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Study sets matching "bacteria chapter 6"

12 terms
Chapter 6: Bacteria
cyanobacteria
flagella
pathogenic
bacilli
organisms from the kingdom Eubacteria that are producers that…
tiny hairlike organelles that sweep back and forth to help so…
can cause diseases
rod-shaped bacteria
cyanobacteria
organisms from the kingdom Eubacteria that are producers that…
flagella
tiny hairlike organelles that sweep back and forth to help so…
9 terms
chapter 6 bacteria & viruses
cyanobacteria
flagella
pathogenic
capsid
organisms from the kingdom Eubacteria that are producers that…
tiny hairlike organisms that sweep back and forth to help som…
can cause diseases
a virus's outer protein coat which protects the nucleic acid…
cyanobacteria
organisms from the kingdom Eubacteria that are producers that…
flagella
tiny hairlike organisms that sweep back and forth to help som…
70 terms
Bio Chapter 6 Bacteria
Microorganism
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Decomposers
Life form that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Bacteria which make their own food, such as blue-green algae,…
Bacteria that don't make their own food but consume other org…
Role bacteria play in the ecosystem as nature's "recyclers".
Microorganism
Life form that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Autotroph
Bacteria which make their own food, such as blue-green algae,…
15 terms
Chapter 6: Bacteria
Psychrophiles
Mesophiles
Thermophiles
Hypothemrophilies
grow best at temperatures below 15C and die above 20C
grow best in about 20C to 40C—human pathogens
grow at temperatures above 45C
grow above 80C
Psychrophiles
grow best at temperatures below 15C and die above 20C
Mesophiles
grow best in about 20C to 40C—human pathogens
15 terms
Chapter 6--Bacteria
aerobic
anaerobic
facultative anaerobes
obligate anaerobes
catabolic process that requires oxygen and releases energy
catabolic process, part of cellular respiration that dose not…
bacteria that can grow either in the absence or presence of o…
organisms that grow only in the absence of oxygen and are oft…
aerobic
catabolic process that requires oxygen and releases energy
anaerobic
catabolic process, part of cellular respiration that dose not…
13 terms
Chapter 6: Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteriologists/microbiologists
Flagellum
Asexual reproduction
One-celled organisms without a nucleus
Scientists who study bacteria
A thin, whiplike structure that helps an organism move throug…
Reproduction that involves only one parent and in which the o…
Bacteria
One-celled organisms without a nucleus
Bacteriologists/microbiologists
Scientists who study bacteria
14 terms
Chapter 6: Bacteria and Viruses
Prokaryote
Cyanobacteria (*Bonus)
Virus
Bacteria
an organism that does not have a nucleus
Organisms from the kingdom Eubacteria that are producers that…
a microscopic particle that invades cells to reporduce itself…
microscopic, single celled organisms that are prokaryotes
Prokaryote
an organism that does not have a nucleus
Cyanobacteria (*Bonus)
Organisms from the kingdom Eubacteria that are producers that…
32 terms
Chapter 6 (Genetic Mapping in Bacteria)
adaptation hypothesis
spontaneous mutation
selectional growth
phototroph
implies that the interaction between a phage and bacterium is…
primary source of genetic mutation in bacterium that normally…
growth of an organism on a special media that only allows the…
organism that synthesizes all essential organic compounds nee…
adaptation hypothesis
implies that the interaction between a phage and bacterium is…
spontaneous mutation
primary source of genetic mutation in bacterium that normally…
22 terms
Chapter 6 Vocabulary - Bacteria and Viruses
Classification
Taxonomy
Binomial Nomenclature
Genus
The process of grouping things based on their similarities.
The scientific study of how living things are classified.
The naming system for organisms in which each organism is giv…
A classification grouping that consists of a number of simila…
Classification
The process of grouping things based on their similarities.
Taxonomy
The scientific study of how living things are classified.
61 terms
Chapter 6 Cultivating bacteria
Micronutrient
Assimilation
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Chemicals needed in small amounts for growth.
The general process by which cells import a molecule and inco…
assimilate carbon from an inorganic carbon source.
assimilate carbon from an organic carbon source.
Micronutrient
Chemicals needed in small amounts for growth.
