacts, architecture, or t…
Ethnoarchaeology
Archaeological study of living societies for information to h…
16 terms
Archaeology Vocab Chapter 4
provenience
context
Pleistocene
in situ
an artifact's location within a site
the relationship of an artifact to other artifacts, ecofacts,…
a geologic period from 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago, which…
from Latin, meaning "in position"; the place where an artifac…
provenience
an artifact's location within a site
context
the relationship of an artifact to other artifacts, ecofacts,…
39 terms
Archaeology Essentials Chapter 4
relative dating
absolute dating
style
hand-axes
determination of chronological sequence without recourse to a…
determination of age with reference to a specific time scale,…
through their distinctive shape and decoration they are in so…
paleolithic stone tool usually made by modifying a natural pe…
relative dating
determination of chronological sequence without recourse to a…
absolute dating
determination of age with reference to a specific time scale,…
11 terms
Archaeology 102 Chapter 4
Ecofacts
Tell
Pictographs
Petroglyphs
The natural remains of plants and animals found in the archae…
A Term used to Describe mounds that have been created in west…
Art that has been PAINTED onto rocks and in caves
Art that has been CARVED into rocks and in caves
Ecofacts
The natural remains of plants and animals found in the archae…
Tell
A Term used to Describe mounds that have been created in west…
25 terms
World Archaeology Chapter 4
Pleistocene
Oxygen isotope curve
-Gran Dolina, Atapuerca
Bose
- the geological era that began 1.8 mya ... - characterized by t…
- the record if fluctuations in global climate during the Ple…
- a care in stain where stone tools and hominin remains dated…
- a site in southern China that produced a stone tool industr…
Pleistocene
- the geological era that began 1.8 mya ... - characterized by t…
Oxygen isotope curve
- the record if fluctuations in global climate during the Ple…
8 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
hyoid bone
lateralization
occipital bun
mousterian
delicate bone in the back of the neck that anchors the tongue…
the division of the human brain into two coexisting halves
distinctive shelf at the base of the skull; usually associate…
describes stone tool assemblages of neanderthals during the m…
hyoid bone
delicate bone in the back of the neck that anchors the tongue…
lateralization
the division of the human brain into two coexisting halves
8 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
Praenthropus
Homo Erectus
Prognathic
Biface
2.5-1.4 mya ... massive molars/muscles for chewing (incl. sagitt…
first hominin species to start to travel around other parts o…
underbite/overbite
prehistoric stone implement flaked on both faces
Praenthropus
2.5-1.4 mya ... massive molars/muscles for chewing (incl. sagitt…
Homo Erectus
first hominin species to start to travel around other parts o…
13 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
Inhumation
Locus (loci)
Manuport
Midden
The intentional burial of a corpse; the disposal of the dead…
A distinct place defined within a site, such as a cemetery, p…
Materials, such as an unusual stone from a distant source, cl…
Site soil deposits containing broken and used-up artifacts pl…
Inhumation
The intentional burial of a corpse; the disposal of the dead…
Locus (loci)
A distinct place defined within a site, such as a cemetery, p…
23 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
Later Stone Age (LSA)
Enkapune ya Muto
Apollo 11 Cave
Rose Cottage Cave
The time period in Africa beginning before 50,000 cal BC; it…
also known as "Twilight Cave," this site in Kenya is one of t…
A Later Stone Age site in Namibia in Africa, it contains the…
A site in South Africa with Middle and Later Stone Age deposits
Later Stone Age (LSA)
The time period in Africa beginning before 50,000 cal BC; it…
Enkapune ya Muto
also known as "Twilight Cave," this site in Kenya is one of t…
54 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
experimental archaeology
research design
ethnoarchaeology
culture
modern experiments to reproduce artifacts, architecture, and/…
the overall strategy of intended methods, research area, and…
archaeological study of living societies for info to help bet…
a means of human adaptation based on intelligence, experience…
experimental archaeology
modern experiments to reproduce artifacts, architecture, and/…
research design
the overall strategy of intended methods, research area, and…
archaeology chapter 4
ideology
grave goods
redistribution
migration
way people view and understand the world. In egalitarian soci…
distribution of graves goods gives important evidence of stat…
the movement of goods to a central place to be distributed to…
one of the ways how materials and technologies can appear in…
ideology
way people view and understand the world. In egalitarian soci…
grave goods
distribution of graves goods gives important evidence of stat…
24 terms
Archaeology Essentials: Chapter 4
Relative Dating
Absolute Dating
Hand-Axes
Seriation
The determination of chronological sequence without recourse…
The determination of age with reference to a specific time sc…
A Paleolithic stone tool usually made by modifying (chipping…
A relative dating technique based on the chronological orderi…
Relative Dating
The determination of chronological sequence without recourse…
Absolute Dating
The determination of age with reference to a specific time sc…
38 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4
Glacials
Interglacials
Ice Age (Pleistocene Epoch)
foraminifera
...
