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Study sets matching "bases chapter 2 organic chemistry"

26 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acids are substances that io…
Arrhenius Bases are substances that io…
smaller pKa have...
larger pKa have...
hydronium (H3O^+) ions
hydroxide (OH^-) ions
Stronger acids
Weaker acids
Arrhenius Acids are substances that io…
hydronium (H3O^+) ions
Arrhenius Bases are substances that io…
hydroxide (OH^-) ions
63 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
Brønsted-Lowry Base
Charged species such as -OH and -NH2 a…
Cations in acid and base reactions are…
-Proton Donor... -Must contain hydrogen atom... -General symbol: H-A
-Proton Acceptor... -Must be able to form a bond to a proton... -Mu…
Salts
-Spectator ions/Counterions ... -Inconsequential
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
-Proton Donor... -Must contain hydrogen atom... -General symbol: H-A
Brønsted-Lowry Base
-Proton Acceptor... -Must be able to form a bond to a proton... -Mu…
61 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases (Central Understanding to Organic Chemistry)
acid
base
acid base reaction
proton transfer reaction
species that loses a proton
species that gains a proton
reaction of an acid and a base
reaction of an acid and a base
acid
species that loses a proton
base
species that gains a proton
46 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
dissociates in water to form H3O+
dissociates in water to form OH-
proton donor
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
Arrhenius acid
dissociates in water to form H3O+
30 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Structural Isomers
Enantiomers
Enantiomer examples
Sterioisomers
Isomers that share the same molecular formula. (5 different C…
2 molecules that are the mirror image of each other. They mus…
Isomers that differ in 3D structural arrangement of atoms.
Structural Isomers
Isomers that share the same molecular formula. (5 different C…
Enantiomers
2 molecules that are the mirror image of each other. They mus…
12 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
allylic
vinylic
carboxylic acid
aldehyde
connected to double bonded carbons
double bonded carbons
allylic
connected to double bonded carbons
vinylic
double bonded carbons
16 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases: Central to Understanding Organic Chemistry
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
Brønsted-Lowry Base
Conjugate Base
Conjugate Acid
A species that loses a proton... - It donates... **Any species that…
A species that gains a proton... - It accepts... **Any species that…
Formed by removing a proton from an acid... - Ex. H2O, an acid,…
Formed by adding a proton to a base... - Ex. NH3, a base, with N…
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
A species that loses a proton... - It donates... **Any species that…
Brønsted-Lowry Base
A species that gains a proton... - It accepts... **Any species that…
17 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Acid and Bases: Functional Groups
Types of intermolercular forces
Determine boiling point
Determine melting point
Solubility in water
van der waals... dipole-dipole... hydrogen bonding OH NH FH... ion-ion
intermolecular forces (stronger forces - higher boiling point…
break some intermolecular bonds: increasing strength of inter…
rule of 5: 5 or less carbons for a polar functional group it…
Types of intermolercular forces
van der waals... dipole-dipole... hydrogen bonding OH NH FH... ion-ion
Determine boiling point
intermolecular forces (stronger forces - higher boiling point…
22 terms
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases: Central to Understanding Organic Chemistry
acid (Brønsted acid)
acid-base reaction
acid dissociation constant
acidity
a species that donates a proton (H⁺)
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base
a measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates
a measure of how easily a compound gives up a proton
acid (Brønsted acid)
a species that donates a proton (H⁺)
acid-base reaction
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base
27 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Kinetics
K
K of a -> b
Energy changes during reactions ... example: to the left/right
How fast equilibrium is established
Equilibrium Constant
[b]/[a]
Chemical Thermodynamics
Energy changes during reactions ... example: to the left/right
Chemical Kinetics
How fast equilibrium is established
18 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
Bronsted-Lowry Base
Conjugate Acid
Conjugate Base
proton donor... Must have a proton
proton acceptor... Must be able to form a bond to a proton... Conta…
Formed by base
Formed by acid
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
proton donor... Must have a proton
Bronsted-Lowry Base
proton acceptor... Must be able to form a bond to a proton... Conta…
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Hydrocarbon
Saturated hydrocarbon
Unsaturated hydrocarbon
Alkane
A compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
A hydrocarbon containing only carbon-carbon single bonds.
A hydrocarbon that contains more carbon-carbon double or trip…
A saturated hydrocarbon.
Hydrocarbon
A compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing only carbon-carbon single bonds.