Assimilation
The general process by which cells import a molecule and inco…
12 terms
Chapter 6 Pathogenic Bacteria
Bacillus (rod) ... Gram-positive
Bacillus (rod) ... Gram-positive
Bacillus (rod) ... Gram-negative
Bacillus (rod) ... Gram-negative
Bacillus organisms... Anthrax and gastroenteritis
Clostridium organisms... Botulism, tetanus, and soft tissue infe…
Enterobacteria organisms... Salmonella diseases and gastroenteri…
Pseudomonos organisms... External otitus (swimmers ear), endocar…
Bacillus (rod) ... Gram-positive
Bacillus organisms... Anthrax and gastroenteritis
Bacillus (rod) ... Gram-positive
Clostridium organisms... Botulism, tetanus, and soft tissue infe…
Chapter 6 - Growing Bacteria
Microbial Growth
Categorization By Temperature
Psychophile
Mesophile
Increase in number
1. psychophile... 2. mesophile... 3. thermophile... 4. hyperthermophile
Low temperature lover -> near freezing or past freezing point
Mid temperature lover -> 37C Room temp
Microbial Growth
Increase in number
Categorization By Temperature
1. psychophile... 2. mesophile... 3. thermophile... 4. hyperthermophile
80 terms
Chapter 6: Bacteria and Archaea
Cocci
Bacilli
Pleomorphic
Coccobacilli
Overall shape is spherical or nearly spherical
-Rod-shaped... -Some endospore forming
e.g., Coccobacilli
bacilli that are elongated and spherical
Cocci
Overall shape is spherical or nearly spherical
Bacilli
-Rod-shaped... -Some endospore forming
22 terms
Chapter 6 Bacteria and Viruses
Bacterium
Flagellum
Fission
Conjunction
microscopic prokaryotes
long whip-like structure
cell division that forms two genetically identical cells
two bacteria of the same species attached to each other and c…
Bacterium
microscopic prokaryotes
Flagellum
long whip-like structure
27 terms
Chapter 6: Bacteria and Viruses
Classification
Taxonomy
Binary nomenclature
Genus
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
Scientific study of how living things are classified
The naming system for organisms in which each organism is giv…
A classification grouping that consists of a number of simila…
Classification
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
Taxonomy
Scientific study of how living things are classified
33 terms
Chapter 6: bacteria and viruses
Classification
Taxonomy
Binary nomenclature
Genus
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
Scientific study of how living things are classified
The naming system for organisms in which each organism is giv…
A classification grouping that consists of a number of simila…
Classification
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
Taxonomy
Scientific study of how living things are classified
37 terms
Chapter 6 - Transcription in Bacteria
Burgess and Travers
Core polymerase
Scheme to isolate components
What do you need for a transcription a…
- RNA polymerase subject to ion-exchange chromotography on ne…
Holoenzyme without sigma subunit/factor... Holo and core both ha…
1. Break open cell for cellular extract... - Need to purify/isol…
1. Fraction material... 2. Substrates (NT, NT triphosphates)... - O…
Burgess and Travers
- RNA polymerase subject to ion-exchange chromotography on ne…
Core polymerase
Holoenzyme without sigma subunit/factor... Holo and core both ha…
58 terms
Chapter 6 Bacteria and archae
cocci
bacilli
pleomorphic
coccobacilli
spherical
rodshaped/ endospore forming
many forms
elongated/ spherical
cocci
spherical
bacilli
rodshaped/ endospore forming
9 terms
Chapter 6-Metabolism of Bacteria
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Endergonic reactions
all biochemical reactions taking place in an organism
building larger organic compounds
Hydrolyzes polymers into simpler molecules
Energy requiring proccesses
Metabolism
all biochemical reactions taking place in an organism
Anabolism
building larger organic compounds
21 terms
Chapter 6 Growth in Bacteria
Who created the swan neck flask?
How do bacteria cells replicate?
Explain FtsZ
Division machinery
Louis Pasteur
Binary fission
Cell division protein... Guides new cell wall synthesis machiner…
FtsZ recruits other cell division proteins... Polymerizes in the…
Who created the swan neck flask?
Louis Pasteur
How do bacteria cells replicate?
Binary fission
31 terms
Chapter 6 bacteria notes
What is Leeuwenhoek responibel for?
How did Leeuwenhoek discover bacteria?
how many shapes of bacteria are there?
What are the three shapes of bacteria?
Man responsible for discovering bacteria
He looked at scrapings from his own teeth
3 shapes of bacteria
Cocci, bacilli, and spirilla
What is Leeuwenhoek responibel for?