...
...
...
Glacials
...
Interglacials
...
24 terms
Introduction to Archaeology - CHAPTER 4
abitrary level
archaeological context
argilliturbation
cryoturbation
The basic vertical subdivision of an excavation square; used…
Once artifacts enter the ground, they are part of the archaeo…
A natural formation process in which wet/dry cycles push arti…
A natural formation process in which freeze/thaw activity in…
abitrary level
The basic vertical subdivision of an excavation square; used…
archaeological context
Once artifacts enter the ground, they are part of the archaeo…
26 terms
Anthropology Chapter 4 - Archaeology
Paleoanthropologist
Palynology
Bioarchaeology
Remote sensing
Study human evolution
study ancient plants through pollen samples
Study of human skeletons to reconstruct physical traits, heal…
Aerial photos
Paleoanthropologist
Study human evolution
Palynology
study ancient plants through pollen samples
9 terms
Archaeology: Part 3, Chapter 4: Key Terms
Archaeological Data
Archaeological Record
Cultural Transformations
Inorganic Materials
the natural materials recognized by the archaeologist as sign…
artifacts, sites, and other human-manufactured features or re…
changes in the archaeological record resulting from later hum…
objects that are not part of the animal or plant kingdom, inc…
Archaeological Data
the natural materials recognized by the archaeologist as sign…
Archaeological Record
artifacts, sites, and other human-manufactured features or re…
18 terms
Chapter 4: Archaeological Methods
How to obtain material to study
Archaeological sites
Site complexity
Site formation processes
- Direct excavation... - Archival research... - Laboratory analysis
- Spatially restricted places of human activity that consist…
- Site type (village, camp, short-term, long-term)... - Site loc…
- Events that both create an archaeological site and that hap…
How to obtain material to study
- Direct excavation... - Archival research... - Laboratory analysis
Archaeological sites
- Spatially restricted places of human activity that consist…
19 terms
Archaeology and Prehuman History-Chapter 4 Key Terms
Amud Cave 109
Beeches Pit 93
Bose 90
Boxgrove 91
One of few sites to have produced detailed evidence of an obj…
A site in England dating to 400,000 years ago that has produc…
A site in southern China that produced a stone tool industry…
One of the oldest known Acheulian sites in Europe; located in…
Amud Cave 109
One of few sites to have produced detailed evidence of an obj…
Beeches Pit 93
A site in England dating to 400,000 years ago that has produc…
45 terms
Archaeology Essentials, Chapter 4: When?
to be meaningful, our timescale in yea…
AD means
BC means
BCE means
The purpose of dating conventions:
Anno Domini ... (Latin for "the year of our Lord")
Before Christ
Before the Common Era
to be meaningful, our timescale in yea…
The purpose of dating conventions:
AD means
Anno Domini ... (Latin for "the year of our Lord")
23 terms
Chapter 4: Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
systems survey provides..
Paleo-anthropology
relative dating
stratigraphy
a regional perspective by gathering into on settlement patter…
study of ancient humans
time frame in relation to other materials
examines ways earth sediments accumulate strata
systems survey provides..