49 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
isopropyl
sec-butyl
tert-butyl
alkene/olefin
isopropyl
sec-butyl
22 terms
organic chemistry chapter 2
Alkyl halide
Alkyne
Alkene
Alcohol
what is this functional group?
what is this functional group?
what is this functional group?
what is this functional group?
Alkyl halide
what is this functional group?
Alkyne
what is this functional group?
25 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Functional groups
Alkane
Alkene
Alkyne
Characteristic groups that are the sit of chemical reactivity…
C-C ... Unreactive... "default"
C=C ... Substituent: alkenyl
CC triple bond... Substituent: alkynyl
Functional groups
Characteristic groups that are the sit of chemical reactivity…
Alkane
C-C ... Unreactive... "default"
46 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
dissociates in water to form H3O+
dissociates in water to form OH-
proton donor
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
Arrhenius acid
dissociates in water to form H3O+
72 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
What are the simplest organic compounds?
What do hydrocarbons contain?
Four classes of Hydrocarbons?
What are alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes…
Hydrocarbons
Hydrogen and carbon atoms only
Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and arenes
Aliphatic Compounds
What are the simplest organic compounds?
Hydrocarbons
What do hydrocarbons contain?
Hydrogen and carbon atoms only
14 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
What carbon chain is going to have the…
name this compound... C-C-C-C-C... |... (tria…
What are the 2 types of isomers?
What are structural isomers?
the one without
3-cyclopropentane
structural isomers & stereoisomers
different bond patterns
What carbon chain is going to have the…
the one without
name this compound... C-C-C-C-C... |... (tria…
3-cyclopropentane
36 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Saturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Alkines
Contains only carbon-carbon single bonds
Contains carbon-carbon multiple bonds, such as double bonds,…
Saturated hydrocarbons; insoluble in water; nonpolar; have lo…
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Saturated hydrocarbons
Contains only carbon-carbon single bonds
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Contains carbon-carbon multiple bonds, such as double bonds,…
76 terms
Organic Chemistry chapter 2
Hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
Contain only carbon and hydrogen
Hydrocarbons that do not have multiple bonds with carbon atom…
Hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double b…
Hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple b…
Hydrocarbons
Contain only carbon and hydrogen
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons that do not have multiple bonds with carbon atom…
Chapter 2 organic chemistry
hydrocarbonds
saturated hydrocarbons
unsaturated hydrocarbons
aromatic hydrocarbonds
contain carbon and hydrogen compounds only
contain only carbon-carbon single bonds
contain multiple carbon-carbon double bonds, triple bonds, or…
cyclic compounds related in structure to benzene
hydrocarbonds
contain carbon and hydrogen compounds only
saturated hydrocarbons
contain only carbon-carbon single bonds
43 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
thermodynamics
kinetics
Gibbs free energy
equilibrium constant
...
...
...
...
thermodynamics
...
kinetics
...
74 terms
chapter 2 Organic chemistry
reversible reaction
irreversible reaction
Most acid-base reactions are
An acid and its conjugate ____
A and B form C and D. C and D form A and B.
A and B form C and D, but C and D do not form A and B.
reversible
base
reversible reaction
A and B form C and D. C and D form A and B.
irreversible reaction
A and B form C and D, but C and D do not form A and B.