Man responsible for discovering bacteria
How did Leeuwenhoek discover bacteria?
He looked at scrapings from his own teeth
14 terms
Chapter 6: Growth and Culturing of Bacteria
bacterial growth curve
factors that affect bacterial growth
psychrophiles
mesophiles
pH, Temperature, oxygen, moisture, hydrostatic pressure
-obligate: cannot grow above 20oC... -facultative: grow best 20o…
grow best 20 - 40oC
bacterial growth curve
factors that affect bacterial growth
pH, Temperature, oxygen, moisture, hydrostatic pressure
37 terms
Chapter 6 nutrition of bacteria
Microbial growth
Colony
Aerobe
Anaerobes
Increase in population of microbes rather than in size
Aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell
Requires oxygen to grow
Don't require oxygen to grow
Microbial growth
Increase in population of microbes rather than in size
Colony
Aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell
22 terms
Chapter 6 Bacteria and Viruses
Bacterium
Flagellum
Fission
Conjugation
microscopic prokaryotes
long whip-like structure
cell division that forms two genetically identical cells
two bacteria of the same species attached to each other and c…
Bacterium
microscopic prokaryotes
Flagellum
long whip-like structure
40 terms
Chapter 6: Genetic Analysis & Mapping in Bacteria and Viruses
binary fission
conjugation
transformation
transduction
asexual replication of bacteria
transfer of replicated DNA by pilus; not sexual reproduction
uptake of DNA from environment (Griffith)
transfer of DNA from 1 bacterium to another by viral vector
binary fission
asexual replication of bacteria
conjugation
transfer of replicated DNA by pilus; not sexual reproduction
19 terms
Chapter 6-Genetic Analysis and Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages
Adaptation Hypothesis
Spontaneous Mutations
Conjugation
Time Mapping
A heritable component of the phenotype that confers an advant…
a mutation that is not induced by a mutagenic agent.
Temporary fusion of two single-celled organisms for the sexua…
...
Adaptation Hypothesis
A heritable component of the phenotype that confers an advant…
Spontaneous Mutations
a mutation that is not induced by a mutagenic agent.
64 terms
Chapter 6: Genetic Analysis and Mapping in Bacteria & Bacteriophages
What provides the basis for chromosome…
Two important characteristics of why w…
What is bacteria's primary source of g…
Bacteria have three growth phases
Complex process have evolved in bacteria & bacteriophages tha…
1. They have extremely short reproductive cycles... 2. They can…
They undergo spontaneous mutation as their primary source.
Lag phase - slow growth... Log phase (exponential growth) - rapi…
What provides the basis for chromosome…
Complex process have evolved in bacteria & bacteriophages tha…
Two important characteristics of why w…
1. They have extremely short reproductive cycles... 2. They can…
46 terms
Chapter 6-- Molecular Biology of Bacteria
gene
chromosomes
nucleic acids
3 components of a nucleotide
functional unit of genetic information
where the genes are located
carry genetic information. DNA and RNA
pentose (either ribose or deoxyribose), nitrogen base, and a…
gene
functional unit of genetic information
chromosomes
where the genes are located
Chapter 6 Bacteria Protists, and Fungi
Fission
Aerobe
Anaerobe
Antibiotic
Simplest form of asexual reproduction in which two new cells…
Any organism that uses oxygen for respiration
Any organism that is able to live without oxygen
Chemicals produced by some bacteria that are used to limit th…
Fission
Simplest form of asexual reproduction in which two new cells…
Aerobe
Any organism that uses oxygen for respiration
Biology chapter 6: Bacteria & Viruses
Antonie van leewenhook
Bacterium
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
First person to see bateria
Organism composed of a single cell doesn't have a nucleus bou…
A cell that doesn't have a nucleus or other membrane bound or…
Cell that contains a nucleus and other membrane bound organel…
Antonie van leewenhook
First person to see bateria
Bacterium
Organism composed of a single cell doesn't have a nucleus bou…
37 terms
Chapter 6: Gram-Negative Bacteria
pathogenicity
virulence factor
disease
disease symptom
the ability to cause disease by overcoming the defense of a h…
molecules expressed by the pathogen that allows it to cause d…
abnormal state of health
change in body function as a result of a disease... (fever, hea…
pathogenicity
the ability to cause disease by overcoming the defense of a h…
virulence factor
molecules expressed by the pathogen that allows it to cause d…
61 terms
Chapter 6: Growth and Culturing Bacteria
Binary fission
Phases of growth
medium
generation time
budding: in which a small, new cell develops from the surface…