a regional perspective by gathering into on settlement patter…
Paleo-anthropology
study of ancient humans
16 terms
Chapter 4: Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
absolute dating
anthropometry
bone biology
dendrochronology
Dating techniques that establish dates in numbers or ranges o…
The measurement of human body parts and dimensions, including…
Study of bone as a biological tissue, including its genetics,…
Tree-ring dating; a form of absolute dating based on the stud…
absolute dating
Dating techniques that establish dates in numbers or ranges o…
anthropometry
The measurement of human body parts and dimensions, including…
27 terms
Chapter 4: Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
paleontology
remote sensing
fossils
systematic survey
study of ancient life through the fossil record
use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
remains of ancient life
study of settlement patterns over a large area
paleontology
study of ancient life through the fossil record
remote sensing
use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
16 terms
Chapter 4: Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
Paleontology
Remote Sensing
Fossils
Systematic Survey
Study of ancient life through the fossil record
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
Remains of ancient life
Study of settlement patterns over a large area
Paleontology
Study of ancient life through the fossil record
Remote Sensing
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
Anthropology- Chapter 4: Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
Paleontology
Remote Sensing
Fossils
Systematic Survery
study of ancient life through the fossil record
use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
remains of ancient life
study of the settlement patters over a large area
Paleontology
study of ancient life through the fossil record
Remote Sensing
use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
19 terms
Archaeology ch 4
locus
anthropogenic
middens
primary context
a distinct area of a site which may be deined on the basis of…
soils formed as the result of human activity
site depositis that consist of a decomposed garbage pile
the plac e where something is in its original position, still…
locus
a distinct area of a site which may be deined on the basis of…
anthropogenic
soils formed as the result of human activity
16 terms
Chapter 4 Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
Paleontology
Remote Setting
Fossils
Systematic Survey
Study of ancient life through the fossil record.
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
Remains of ancient life.
Study of settlement patterns over a large area.
Paleontology
Study of ancient life through the fossil record.
Remote Setting
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
14 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4- Doing Fieldwork: Why Archaeologists Dig Square Holes
Provenience
context
Pleistocene
In situ
artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data coll…
relationship of an artifact, ecofact, or feature to other art…
geologic period from 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago; charact…
"in position"; place where an artifact, ecofact, or feature w…
Provenience
artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data coll…
context
relationship of an artifact, ecofact, or feature to other art…
24 terms
Understand Humans Intro to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology Chapter 4
Biological Determinism
Eugenics
Polymorphisms
Slash -and -burn agriculture
The concept that phenomena, including various aspects of beha…
The philosophy of "race improvement" through the forced steri…
Loci with more than one allele. Polymorphisms can be expresse…
A traditional land-clearing practice involving the cutting an…
Biological Determinism
The concept that phenomena, including various aspects of beha…
Eugenics
The philosophy of "race improvement" through the forced steri…
54 terms
archaeology chap 4
later stone age
enkapune ya muto
apollo 11 cave
rose cottage cave
time period in africa beginning around 50K cal BC.
site in kenya from 40K cal BC containing ostrich egg shells.
later stone age site in africa that has oldest known rock art…
a site in south africa with middle and late stone age deposits.
later stone age
time period in africa beginning around 50K cal BC.
enkapune ya muto
site in kenya from 40K cal BC containing ostrich egg shells.
20 terms
Archaeology Chap 4
Pleistocene
Oxygen Isotope Curve
Gran Dolina, Atapuerca
Bose
The geological era that began 1.8 million years ago, characte…
The record of fluctuations in global climate during the Pleis…
A cave in Spain where stone tools and hominin remains dated t…
A site in southern China that produced a stone tool industry…
Pleistocene
The geological era that began 1.8 million years ago, characte…
Oxygen Isotope Curve
The record of fluctuations in global climate during the Pleis…
27 terms
Archaeology Chapter IV
Provenience
Pleistoncene
In Situ
Context
Artifact's location within a site; recording context is inval…
Glacial period from 2 million to 10,000 years ago; helps esta…
Place where artifact was found
Everything about the artifact is important
Provenience
Artifact's location within a site; recording context is inval…
Pleistoncene
Glacial period from 2 million to 10,000 years ago; helps esta…
In The Beginning An Intro to Archaeology Key Terms Chapter 4
Archaeological Data
Archaeological Record
Cartouches
Cultural Transformations
any material remains of human activity
artifacts sites and other human-manufactured features or resu…
...