51 terms
Organic Chemistry- Chapter 2 Definitions
Acid chloride
Alcohol
Aldehyde
Alkanes
An acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
Compound that contains a hydroxyl group bonded to a carbon atom
A carbonyl group with one alkyl group and one hydrogen
Hydrocarbons containing only single bonds
Acid chloride
An acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
Alcohol
Compound that contains a hydroxyl group bonded to a carbon atom
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Hydroxyl (-OH)
Amines
Aldehydes
Ketone
Group bonded to a carbon atom with 4 single bonds (generic fo…
contain a nitrogen bonded to one, two, or three carbon atoms…
contain a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen
contain a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen (3 total carbons)
Hydroxyl (-OH)
Group bonded to a carbon atom with 4 single bonds (generic fo…
Amines
contain a nitrogen bonded to one, two, or three carbon atoms…
41 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Alkanes
Alkenes
alkynes
aromatics
single bond... example: ethane
at least one double bond
at least one triple bond
double/ single
Alkanes
single bond... example: ethane
Alkenes
at least one double bond
29 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Structural Isomers
Conformational Isomers
Newman Projection
Anti Staggered
Molecules that have the same molecular formulas but different…
Isomers that are the same molecule, just at different points…
A method of visualizing a compound in which the line of sight…
a type of staggered conformation in which the 2 largest group…
Structural Isomers
Molecules that have the same molecular formulas but different…
Conformational Isomers
Isomers that are the same molecule, just at different points…
82 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons
aromatic hydrocarbons
Unbranched alkanes
compounds with only carbon and hydrogen
consist of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
benzene and derivatives
normal alkanes, or n-alkanes
Hydrocarbons
compounds with only carbon and hydrogen
aliphatic hydrocarbons
consist of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
28 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Bonding Molecular Orbital
pi bond
SP hybrid orbitals
Bond Rotation
can make either sigma or antibonding. the basis of hybrids. w…
result from overlap between two p orbitals oriented perpendic…
Know the 3 rules: both sigma bonding electrons and lone pairs…
structures differing only in rotations about a single bond ar…
Bonding Molecular Orbital
can make either sigma or antibonding. the basis of hybrids. w…
pi bond
result from overlap between two p orbitals oriented perpendic…
54 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbon
Saturated hydrocarbon
Alkane
Aliphatic hydrocarbon
A compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen. Sp3 hybridiz…
A hydrocarbon containing only single bonds.
A saturated hydrocarbon whose carbons are arranged in an open…
Another name for an alkane
Hydrocarbon
A compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen. Sp3 hybridiz…
Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing only single bonds.
24 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory
Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
Conjugate acid-base pair
Lewis Acids and Bases
acid: substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions... ba…
acid: proton donor... base: proton acceptor... this means that acid…
when the acid transfers a proton to a base, the acid becomes…
acid: electron pair acceptor (electrophile)... base: electron pa…
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory
acid: substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions... ba…
Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
acid: proton donor... base: proton acceptor... this means that acid…
78 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2 Quiz
1s orbital
when orbitals interact on different at…
when orbitals interact on the same ato…
when two orbitals interact and are out…
molecular bonding orbitals with bonding and/or antibonding
hybrid atomic orbitals
antibonding sigma* and are destructive result in a nodal plane
1s orbital
when orbitals interact on different at…
molecular bonding orbitals with bonding and/or antibonding
14 terms
Terminology -Chapter 2- Organic Chemistry
polymer
monomer
homopolymer
copolymer
A large, usually chain-like molecule that is built from small…
One of the repeating small molecules that make up polymers.
A polymer of a single type of monomer.
A polymer made of two or more different types of monomers com…
polymer
A large, usually chain-like molecule that is built from small…
monomer
One of the repeating small molecules that make up polymers.
51 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
hydrocarbons
unbranched alkanes
CH4
C2H6
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen; aliphatic an…
referred to as normal or n-alkanes; possess a linear carbon c…
methane
ethane
hydrocarbons
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen; aliphatic an…
unbranched alkanes
referred to as normal or n-alkanes; possess a linear carbon c…
17 terms
Organic Chemistry- Chapter 2
Carbocation
Carbanion
Radical
Solid wedge
Carbon atom with three bonds and a +1 charge
Carbon atom with extra electron and charge of -1
Unpaired electron
From 3-D bond line, indicates group/atom coming forward
Carbocation
Carbon atom with three bonds and a +1 charge
Carbanion
Carbon atom with extra electron and charge of -1
30 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2
Isomers
Structural Isomers (Constitutional Iso…
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different struc…
They share only their molecular formula, thus their molecular…
Processes that do not change the composition of matter, such…
Reactivity of the molecule with other molecules and result in…
Isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different struc…
Structural Isomers (Constitutional Iso…
They share only their molecular formula, thus their molecular…
9 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2
Arrehnius Definition
Bronsted Lowry
Amphoteric Compounds
Acidity equilibrium Constant
Acid- Substance that dissolves in water to produce H+... Base- S…
Acid- donates a H+ ion... Base- accepts the H ion... Conj Base - Wh…