lag... log... stationary... death
a mixture of substances on or in which microorganisms grow
time required for one division
Binary fission
budding: in which a small, new cell develops from the surface…
Phases of growth
lag... log... stationary... death
62 terms
Chapter 6: Molecular Biology of Bacteria
Amino acid
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
Anticodon
Antiparallel
One of the 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemi…
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its c…
A sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs…
In reference to double-stranded DNA, the two strands run in o…
Amino acid
One of the 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemi…
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its c…
51 terms
Chapter 6: Gram-Positive Bacteria
Firmicutes
Mycoplasma Bacteria (7)
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (6)
Clostridium Group (3)
refers to the gram- positive bacteria
- Do not have a cell wall... - Irregular cell shape... - Cell membr…
- Common respiratory infection in children - aerosol transmis…
- Anaerobic spore-forming rods... - some are pathogenic... - common…
Firmicutes
refers to the gram- positive bacteria
Mycoplasma Bacteria (7)
- Do not have a cell wall... - Irregular cell shape... - Cell membr…
62 terms
Chapter 6 Micro Physical Nutrition and Growth of Bacteria
What influence on the growth of Bacter…
Chemical requirements include
What Temperature do they prefer to go…
there are three primary groups of micr…
Microbial metabolism (enzymes) dictate a wide variety of habi…
carbon , nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen, trace elements…
Most microorganisms grown well at the temperatures that human…
Psychrophiles: cold loving microbes... Mesophiles: moderate temp…
What influence on the growth of Bacter…
Microbial metabolism (enzymes) dictate a wide variety of habi…
Chemical requirements include
carbon , nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen, trace elements…
52 terms
Chapter 6 Genetics of Bacteria
Why is bacteria a great model organism?
Why does bacteria demonstrate a geneti…
The genome of bacteria is what? and ho…
What bacteria can grow on Minimal Medi…
they can grow fast, and can be grown in pure culture
spontaneous DNA mutations
haploid, so it is fairly easy to isolate mutated strains, whi…
Prototrophs, they can make all amino acids
Why is bacteria a great model organism?
they can grow fast, and can be grown in pure culture
Why does bacteria demonstrate a geneti…
spontaneous DNA mutations
17 terms
Microbiology Chapter 6- Growth of Bacteria
Microbial Growth
Binary Fission
Budding
4 Phases of Growth and What's Happenin…
The increase in number of cells thru binary fission
-!st copy its DNA... -Elongated nucleus... -Nucleoid divides, trans…
Yeast cells, cell develops on surface of existing cell
1- Lag Phase... getting used to environment, do not increase sig…
Microbial Growth
The increase in number of cells thru binary fission
Binary Fission
-!st copy its DNA... -Elongated nucleus... -Nucleoid divides, trans…
31 terms
chapter 6 growth and culturing of bacteria
mircobial growth
microbial growth occurs
budding
example of budding
defined as the increase in the number of cells
binary fission (asexual)
-new cells develops and breaks off... -type of microbial growth
yeast
mircobial growth
defined as the increase in the number of cells
microbial growth occurs
binary fission (asexual)
17 terms
Chapter 6: growth and culturing of bacteria
microbial growth
binary fission
phases of growth
serial dilution
increase in cell number
1 parent separates into identical daughter cells
1) Lag stage- no sig. growth; cells living but not dividing i…
standard: plate counts; grow on agar plate; requires incubati…
microbial growth
increase in cell number
binary fission
1 parent separates into identical daughter cells
56 terms
Chapter 6- Molecular Biology of Bacteria
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Who discovered PCR
What are the steps to PCR
What are the applications for PCR
DNA replication in a test tube
Kary Mullis
1. Add DNA... 2. Add Primer... 3. Add DNA polymerase... 4/5. Heat and…
Phylogenetic Studies ... Looking for a specific gene... Amplifying…
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
DNA replication in a test tube
Who discovered PCR
Kary Mullis
137 terms
Microbiology - Chapter 6 Growth in Bacteria
Spontaneous generation
The problem with spontaneous generation
Define Binary fission
Bacteria do grow (increase in size) bu…
Many scientist believed that some forms of like could arise s…
The initial experiments were poorly designed, Swan neck flask…
A symmetrical division of one bacterium into two.