changes in the archaeological record resulting from later hum…
Archaeological Data
any material remains of human activity
Archaeological Record
artifacts sites and other human-manufactured features or resu…
25 terms
Archaeology Ch.4 Vocabulary
provenience
Pleistocene
in situ
test excavation
An artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data c…
A geologic period from 2 million to 10,000 years ago, which w…
From Latin, meaning "in position"; the place where an artifac…
A small initial excavation to determine a site's potential fo…
provenience
An artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data c…
Pleistocene
A geologic period from 2 million to 10,000 years ago, which w…
14 terms
Archaeology Chapter 4- Doing Fieldwork: Why Archaeologists Dig Square Holes
Provenience
context
Pleistocene
In situ
artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data coll…
relationship of an artifact, ecofact, or feature to other art…
geologic period from 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago; charact…
"in position"; place where an artifact, ecofact, or feature w…
Provenience
artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data coll…
context
relationship of an artifact, ecofact, or feature to other art…
20 terms
Archaeology Chapter Four Ferry
Relative Dating
Absolute Dating
Paleolithic
Context
The determination of chronological sequence without recourse…
The determination of age with reference to a specific time sc…
The archaeological period before 10,000 BC, characterized by…
Immediate matrix, its provenience, and its association with o…
Relative Dating
The determination of chronological sequence without recourse…
Absolute Dating
The determination of age with reference to a specific time sc…
15 terms
Chapter 4 Quiz: Doing Archaeology & Physical Anthropology
What does the principle of superpositi…
What do molecular anthropologists study?
Fossil pollen, phytoliths, and starch…
What point was the chapter on archaeol…
In an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is on…
The relationships among ancient and contemporary populations…
microscopic evidence that archaeologists are using increasing…
That the failure to find a fossil species in a particular pla…
What does the principle of superpositi…
In an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is on…
What do molecular anthropologists study?
The relationships among ancient and contemporary populations…
16 terms
Anthropology 1102 (chapter 4: Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology)
Paleontology
Remote Sensing
Fossils
Systematic Survey
Study of ancient life through the fossil record
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
Remains of ancient life
Study of settlement patterns over a large area
Paleontology
Study of ancient life through the fossil record
Remote Sensing
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on…
37 terms
Textbook Chapter 4 Doing Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
Archeologists
Biological anthropologists
Anthropological archaeology
Paleoanthropologist
tend to study material culture
tend to study biological remains. living and recent humans an…
reconstructs human behavior, social patterns, and cultural fe…
study human evolution through skeletal material and related m…
Archeologists
tend to study material culture
Biological anthropologists
tend to study biological remains. living and recent humans an…
22 terms
Archaeology Chapter 3 & 4
site
projectile points
seasonal round
settlement pattern
any place where material evidence exists about human past
arrowheads, dart points, or spear points
hunter gatherers pattern of movement between different places…
distribution of archaeological sites across a region
site
any place where material evidence exists about human past
projectile points
arrowheads, dart points, or spear points
43 terms
archaeology ch 4
arbitrary level
attrition
auger
auger testing
vertical subdivisions of an excavation square at set depths.…
...
a post hole digger that you screw into the ground. used in th…
...
arbitrary level
vertical subdivisions of an excavation square at set depths.…
attrition
...
36 terms
Archaeology Chapters 1-4
Hominid
Four major areas of anthropology
EB Tylor's Definition of Culture
Ethnocentrism
Man and his ancestors
Archaeology, physical/biological, cultural, linguistics
Culture is shared, learned, integrated, symbolic, and predict…
Cultural bias
Hominid
Man and his ancestors
Four major areas of anthropology
Archaeology, physical/biological, cultural, linguistics
13 terms
Archaeology 4
Invention
Diffusion
Migration
Noncultural Models
creation or evolution of a new idea
spread of a culture trait from one area to another by means o…
movements of entire societies that decide to change their own…
explanations of culture change requiring more sophisticated r…
Invention
creation or evolution of a new idea
Diffusion
spread of a culture trait from one area to another by means o…
21 terms
Archaeology Week 4
Absolute Dates
Relative Dates
Index Fossil Concept
Time Markers
Date expressed as specific units of scientific measurements,…
Dates expressed relative to one another instead of in absolut…
The idea that strata containing similar fossil assemblages ar…
Artifact forms that, as with index fossils in geology, resear…
Absolute Dates
Date expressed as specific units of scientific measurements,…
Relative Dates
Dates expressed relative to one another instead of in absolut…
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