Can act as a base or an acid
Ka or proton donating ability. Stronger acid has a smaller Ka
Arrehnius Definition
Acid- Substance that dissolves in water to produce H+... Base- S…
Bronsted Lowry
Acid- donates a H+ ion... Base- accepts the H ion... Conj Base - Wh…
27 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
partially condensed structures
condensed stuctures
bond line structures
functional group
C-H bonds are not all drawn explicitly (they are isolated and…
single bonds are not drawn, groups of atoms are clustered tog…
not only simplify the drawing process but also are easier to…
a characteristic group of atoms/bonds that posses a predictab…
partially condensed structures
C-H bonds are not all drawn explicitly (they are isolated and…
condensed stuctures
single bonds are not drawn, groups of atoms are clustered tog…
18 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
The two types of waves
Traveling waves
Standing waves
Wave function
Traveling waves and standing waves
Waves that resemble sound waves or waves on the ocean
Waves that vibrate in a fixed location
The mathematical description of the shape of the wave as it v…
The two types of waves
Traveling waves and standing waves
Traveling waves
Waves that resemble sound waves or waves on the ocean
49 terms
Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry
classes of hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons
aromatic hydrocarbons
valence bond theory
aliphatic hydrocarbons ... aromatic hydrocarbons
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
also called arenes ... simplest form is benzene
constructive interface between e-waves of 2 half filled atomi…
classes of hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons ... aromatic hydrocarbons
aliphatic hydrocarbons
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
15 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Polar covalent bonds
Ionic character
Electronegativity (EN)
Patterns for electronegativity
bonding electrons attracted more strongly by one atom than by…
1. Non-covalent- EN < 0.5... 2. Polar covalent- EN < x < 2.0... 3.…
describes an atom's ability to attract electrons to itself in…
1. Increases across periodic table- increase of electrons... 2.…
Polar covalent bonds
bonding electrons attracted more strongly by one atom than by…
Ionic character
1. Non-covalent- EN < 0.5... 2. Polar covalent- EN < x < 2.0... 3.…
19 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
partially condensed structure
condensed structure
bond-line structures
functional group
a drawing style in which CH bonds are not drawn, but all othe…
A drawing style in which no bonds are drawn. Groups of atoms…
a drawing style in which all carbon atoms and most hydrogen a…
A characteristic group of atoms/bonds that possess a predicta…
partially condensed structure
a drawing style in which CH bonds are not drawn, but all othe…
condensed structure
A drawing style in which no bonds are drawn. Groups of atoms…
65 terms
Organic Chemistry chapter 2
Functional group
hydrocarbons
alkanes
alkenes
common and specific arrangements of atoms that import predict…
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
hydrocarbons that do not have multiple bonds
contain at least one carbon carbon double bond
Functional group
common and specific arrangements of atoms that import predict…
hydrocarbons
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
23 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Brønsted-Lowry acid
Brønsted-Lowry base
A substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions…
A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion…
A molecule or ion that is a proton donor
A molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
Arrhenius acid
A substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions…
Arrhenius base
A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion…
12 terms
Organic Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
polar covalent bonds
electronegativity
fluorine
cesium
the bonding electrons are attracted more strongly by one atom…
the intrinsic ability to attract the shared electrons in a co…
the most electronegative element
the least electronegative element
polar covalent bonds
the bonding electrons are attracted more strongly by one atom…
electronegativity
the intrinsic ability to attract the shared electrons in a co…
18 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Structural isomers
Stereoisomers
Two classes of stereoisomers
Conformational isomers
also called constitutional isomers. Least similar of the isom…
have same molecular formula. Share the same atomic connectivi…
Conformational and configurational
differ in rotation around a single bond . Same molecule but a…
Structural isomers
also called constitutional isomers. Least similar of the isom…
Stereoisomers
have same molecular formula. Share the same atomic connectivi…
28 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 2 Isomers
structural isomers
physical properties of isomers
chemical properties of isomers
stereoisomers... -definition ... -types
share molecular formula... molecular weight is the same
characteristics of processes that dont change composition of…
influence the reactivity of the molecule with other molecules…
isomers with the same atomic connectivity ... -conformational is…
structural isomers
share molecular formula... molecular weight is the same
physical properties of isomers
characteristics of processes that dont change composition of…
69 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
What is the difference between benzene…
entirely single bonds between carbons and hydrogens
has a double bond and sp2 hybridization between some C and hy…
has a triple bond between some carbon and hydrogens, sp hybri…
Toluene has a methyl added to one of the Carbons in the ring
Alkanes
entirely single bonds between carbons and hydrogens
Alkenes
has a double bond and sp2 hybridization between some C and hy…
37 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons
Methane
Ethane
compounds of only carbon and hydrogen atoms with single bonds
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
CH4
C2H6
Alkanes
compounds of only carbon and hydrogen atoms with single bonds
Hydrocarbons
compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
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