Growth almost always refers to population growth, an increase…
Spontaneous generation
Many scientist believed that some forms of like could arise s…
The problem with spontaneous generation
The initial experiments were poorly designed, Swan neck flask…
44 terms
Chapter 6: Molecular Biology of Bacteria
Functional unit of genetic information?
There are 3 informational macromolecul…
Genetic information flow is divided in…
Replication
Gene
DNA... RNA... Proteins
1. Replication... 2. Transcription... 3. Translation
DNA is duplicated
Functional unit of genetic information?
Gene
There are 3 informational macromolecul…
DNA... RNA... Proteins
62 terms
Chapter 6: Molecular Biology of Bacteria
Amino acid
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
Anticodon
Antiparallel
One of the 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemi…
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its c…
A sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs…
In reference to double-stranded DNA, the two strands run in o…
Amino acid
One of the 22 different monomers that make up proteins; chemi…
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its c…
chapter 6: nutrition and growth of bacteria
macroessential nutrients
micronutrients
major required chemicals
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes have the sa…
required in relatively large amounts; C O H N S P K Ca Mg
required in trace elements, often supplied in water or other…
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen+phosphate (nucleic acid)
true
macroessential nutrients
required in relatively large amounts; C O H N S P K Ca Mg
micronutrients
required in trace elements, often supplied in water or other…
18 terms
Chapter 6.1 Mitochondria and Bacteria
free, living, bacteria
division, pre existing
DNA, ribosomes, own proteins
membranes, outer membrane, inner membr…
mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from _____-______ _____
mitochondria and chloroplasts arise by ________ of _____-____…
Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain _______ and ______ and…
strutural similarities to bacteria: mitochondria and chloropl…
free, living, bacteria
mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from _____-______ _____
division, pre existing
mitochondria and chloroplasts arise by ________ of _____-____…
14 terms
Genetics Chapter 6 Bacteria and Bacteriophages
F (fertility) plasmid
R (resistance) plasmid
conjugation pilus
Insertion sequence (IS) elements
contains genes that promote its own transfer from a donor bac…
carries antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred f…
the connection tube from donor to recipient
mobile segments of bacterial DNA that are capable of transpos…
F (fertility) plasmid
contains genes that promote its own transfer from a donor bac…
R (resistance) plasmid
carries antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred f…
60 terms
Chapter 6 Growth and Culturing Bacteria
what are the four environmental factor…
there are 3 forms of bacteria that req…
what is the ideal temp for psychrophile?
what is the ideal temp for mesophile,…
1) temperature... 2) gas... 3) pH... 4) osmotic pressure
1) psychrophile 0-15 °C. (cold adapted)... 2) mesophile 20-40 °C…
5 °C.
37 °C.
what are the four environmental factor…
1) temperature... 2) gas... 3) pH... 4) osmotic pressure
there are 3 forms of bacteria that req…
1) psychrophile 0-15 °C. (cold adapted)... 2) mesophile 20-40 °C…
12 terms
Chapter 6: Growth and Culturing of Bacteria
Growth and Cell Division
Cell Division by Budding
Log Phase
Measuring Bacterial Growth
Microbial growth is an increase in number, asexual reproduction
Occurs in yeast and some bacteria, asexual reproduction
Exponential growth, generation time, synchronous growth, chem…
Bacterial colony growing on solid medium
Growth and Cell Division
Microbial growth is an increase in number, asexual reproduction
Cell Division by Budding
Occurs in yeast and some bacteria, asexual reproduction
chapter 6 growth and culturing of bacteria (short answer)
microbial growth
cell division
phases of growth
measuring bacterial growth
defined as the increase in the # of cells, which occurs by ce…
usually occurs by binary fission, a process in which a cell d…
(lag phase)-in which organisms do not increase significantly…
1) serial dilution... 2) standard plate counts... 3) direct micro…
microbial growth
defined as the increase in the # of cells, which occurs by ce…
cell division
usually occurs by binary fission, a process in which a cell d…
56 terms
Chapter 6: Molecular Biology of Bacteria
Backbone of DNA chain
mRNA
stem loops
Where are stem loops common?
alternating phosphates and the pentose sugar deoxyribose
encodes polypeptides
short double-helical regions caused by nearby inverted repeats
common in RNA, but not DNA
Backbone of DNA chain
alternating phosphates and the pentose sugar deoxyribose
mRNA
encodes polypeptides
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